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Abstract The onward movement of general and specialized medical achievement depends on research, clinical observation, contact with patients and teaching. A sharp distinction between the science of observation and the science of experiment is not valid; they are partners. The clinician and the research worker have established high standards. Each endeavors to satisfy the exacting conscience of the other. Together they strive for "an accurate and discerning application of science to meet the needs of the individual patient" (Canby Robinson) ; they strive, too, for the same discerning application of science to the prevention of disease, which is the outstanding tendency in contemporary medical effort. Obviously, everywhere in the world progress is brought about by specialization and cooperation. As a distinguished English surgeon more than a quarter of a century ago wrote : "The growth of specialism is inevitable, indeed, necessary. . . . But it behooves every enlightened References 1. 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A. M. A. , 1904, p. 412. 39. Ziegler, S. L.: The Ocular Menace of Wood Alcohol Poisoning , J. A. M. A. , 77: 1160 ( (Oct. 1) ) 1921. 40. Ophth. Rec. 10:289, 1901. 41. H. H. Tyson and M. J. Schoenberg experimentally demonstrated the toxic influence of methyl alcohol by inhalation , J. A. M. A. 63:915, 1914.Crossref 42. Holden, Ward: Arch. Ophth. 28:125, 1899. 43. The Bowman Lecture , London, Adlard & Son, Ltd., 1923, p. 83. 44. Friedenwald, J. S.: The Pathology of the Eye , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1929, p. 124. 45. Dr. Henry F. Smyth (Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Pennsylvania) informs me that his investigations render it doubtful if there is any fusel oil (amylic alcohol) in the synthetic methanols. He like Holden, found degeneration of the ganglion cells of the retinas of animals (guinea-pigs) poisoned by methyl alcohol. 46. A. C. Woods and J. E. Moore ( Visual Disturbances Produced by Tryparsamide , J. A. M. A. 82:2105 [ (June 28) ] 1924).Crossref 47. Gifford, Harold: Clinical and Pathologic Notes on Sympathetic Ophthalmia , J. A. M. A. 34:341 ( (Feb. 10) ) 1900.Crossref 48. Verhoeff: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 24:173, 1926. 49. The American Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology , 1920, vol. 16, p. 12409. 50. Woods, A. C.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1917, p. 133 51. Arch. Ophth. 46:503, 1917. 52. Dr. A. Knapp has also made clinicopathologic studies of this intradermal reaction. 53. Woods, A. C.: Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 45:268, 1925 54. S. R. Gifford and L. H. Lucic advanced reasons why they consider the theory of a virus as the cause of sympathetic ophthalmia the most plausible of the various theories ( The Etiology of Sympathetic Ophthalmia , Arch. Ophth. 1:468 [ (April) ] 1929).Crossref 55. Gradle, Harry: Ber. d. ophth. , Heidelburg, 1910, p. 238 56. Ophth. Rec. 20: 619, 1911. 57. Gifford, Sanford: Arch. Ophth. 47:327, 1918. 58. Knapp, Arnold: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1919, p. 242. 59. Harbridge, D. F.: Am. J. Ophth. 2:269, 1919 60. 5:791, 1922. 61. Tr. Sect. Ophth., Seventeenth International Congress of Medicine, 1913 62. Pathogenesis of Chronic Uveitis , Philadelphia, Fell & Company, 1913. 63. Irons, E. E., and Brown, E. V. L.: The Etiology of Iritis , J. A. M. A. 66:1840 ( (June 10) ) 1916Crossref 64. The Etiology of Iritis: Second series , Irons J. A. M. A. 81:1770 ( (Nov. 24) ) 1923Crossref 65. Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A., 1926. 66. Dix wrote ( Boston M. & S. J. 51:436, 1854) 67. Hubbell, A. A.: The Development of Ophthalmology in America, 1800-1870 , Chicago, American Medical Association, 1908. 68. In my earlier days when I frequently assisted Dr. Brinton in his private work (he was a general surgeon of marked distinction) he often expressed his belief that the ophthalmoscope he brought with him was the first one which came to this country, certainly to Philadelphia. His son, Dr. Ward Brinton, informs me that he also often heard his father make this statement. 69. Dennett, William: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 21-23:156, 1885-1887. 70. Friedenwald, Jonas: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 26:381, 1928. 71. Edward Jackson ( Contrib. Ophth. Sc. , Jackson Birthday Volume, 1926, p. X) 72. Friedenwald, Harry : Report on the Ophthalmoscopic Examination of Dr. Preston's Cases of Arteriosclerosis , J. A. M. A. 16:622 ( (May 2) ) 1891 73. Arch. Ophth. 25:177, 1896. 74. Wagener, H. P.: M. Clin. North America 7:275, 1923. 75. Wagener, H. P.: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 25:349, 1927. 76. Warren J. Collins: Boston M. & S. J. 163:767, 1910. 77. I am indebted to Mrs. J. Upton Myers, vice president of the Moravian Historical Society of Bethlehem, Pa., for a copy of these records. 78. Knapp, Herman: Arch. Ophth. 44:287, 1900. 79. The credit of first suggesting a method of intracapsular extraction of cataract in this country belongs to Van Hulen. 80. Knapp, Arnold: Arch. Ophth. 44:1, 1915. 81. Parker, W. R.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1922, p. 272 82. Parker Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. 272, 1928. 83. Weeks, J. E.: Diseases of the Eye , Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1910, p. 225. 84. G. S. Derby and F. H. Verhoeff, in their studies of Parinaud's conjunctivitis, found that this disease was first described by E. Fuchs in an early edition of his famous textbook, but he gave it no name. 85. Verhoeff, F. H.: Arch. Ophth. 42:345, 1913. 86. Gifford, Sanford: Am. J. Ophth. 10:484, 1927. 87. Gifford, Sanford; and Patton, J. M.: Am. J. Ophth. 5:623, 1922. 88. Gifford, Sanford; and Lucic, L. H.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1926, p. 20. 89. Verhoeff, F. H.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1921. 90. Holloway, T. B.: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 15:153, 1917 91. Arch. Ophth. 47: 50, 1918. 92. Holloway, T. B., and Verhoeff, F. H.: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 26:206, 1928 93. Disklike Degeneration of the Macula , Arch. Ophth. 1:219 ( (Feb.) ) 1929. 94. Verhoeff, F. H.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1928, p. 243. 95. Verhoeff, F. H.: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 26:53, 1928. 96. Verhoeff, F. H., and Bell, Louis: Pathologic Effects of Radiant Energy on the Eye , Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sc. , 1916, vol. 51. 97. Derby, G. S.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1928, p. 37. 98. It is interesting to recall that Hasket Derby, George Derby's father, was the first American to employ uniform illumination of test-types (1866), and also the first American to warn against the use of mydriatics in glaucoma. 99. A. E. Davis ( Tr. Internat. Cong. Ophth., Washington , 1922 100. Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc., 1924 101. Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 45:186, 1925 102. Ellis, Z. H.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1927, p. 47 103. New York State J. Med. 27:1296 [ (Dec.) ] 1927 104. Woods, A. C., and Burky : Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1927. 105. Walker, C. B.: Brain 37:341, 1915 106. Arch. Ophth. 44:369, 1915. 107. The Bowman Lecture , London, Adlard & Son, Ltd., 1923 108. Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom , 1923, vol. 43. 109. Brit. J. Ophth. 77:369, 1927 110. New York M. Rec. 17:140, 1880 111. Shahan, W. E.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1916, p. 298. 112. Scarlett, Hunter: Am. J. Ophth. 10:747, 1927. 113. Howard, H. J.: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 26:275, 1928. 114. Key, Ben Witt: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 17:470, 1919. 115. Sweet, W. M.: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 8:91, 1897-1898. 116. Max Stern, of the Philadelphia Polyclinic, made the first attempt at localization of intra-ocular foreign bodies in Philadelphia ; his method, although inexact, in several instances was eminently successful. 117. Wilmer, Berens, Lancaster, Howard and Cobb: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 17:171, 186, 195 and 249, 1919. 118. Rosenow, E. C., and Lewis, F. P.: Tr. Sect. Ophth. A. M. A. , 1928, p. 30. 119. Prangen, A.: Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 26:353, 1928. 120. Alt's " American Journal of Ophthalmology (1884) 121. " Ophthalmic Record ," edited by Dr. Giles Savage (1891) 122. " Annals of Ophthalmology " (founded by Dr. J. P. Parker, 1892, and later editorially supervised by C. Wood, H. Wurdemann, W. T. Shoemaker and C. W. Parke) 123. "Ophthalmology" (Wurdemann, 1904).
Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Jan 1, 1930
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