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Special Techniques in Dermatology

Special Techniques in Dermatology Abstract • Beyond routine hematoxylin-eosin histologic examinations, specialized diagnostic techniques allow examination of biopsy material for subtle morphological and functional alterations. Morphological analytic techniques (1-μm section analysis, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray probe microanalysis, and digital image analysis) and functional analytic techniques (immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biologic techniques) are valuable diagnostic tools. These techniques have applications in evaluating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and atypical lymphocytic infiltrates, vesiculobullous disorders, lupus erythematosus and collagen vascular diseases, vasculitis, poorly differentiated tumors, storage diseases, and infections. (Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:963-974) References 1. Karnovsky MJ. The ultrastructural basis of capillary permeability studied with peroxidase as a tracer . J Cell Biol 1967;35:213-236.Crossref 2. Eady RAJ. The basement membrane: interface between the epithelium and the dermis: structural features . Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:709-712.Crossref 3. Pearson RW. Clinicopathologic types of epidermolysis bullosa and their nondermatological complications . Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:718-725.Crossref 4. Murphy GF, Dickersin GR, Harrist TJ, Mihm MC Jr. The role of diagnostic electron microscopy in dermatology . In: Moschella SL, ed. Dermatology Update: Reviews for Physicians . New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc; 1982:355-384. 5. Andres TL, Vallyathan V, Madison JF. Electron-probe microanalysis: aid in the study of skin granulomas . Arch Dermatol. 1980;116:1272-1274.Crossref 6. Heinrich KFJ. Scanning electron probe microanalysis . In: Barer R, Cosslett VE, eds. Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1976;6:275-301. 7. Lutzner M. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: the Sezary syndrome, mycosis fungoides and related disorders . Ann Intern Med. 1975;83:534-552.Crossref 8. Rosas-Uribe A, Variakojis D, Molnar Z, Rappaport H. Mycosis fungoides: an ultrastructural study . Cancer. 1974;34:634-645.Crossref 9. Scgrek R. Ultrastructure of blood lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphosarcoma cell leukemia . JNCI. 1972;48:51-64. 10. O'Briain DS, Lawlor E, Sarsfeild P, Cooney C, Blaney CH, Sullivan FJ. Circulating cerebriform lymphoid cells (Sezary-type cells) in a B-cell malignant lymphoma . Cancer. 1988;61:1587-1593.Crossref 11. Crocker J, Jones EL, Curran RC. A comparative study of nuclear form factor, area and diameter in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and reactive lymph nodes . J Clin Pathol. 1983;36:298-302.Crossref 12. Payne CM, Grogan TM, Lynch PJ. An ultrastructural morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of cutaneous lymphomas and benign lymphocytic infiltrates of the skin: useful criteria for diagnosis . Arch Dermatol. 1986;122:1139-1154.Crossref 13. Horton JJ, Allen MH, MacDonald DM. An assessment of Langerhans cell quantification in tissue sections . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11:591-593.Crossref 14. Tidman MJ, Eady RAJ. Ultrastructural morphometry of normal human dermal-epidermal junction: the influence of age, sex and body region on laminar and nonlaminar components . J Invest Dermatol. 1984;83:448-453.Crossref 15. Chu AC, Bhogal B, Black MM. Immunocytochemistry in dermatology . In: Polak JM, VanNoorden S, eds. Immunocytochemistry: Practical Applications in Pathology and Biology . Boston, Mass: John Wright-PSG Inc; 1983:302-333. 16. Taylor CR. Immunoperoxidase techniques: practical and theoretical aspects . Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1978;102:113-121. 17. Guldhammer B, Norgaard T. The differential diagnosis of intraepidermal malignant lesions using immunohistochemistry . Am J Dermatopathol. 1986;8:295-301.Crossref 18. Erlandson RA. Diagnostic immunohistochemistry of human tumors: an interim evaluation . Am J Surg Pathol. 1984;8:615-624.Crossref 19. von Krogh G, Syrjanen SM, Syrjanen KJ. Advantage of human papillomavirus typing in the clinical evaluation of genitoanal warts . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:495-503.Crossref 20. Fenoglio-Preiser CM. Technology transfer: the new molecular pathology, opportunities for the future . Mod Pathol. 1988;1:251-255. 21. Howley PM. The role of papilloma virus in human cancer . In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Important Advances in Cancer . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1987:55. 22. Fenoglio CM, Oster MW, Lo Gerfo P, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma following chemotherapy for testicular cancer in a homosexual man: demonstration of cytomegalovirus RNA in sarcoma cells . Hum Pathol. 1982;13:955-959.Crossref 23. Hino O, Kitagawa T, Koike T, Kobayashi M, Hara M, Mori W. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in hepatocellular carcinomas in Japan . Hepatology. 1984;4:90-95.Crossref 24. Brandsman J, Miller G. Nucleic acid spot hybridization: rapid quantitative screening of lymphoid cell lines for Epstein Barr viral DNA . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980;77:6851-6855.Crossref 25. McDougall JK, Crum CP, Fenoglio CM, Goldstein LC, Galloway DA. Herpes virus-specific RNA and protein in carcinoma of the uterine cervix . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1982;79:3853-3857.Crossref 26. Harper ME, Kaplan MH, Marselle LM, et al. Concomitant infection with HTLV-I and HTLV-III in a patient with T8 lymphoproliferative disease . N Engl J Med. 1986;315:1073-1078.Crossref 27. Shibata D, Arnheim N, Martin WJ. Detection of human papilloma virus in paraffin-embedded tissue using the polymerase chain reaction . J Exp Med. 1988;167:225-230.Crossref 28. Shibata D, Fu YS, Gupta JW, Shah KV, Arnheim N, Martin WJ. Methods in laboratory investigation: detection of human papilloma virus in normal and dysplastic tissue by the polymerase chain reaction . Lab Invest. 1988;59:555-559. 29. Cossman J, Uppenkamp M, Sundeen J, Coupland R, Raffeld M. Molecular genetics and the diagnosis of lymphoma . Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1988;112:117-127. 30. Vonderheid EC, Tan E, Sobel EL, Schwab E, Micaily B, Jegasothy BV. Clinical implications of immunologic phenotyping in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:40-52.Crossref 31. Murphy GF, Mihm MC Jr. Benign, dysplastic and malignant lymphoid infiltrates of the skin: an approach based on pattern analysis . In: Murphy GF, Mihm MC Jr, eds. Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Skin . Woburn, Mass: Butterworths; 1986:123-141. 32. Harrist TJ, Murphy GF, Mihm MC Jr. Lymphomatoid vasculitis: a subset of lymphocytic vasculitis . In: Moschella SL, ed. Dermatology Update: Reviews for Physicians . New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc; 1982:115-133. 33. Haynes BF, Miller SE, Palker TJ, et al. Identification of human T cell leukemia virus in a Japanese patient with adult T cell leukemia and cutaneous lymphomatous vasculitis . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1983;80:2054-2058.Crossref 34. Catovsky D, Rose M, Goolden AWG, et al. Adult T-cell lymphoma-leukaemia in blacks from the West Indies . Lancet. 1982;1:639-643.Crossref 35. Vuth-Dreese FA, DeVries JE. Human T-cell leukemia virus in lymphocytes from T-cell leukemia patient originating from Surinam . Lancet. 1982;2:993-994.Crossref 36. Weinberg JB, Spiegel RA, Blazey DL, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and adult T-cell leukemia: report of a cluster in North Carolina . Am J Med. 1988;85:51-58.Crossref 37. Kuo T, Sato H, Dunn P, et al. Presence of HTLV-I proviral DNA in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Taiwan . Cancer. 1988;62:702-704.Crossref 38. Reitz MS Jr, Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Characterization and distribution of nucleic acid sequences of a novel type C retrovirus isolated from neoplastic human T lymphocytes . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1981;78:1887-1891.Crossref 39. Takigawa M, Inoue F, Iwatsuki K, Yamada M. Does adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma belong to the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma category? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:379-381.Crossref 40. Takahashi K, Tanaka T, Fujita M, Horiguchi Y, Miyachi Y, Imamura S. Cutaneous-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a unique clinical feature with monoclonal T-cell proliferation detected by Southern blot analysis . Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:399-404.Crossref 41. Palestine RF, Kossard S, Dicken CH. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita: a heterogeneous disease . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981; 5:43-53.Crossref 42. Unis ME, Pfau RG, Patel H, Takahashi Y, Anhalt GJ. An acquired form of epidermolysis bullosa without immunoreactants . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13:377-380.Crossref 43. Lacour JP, Juhlin L, El Baze P, Ortonne J. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with negative direct immunofluorescence . Arch Dermatol. 1985;121:1183-1185.Crossref 44. Richter BJ, McNutt NS. The spectrum of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita . Arch Dermatol. 1979;115:1325-1329.Crossref 45. Gammon WR, Briggaman RA, Inman AO III, Queen LL, Wheeler CE. Differentiating anti-lamina lucida and anti-sublamina densa anti-BMZ antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence on 1.0M sodium chloride-separated skin . J Invest Dermatol. 1984;82:139-144.Crossref 46. Tabas M, Gibbons S, Bauer EA. The mechanobullous diseases . Dermatol Clin. 1987;5:123-136.Crossref 47. Rodeck CH, Eady RAJ, Gosden CM. Prenatal diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa . Lancet. 1980;1:949-952.Crossref 48. Fine JD. Epidermolysis bullosa: clinical aspects, pathology and recent advances in research . Int J Dermatol. 1986;25:143-157.Crossref 49. Fine JD, Breathnach SM, Hintner H, Katz SI. KF-1 monoclonal antibody defines a specific basement membrane defect in dystrophic forms in epidermolysis bullosa . J Invest Dermatol. 1984;82:35-38.Crossref 50. Goldsmith LA, Briggaman RA. Monoclonal antibodies to anchoring fibrils for the diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa . J Invest Dermatol. 1983;81:464-466.Crossref 51. Heagerty AHM, Kennedy AR, Gunner DB, Eady RAJ. Rapid prenatal diagnosis and exclusion of epidermolysis bullosa using novel antibody probes . J Invest Dermatol. 1986;86:603-605.Crossref 52. Heagerty AHM, Eady RAJ, Kennedy AR, et al. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa letalis using GB3 monoclonal antibody . Br J Dermatol. 1987;117:271-275.Crossref 53. Cormane RH, Szabo E, Hauge LS. Immunofluorescence of the skin: the interpretation of the staining of blood vessels and connective tissue aided by new techniques . Br J Dermatol. 1970;2( (suppl 5) ):26-53.Crossref 54. Epstein JH, Tuffanelli DL, Epstein WL. Cutaneous porphyrias and porphyria-like cutaneous changes induced by drug photosensitization . In: Beutner EH, Chorzelski TP, Bean SF, eds. Immunopathology of the Skin. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1979:445-471. 55. Harrist TJ, Mihm MC Jr. Cutaneous immunopathology: the diagnostic use of direct and indirect immunofluorescence techniques in dermatologic disease . Hum Pathol. 1979;10:625-653.Crossref 56. Burnham TK, Neblett TR, Fine G. The application of fluorescent antibody technique to the investigation of lupus erythematosus and various dermatoses . J Invest Dermatol. 1963;41:451-456.Crossref 57. Cormane RH. `Bound' globulin in the skin of patients with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus . Lancet. 1964;1:534-535.Crossref 58. Tuffanelli DL. Cutaneous immunopathology: recent observations . J Invest Dermatol. 1975;65:143-153.Crossref 59. Provost TT, Andres G, Maddison PJ, et al. Lupus band test in untreated SLE patients: correlation of immunoglobulin deposition in the skin of the extensor forearm with clinical renal disease and serologic abnormalities . J Invest Dermatol. 1980;74:407-412.Crossref 60. Dahl MV, Gilliam JN. Direct immunofluorescence in lupus erythematosus . In: Beutner EH, Chorzelski TP, Kumar V, eds. Immunopathology of the Skin. 3rd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1987:499-518. 61. Monroe EW. Lupus band test . Arch Dermatol. 1977;113:830-834.Crossref 62. Cochrane CG, Weigle WO, Dixon FJ. The role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the initiation and cessation of the Arthus vasculitis . J Exp Med. 1959;110:481-494.Crossref 63. Nakijama T, Watanabe S, Sato Y, Kameya T, Hirota T, Shimosato Y. An immunoperoxidase study of S-100 protein distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues . Am J Surg Pathol. 1982;6:715-727.Crossref 64. Zarbo RJ, Gown AM, Visscher DW, Crissman JD. Low molecular weight cytokeratin expression by malignant melanoma: immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis . Lab Invest. 1989;60:109. Abstract. 65. Gown AM, Vogel AM, Hoak D, Gough F, McNutt MA. Monoclonal antibodies specific for melanocytic tumors distinguish subpopulations of melanocytes . Am J Pathol. 1986;123:195-203. 66. Battifora H, Silva EG. The use of antikeratin antibodies in the immunohistochemical distinction of neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the skin, lymphoma, and oat cell carcinoma . Cancer. 1986;58:1040-1046.Crossref 67. Haneke E. Electron microscopy of Merkel cell carcinoma from formalin-fixed tissue . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;12:487492.Crossref 68. Ceuterick C, Martin J. Diagnostic role of skin or conjunctival biopsies in neurological disorders: an update . J Neurol Sci. 1984;65:179-191.Crossref 69. Takahashi K, Naito M. Lipid storage disease, II: ultrastructural pathology of lipid storage cells in sphingolipidoses . Acta Pathol Jpn. 1985;35:385-408. 70. Takahashi K, Naito M, Suzuki Y. Lipid storage disease, III: ultrastructural evaluation of cultured fibroblasts in sphingolipidoses . Acta Pathol Jpn. 1987;37:261-272. 71. Hossain A. Rapid diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections by a monoclonal antibody direct immunofluorescence test . J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;90:307-310. 72. Weismeier E, Bruckner D, Black M. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by direct immunofluorescence staining of genital secretion . Obstet Gynecol. 1987;69:347-349. 73. Solomon AR. New diagnostic tests for herpes simplex and varicella zoster infections . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:218-221.Crossref 74. Lafferty WE, Krofft S, Remington M, et al. Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus by direct immunofluorescence and viral isolation from samples of external genital lesions in a high-prevalence population . J Clin Microbiol. 1987;25:323-326. 75. Rotharth PH, Diepersloot RJ, Metselaar HJ, Nooyen Y, Velzing J, Weimar W. Rapid demonstration of cytomegalovirus in clinical specimens . Infection. 1987;15:228-231.Crossref 76. Lange JV, Walker DH. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii . Infect Immun. 1984;46:289-294. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Special Techniques in Dermatology

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1989 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1989.01670190097014
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Abstract

Abstract • Beyond routine hematoxylin-eosin histologic examinations, specialized diagnostic techniques allow examination of biopsy material for subtle morphological and functional alterations. Morphological analytic techniques (1-μm section analysis, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray probe microanalysis, and digital image analysis) and functional analytic techniques (immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biologic techniques) are valuable diagnostic tools. These techniques have applications in evaluating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and atypical lymphocytic infiltrates, vesiculobullous disorders, lupus erythematosus and collagen vascular diseases, vasculitis, poorly differentiated tumors, storage diseases, and infections. (Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:963-974) References 1. Karnovsky MJ. The ultrastructural basis of capillary permeability studied with peroxidase as a tracer . J Cell Biol 1967;35:213-236.Crossref 2. Eady RAJ. The basement membrane: interface between the epithelium and the dermis: structural features . Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:709-712.Crossref 3. Pearson RW. Clinicopathologic types of epidermolysis bullosa and their nondermatological complications . Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:718-725.Crossref 4. Murphy GF, Dickersin GR, Harrist TJ, Mihm MC Jr. The role of diagnostic electron microscopy in dermatology . In: Moschella SL, ed. Dermatology Update: Reviews for Physicians . New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc; 1982:355-384. 5. Andres TL, Vallyathan V, Madison JF. Electron-probe microanalysis: aid in the study of skin granulomas . Arch Dermatol. 1980;116:1272-1274.Crossref 6. Heinrich KFJ. Scanning electron probe microanalysis . In: Barer R, Cosslett VE, eds. Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1976;6:275-301. 7. Lutzner M. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: the Sezary syndrome, mycosis fungoides and related disorders . Ann Intern Med. 1975;83:534-552.Crossref 8. Rosas-Uribe A, Variakojis D, Molnar Z, Rappaport H. Mycosis fungoides: an ultrastructural study . Cancer. 1974;34:634-645.Crossref 9. Scgrek R. Ultrastructure of blood lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphosarcoma cell leukemia . JNCI. 1972;48:51-64. 10. O'Briain DS, Lawlor E, Sarsfeild P, Cooney C, Blaney CH, Sullivan FJ. Circulating cerebriform lymphoid cells (Sezary-type cells) in a B-cell malignant lymphoma . Cancer. 1988;61:1587-1593.Crossref 11. Crocker J, Jones EL, Curran RC. A comparative study of nuclear form factor, area and diameter in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and reactive lymph nodes . J Clin Pathol. 1983;36:298-302.Crossref 12. Payne CM, Grogan TM, Lynch PJ. An ultrastructural morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of cutaneous lymphomas and benign lymphocytic infiltrates of the skin: useful criteria for diagnosis . Arch Dermatol. 1986;122:1139-1154.Crossref 13. Horton JJ, Allen MH, MacDonald DM. An assessment of Langerhans cell quantification in tissue sections . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11:591-593.Crossref 14. Tidman MJ, Eady RAJ. Ultrastructural morphometry of normal human dermal-epidermal junction: the influence of age, sex and body region on laminar and nonlaminar components . J Invest Dermatol. 1984;83:448-453.Crossref 15. Chu AC, Bhogal B, Black MM. Immunocytochemistry in dermatology . In: Polak JM, VanNoorden S, eds. Immunocytochemistry: Practical Applications in Pathology and Biology . Boston, Mass: John Wright-PSG Inc; 1983:302-333. 16. Taylor CR. Immunoperoxidase techniques: practical and theoretical aspects . Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1978;102:113-121. 17. Guldhammer B, Norgaard T. The differential diagnosis of intraepidermal malignant lesions using immunohistochemistry . Am J Dermatopathol. 1986;8:295-301.Crossref 18. Erlandson RA. Diagnostic immunohistochemistry of human tumors: an interim evaluation . Am J Surg Pathol. 1984;8:615-624.Crossref 19. von Krogh G, Syrjanen SM, Syrjanen KJ. Advantage of human papillomavirus typing in the clinical evaluation of genitoanal warts . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:495-503.Crossref 20. Fenoglio-Preiser CM. Technology transfer: the new molecular pathology, opportunities for the future . Mod Pathol. 1988;1:251-255. 21. Howley PM. The role of papilloma virus in human cancer . In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Important Advances in Cancer . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1987:55. 22. Fenoglio CM, Oster MW, Lo Gerfo P, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma following chemotherapy for testicular cancer in a homosexual man: demonstration of cytomegalovirus RNA in sarcoma cells . Hum Pathol. 1982;13:955-959.Crossref 23. Hino O, Kitagawa T, Koike T, Kobayashi M, Hara M, Mori W. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in hepatocellular carcinomas in Japan . Hepatology. 1984;4:90-95.Crossref 24. Brandsman J, Miller G. Nucleic acid spot hybridization: rapid quantitative screening of lymphoid cell lines for Epstein Barr viral DNA . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980;77:6851-6855.Crossref 25. McDougall JK, Crum CP, Fenoglio CM, Goldstein LC, Galloway DA. Herpes virus-specific RNA and protein in carcinoma of the uterine cervix . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1982;79:3853-3857.Crossref 26. Harper ME, Kaplan MH, Marselle LM, et al. Concomitant infection with HTLV-I and HTLV-III in a patient with T8 lymphoproliferative disease . N Engl J Med. 1986;315:1073-1078.Crossref 27. Shibata D, Arnheim N, Martin WJ. Detection of human papilloma virus in paraffin-embedded tissue using the polymerase chain reaction . J Exp Med. 1988;167:225-230.Crossref 28. Shibata D, Fu YS, Gupta JW, Shah KV, Arnheim N, Martin WJ. Methods in laboratory investigation: detection of human papilloma virus in normal and dysplastic tissue by the polymerase chain reaction . Lab Invest. 1988;59:555-559. 29. Cossman J, Uppenkamp M, Sundeen J, Coupland R, Raffeld M. Molecular genetics and the diagnosis of lymphoma . Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1988;112:117-127. 30. Vonderheid EC, Tan E, Sobel EL, Schwab E, Micaily B, Jegasothy BV. Clinical implications of immunologic phenotyping in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:40-52.Crossref 31. Murphy GF, Mihm MC Jr. Benign, dysplastic and malignant lymphoid infiltrates of the skin: an approach based on pattern analysis . In: Murphy GF, Mihm MC Jr, eds. Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Skin . Woburn, Mass: Butterworths; 1986:123-141. 32. Harrist TJ, Murphy GF, Mihm MC Jr. Lymphomatoid vasculitis: a subset of lymphocytic vasculitis . In: Moschella SL, ed. Dermatology Update: Reviews for Physicians . New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc; 1982:115-133. 33. Haynes BF, Miller SE, Palker TJ, et al. Identification of human T cell leukemia virus in a Japanese patient with adult T cell leukemia and cutaneous lymphomatous vasculitis . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1983;80:2054-2058.Crossref 34. Catovsky D, Rose M, Goolden AWG, et al. Adult T-cell lymphoma-leukaemia in blacks from the West Indies . Lancet. 1982;1:639-643.Crossref 35. Vuth-Dreese FA, DeVries JE. Human T-cell leukemia virus in lymphocytes from T-cell leukemia patient originating from Surinam . Lancet. 1982;2:993-994.Crossref 36. Weinberg JB, Spiegel RA, Blazey DL, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and adult T-cell leukemia: report of a cluster in North Carolina . Am J Med. 1988;85:51-58.Crossref 37. Kuo T, Sato H, Dunn P, et al. Presence of HTLV-I proviral DNA in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Taiwan . Cancer. 1988;62:702-704.Crossref 38. Reitz MS Jr, Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Characterization and distribution of nucleic acid sequences of a novel type C retrovirus isolated from neoplastic human T lymphocytes . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1981;78:1887-1891.Crossref 39. Takigawa M, Inoue F, Iwatsuki K, Yamada M. Does adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma belong to the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma category? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:379-381.Crossref 40. Takahashi K, Tanaka T, Fujita M, Horiguchi Y, Miyachi Y, Imamura S. Cutaneous-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a unique clinical feature with monoclonal T-cell proliferation detected by Southern blot analysis . Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:399-404.Crossref 41. Palestine RF, Kossard S, Dicken CH. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita: a heterogeneous disease . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981; 5:43-53.Crossref 42. Unis ME, Pfau RG, Patel H, Takahashi Y, Anhalt GJ. An acquired form of epidermolysis bullosa without immunoreactants . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13:377-380.Crossref 43. Lacour JP, Juhlin L, El Baze P, Ortonne J. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with negative direct immunofluorescence . Arch Dermatol. 1985;121:1183-1185.Crossref 44. Richter BJ, McNutt NS. The spectrum of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita . Arch Dermatol. 1979;115:1325-1329.Crossref 45. Gammon WR, Briggaman RA, Inman AO III, Queen LL, Wheeler CE. Differentiating anti-lamina lucida and anti-sublamina densa anti-BMZ antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence on 1.0M sodium chloride-separated skin . J Invest Dermatol. 1984;82:139-144.Crossref 46. Tabas M, Gibbons S, Bauer EA. The mechanobullous diseases . Dermatol Clin. 1987;5:123-136.Crossref 47. Rodeck CH, Eady RAJ, Gosden CM. Prenatal diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa . Lancet. 1980;1:949-952.Crossref 48. Fine JD. Epidermolysis bullosa: clinical aspects, pathology and recent advances in research . Int J Dermatol. 1986;25:143-157.Crossref 49. Fine JD, Breathnach SM, Hintner H, Katz SI. KF-1 monoclonal antibody defines a specific basement membrane defect in dystrophic forms in epidermolysis bullosa . J Invest Dermatol. 1984;82:35-38.Crossref 50. Goldsmith LA, Briggaman RA. Monoclonal antibodies to anchoring fibrils for the diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa . J Invest Dermatol. 1983;81:464-466.Crossref 51. Heagerty AHM, Kennedy AR, Gunner DB, Eady RAJ. Rapid prenatal diagnosis and exclusion of epidermolysis bullosa using novel antibody probes . J Invest Dermatol. 1986;86:603-605.Crossref 52. Heagerty AHM, Eady RAJ, Kennedy AR, et al. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa letalis using GB3 monoclonal antibody . Br J Dermatol. 1987;117:271-275.Crossref 53. Cormane RH, Szabo E, Hauge LS. Immunofluorescence of the skin: the interpretation of the staining of blood vessels and connective tissue aided by new techniques . Br J Dermatol. 1970;2( (suppl 5) ):26-53.Crossref 54. Epstein JH, Tuffanelli DL, Epstein WL. Cutaneous porphyrias and porphyria-like cutaneous changes induced by drug photosensitization . In: Beutner EH, Chorzelski TP, Bean SF, eds. Immunopathology of the Skin. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1979:445-471. 55. Harrist TJ, Mihm MC Jr. Cutaneous immunopathology: the diagnostic use of direct and indirect immunofluorescence techniques in dermatologic disease . Hum Pathol. 1979;10:625-653.Crossref 56. Burnham TK, Neblett TR, Fine G. The application of fluorescent antibody technique to the investigation of lupus erythematosus and various dermatoses . J Invest Dermatol. 1963;41:451-456.Crossref 57. Cormane RH. `Bound' globulin in the skin of patients with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus . Lancet. 1964;1:534-535.Crossref 58. Tuffanelli DL. Cutaneous immunopathology: recent observations . J Invest Dermatol. 1975;65:143-153.Crossref 59. Provost TT, Andres G, Maddison PJ, et al. Lupus band test in untreated SLE patients: correlation of immunoglobulin deposition in the skin of the extensor forearm with clinical renal disease and serologic abnormalities . J Invest Dermatol. 1980;74:407-412.Crossref 60. Dahl MV, Gilliam JN. Direct immunofluorescence in lupus erythematosus . In: Beutner EH, Chorzelski TP, Kumar V, eds. Immunopathology of the Skin. 3rd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1987:499-518. 61. Monroe EW. Lupus band test . Arch Dermatol. 1977;113:830-834.Crossref 62. Cochrane CG, Weigle WO, Dixon FJ. The role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the initiation and cessation of the Arthus vasculitis . J Exp Med. 1959;110:481-494.Crossref 63. Nakijama T, Watanabe S, Sato Y, Kameya T, Hirota T, Shimosato Y. An immunoperoxidase study of S-100 protein distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues . Am J Surg Pathol. 1982;6:715-727.Crossref 64. Zarbo RJ, Gown AM, Visscher DW, Crissman JD. Low molecular weight cytokeratin expression by malignant melanoma: immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis . Lab Invest. 1989;60:109. Abstract. 65. Gown AM, Vogel AM, Hoak D, Gough F, McNutt MA. Monoclonal antibodies specific for melanocytic tumors distinguish subpopulations of melanocytes . Am J Pathol. 1986;123:195-203. 66. Battifora H, Silva EG. The use of antikeratin antibodies in the immunohistochemical distinction of neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the skin, lymphoma, and oat cell carcinoma . Cancer. 1986;58:1040-1046.Crossref 67. Haneke E. Electron microscopy of Merkel cell carcinoma from formalin-fixed tissue . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;12:487492.Crossref 68. Ceuterick C, Martin J. Diagnostic role of skin or conjunctival biopsies in neurological disorders: an update . J Neurol Sci. 1984;65:179-191.Crossref 69. Takahashi K, Naito M. Lipid storage disease, II: ultrastructural pathology of lipid storage cells in sphingolipidoses . 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Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1989

References