Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Some Observations on Intermittent Exotropia

Some Observations on Intermittent Exotropia Abstract The term intermittent exotropia is usually reserved to designate that type of oculomotor anomaly in which the two eyes appear for the most part to be well coordinated, yet for some unknown reason, one eye may suddenly turn out, often through a rather large angle. The patient usually is not aware that the eye has turned out; he does not experience double vision.1 It has accordingly been assumed that the image in that eye is somehow suddenly suppressed. Apparently the suppression is not complete, however, because a moving light can be seen in the periphery by the deviating eye (the nose of the patient prevents the light from being seen by the fixating eye). Some evidence exists that the suppression is mostly in the macular or central area of the deviating eye,2 only during the actual deviation. It has been suggested also3 that this phenomenon may not References 1. This ratio, often mistakenly called the AC/A ratio, is given by Rd=(interocular separation in centimeters)+ (near phoria-distant phoria)÷(diopter change in fixation distance). In this calculation the esophoria is taken to be positive, and exophoria is taken to be negative. The ratio, then, is prism diopters of change in convergence for each dioptric change in fixation distance. The "proximal" convergence, PC/D, will be the Rd ratio minus the AC/A ratio. 2. Jampolsky, A.: Differential Diagnostic Characteristics of Intermittent Exotropia and True Exophoria , Amer Orthoptic J 4:48-55, 1954. 3. Jampolsky, A.: Physiology of Intermittent Exotropia , Amer Orthoptic J 13:5-13, 1963. 4. Bair, H. L.: Personal communication to the authors. 5. Schlossman, A., and Boruchoff, S. A.: Correlation Between Physiologic and Clinical Aspects of Exotropia , Amer J Ophthal 40:53-64 ( (July) ) 1955. 6. Jampolsky, A., cited by Costenbadder, F. D.: Summary , Amer Orthoptic J 13:33-36, 1963. 7. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of Eye: Clinical Application , ed 3, St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Co., 1959, p 473. 8. Blodi, F. C., and Van Allen, M. W.: Electromyography in Intermittent Exotropia: Recordings Before, During, and After Corrective Operation , Docum Ophthal 16:21-34, 1962.Crossref 9. Ogle, K. N., and Prangen, A. deH.: Further Considerations of Fixation Disparity and Binocular Fusional Processes , Amer J Ophthal 34:57-72 ( (May) ) 1951. 10. Ogle, K. N., and Martens, T. G.: Oculomotor Imbalance in Binocular Vision and Fixation Disparity (unpublished data). 11. Ogle, K. N., and Martens, T. G.: On the Accommodative Convergence and Proximal Convergence , AMA Arch Ophthal 57:702-715 ( (May) ) 1957.Crossref 12. Hawkeswood, H. H.: Overconvergence in Intermittent Exotropia , Trans Orthoptic Ass Aust 17:23, 1960. 13. Dyer, J. A., and Martens, T. G.: Surgical Treatment of Divergence Excess , Amer J Ophthal 50:297-302 ( (Aug) ) 1960. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Some Observations on Intermittent Exotropia

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 73 (1) – Jan 1, 1965

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/some-observations-on-intermittent-exotropia-P2ZPJ56i0j
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1965 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1965.00970030060014
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The term intermittent exotropia is usually reserved to designate that type of oculomotor anomaly in which the two eyes appear for the most part to be well coordinated, yet for some unknown reason, one eye may suddenly turn out, often through a rather large angle. The patient usually is not aware that the eye has turned out; he does not experience double vision.1 It has accordingly been assumed that the image in that eye is somehow suddenly suppressed. Apparently the suppression is not complete, however, because a moving light can be seen in the periphery by the deviating eye (the nose of the patient prevents the light from being seen by the fixating eye). Some evidence exists that the suppression is mostly in the macular or central area of the deviating eye,2 only during the actual deviation. It has been suggested also3 that this phenomenon may not References 1. This ratio, often mistakenly called the AC/A ratio, is given by Rd=(interocular separation in centimeters)+ (near phoria-distant phoria)÷(diopter change in fixation distance). In this calculation the esophoria is taken to be positive, and exophoria is taken to be negative. The ratio, then, is prism diopters of change in convergence for each dioptric change in fixation distance. The "proximal" convergence, PC/D, will be the Rd ratio minus the AC/A ratio. 2. Jampolsky, A.: Differential Diagnostic Characteristics of Intermittent Exotropia and True Exophoria , Amer Orthoptic J 4:48-55, 1954. 3. Jampolsky, A.: Physiology of Intermittent Exotropia , Amer Orthoptic J 13:5-13, 1963. 4. Bair, H. L.: Personal communication to the authors. 5. Schlossman, A., and Boruchoff, S. A.: Correlation Between Physiologic and Clinical Aspects of Exotropia , Amer J Ophthal 40:53-64 ( (July) ) 1955. 6. Jampolsky, A., cited by Costenbadder, F. D.: Summary , Amer Orthoptic J 13:33-36, 1963. 7. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of Eye: Clinical Application , ed 3, St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Co., 1959, p 473. 8. Blodi, F. C., and Van Allen, M. W.: Electromyography in Intermittent Exotropia: Recordings Before, During, and After Corrective Operation , Docum Ophthal 16:21-34, 1962.Crossref 9. Ogle, K. N., and Prangen, A. deH.: Further Considerations of Fixation Disparity and Binocular Fusional Processes , Amer J Ophthal 34:57-72 ( (May) ) 1951. 10. Ogle, K. N., and Martens, T. G.: Oculomotor Imbalance in Binocular Vision and Fixation Disparity (unpublished data). 11. Ogle, K. N., and Martens, T. G.: On the Accommodative Convergence and Proximal Convergence , AMA Arch Ophthal 57:702-715 ( (May) ) 1957.Crossref 12. Hawkeswood, H. H.: Overconvergence in Intermittent Exotropia , Trans Orthoptic Ass Aust 17:23, 1960. 13. Dyer, J. A., and Martens, T. G.: Surgical Treatment of Divergence Excess , Amer J Ophthal 50:297-302 ( (Aug) ) 1960.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1965

References