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SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DARK ADAPTATION

SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DARK ADAPTATION Abstract The physiology of rod and cone vision has been under investigation for many years, and many significant contributions have been made within the past few years, notably by Hecht and his associates in this country and Lythgoe and his associates in Great Britain. These studies, combined with the increasing knowledge of the biophysics of the eye and the chemistry of the vitamins, enable one to approach the problem of dark adaptation and its clinical significance without the skepticism manifest a few years ago. The greater part of this investigative work has been published in journals not always accessible to ophthalmologists, and frequently an advanced knowledge of physics and chemistry is necessary to interpret the findings. In this paper an attempt is made to review the problem in a brief and simplified manner and to give the present status of dark adaptation and the chemical basis of vision. Schultze1 in References 1. Schultze, M.: Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina , Arch. f. mikr. Anat. 2:175, 1866.Crossref 2. von Kries, J.: Ueber die Funktion der Netzhautstäbchen , Ztschr. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 9:81, 1895. 3. Aubert, H.: Physiologie der Netzhaut , Breslau, E. Morganstern, 1865. 4. König, A., and Ritter, R.: Ueber den Helligkeitswerthe der Spektralfarben bei verschiedener absoluter Intensität , in Festschrift zur Feier des siebzigsten-Geburtstages von Hermann von Helmholtz , Leipzig, L. Voss, 1891, p. 309. 5. Abney, W. de W., and Festing, E. R.: Color Photometry , Proc. Roy. Soc., London 50:371, 1891. 6. Hecht, S., and Williams, R. E.: The Visibility of Monochromatic Radiation and the Absorption Spectrum of Visual Purple , J. Gen. Physiol. 5:1 ( (Sept.) ) 1922.Crossref 7. Kohlrausch, A.: Untersuchungen mit farbigen Schwellenprüflichtern über den Dunkeladaptationsverlauf des normalen Auges , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 196: 113. 1922.Crossref 8. Piper, H.: Ueber Dunkeladaptation , Ztschr. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 31:161, 1903. 9. Hecht, S.: The Nature of Foveal Dark Adaptation , J. Gen. Physiol. 4:113 ( (Nov.) ) 1921.Crossref 10. Hecht, S.; Haig, C., and Chase, A. M.: The Influence of Light Adaptation on Subsequent Dark Adaptation of the Eye , J. Gen. Physiol. 20:831 ( (July) ) 1937.Crossref 11. Hecht, S.; Haig, C., and Wald, G.: Dark Adaptation of Retinal Fields of Different Size and Location , J. Gen. Physiol. 19:321 ( (Nov.) ) 1935.Crossref 12. Sloan, L. L.: Instruments and Technique for the Clinical Testing of Light Sense: III. Control Fixation in the Dark-Adapted Eye , Arch. Ophth. 22:228 ( (Aug.) ) 1939.Crossref 13. Haig, C.; Hecht, S., and Patek, A. J.: Vitamin A and Rod-Cone Adaptation in Cirrhosis of the Liver , Science 87:534 ( (June 10) ) 1938.Crossref 14. Graham, C. H., and Margaria, R.: Area and the Intensity-Time Relation in the Peripheral Retina , Am. J. Physiol. 113:299 ( (Oct.) ) 1935. 15. Boll, F.: Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina , Monatsber. d. berl. Akad. , (Nov. 12) , 1876, p. 783. 16. Kuehne, W.: Chemische Vorgänge in der Netzhaut , in Hermann, L.: Handbuch der Physiologie , Leipzig, F. C. W. Vogel, 1879, vol. 3, p. 235. 17. Parinaud, H.: L'héméralopie et les fonctions du pourpre visuel , Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. 93:286, 1881. 18. Ludvigh, E.: Determination and Significance of the Scotopic Retinal Visibility Curve , Arch. Ophth. 20:713 ( (Nov.) ) 1938.Crossref 19. Wald, G.: Photo-Habile Pigments of the Chicken Retina , Nature, London 140:545 ( (Sept. 25) ) 1937.Crossref 20. Hecht, S.; Chase, A. M., and Shlaer, S.: The Diffusion Coefficient and Molecular Size of Visual Purple , Science 85:567 ( (June 11) ) 1937.Crossref 21. Lythgoe, R. J., and Goodeve, C. F.: Visual Purple , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 57:88, 1937. 22. Fridericia, L. S., and Holm, E.: Experimental Contribution to the Study of the Relation Between Night Blindness and Malnutrition: Influence of Deficiency of Fat-Soluble A Vitamin in the Diet on the Visual Purple in the Eyes of Rats , Am. J. Physiol. 73:63 ( (June) ) 1925. 23. Tansley, K.: The Regeneration of Visual Purple: Its Relation to Dark Adaptation and Night Blindness , J. Physiol. 71:442 ( (April) ) 1931. 24. Yudkin, A. M.; Kriss, M., and Smith, A. H.: Vitamin A Potency of Retinal Tissue , Am. J. Physiol. 97:611 ( (July) ) 1931. 25. Wald, G.: Vitamin A in Eye Tissues , J. Gen. Physiol. 18:905 ( (July) ) 1935Crossref 26. On the Distribution of Vitamins A1 and A2 , Wald J. Gen. Physiol. 22:391 ( (Jan.) ) 1939.Crossref 27. Wald, G., and Clark, A. B.: Visual Adaptation and Chemistry of the Rods , J. Gen. Physiol. 21:93 ( (Sept.) ) 1937.Crossref 28. Bitot: Mémoire sur une lésion conjunctivale non encore décrite, coïncidant avec l'héméralopie , Gaz. hebd. de méd. et de chir. 10:284 ( (May) ) 1863. 29. Hecht, S., and Mandelbaum, J.: (a) Rod-Cone Dark Adaptation and Vitamin A , Science 88:219 ( (Sept. 2) ) 1938Crossref 30. (b) The Relation Between Vitamin A and Dark Adaptation , J. A. M. A. 112:1910 ( (May 13) ) 1939.Crossref 31. Wald, G.; Jeghers, H., and Arminio, J.: An Experiment in Human Dietary Night-Blindness , Am. J. Physiol. 123:732 ( (Sept.) ) 1938. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DARK ADAPTATION

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 23 (4) – Apr 1, 1940

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1940 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1940.00860130935013
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The physiology of rod and cone vision has been under investigation for many years, and many significant contributions have been made within the past few years, notably by Hecht and his associates in this country and Lythgoe and his associates in Great Britain. These studies, combined with the increasing knowledge of the biophysics of the eye and the chemistry of the vitamins, enable one to approach the problem of dark adaptation and its clinical significance without the skepticism manifest a few years ago. The greater part of this investigative work has been published in journals not always accessible to ophthalmologists, and frequently an advanced knowledge of physics and chemistry is necessary to interpret the findings. In this paper an attempt is made to review the problem in a brief and simplified manner and to give the present status of dark adaptation and the chemical basis of vision. Schultze1 in References 1. Schultze, M.: Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina , Arch. f. mikr. Anat. 2:175, 1866.Crossref 2. von Kries, J.: Ueber die Funktion der Netzhautstäbchen , Ztschr. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 9:81, 1895. 3. Aubert, H.: Physiologie der Netzhaut , Breslau, E. Morganstern, 1865. 4. König, A., and Ritter, R.: Ueber den Helligkeitswerthe der Spektralfarben bei verschiedener absoluter Intensität , in Festschrift zur Feier des siebzigsten-Geburtstages von Hermann von Helmholtz , Leipzig, L. Voss, 1891, p. 309. 5. Abney, W. de W., and Festing, E. R.: Color Photometry , Proc. Roy. Soc., London 50:371, 1891. 6. Hecht, S., and Williams, R. E.: The Visibility of Monochromatic Radiation and the Absorption Spectrum of Visual Purple , J. Gen. Physiol. 5:1 ( (Sept.) ) 1922.Crossref 7. Kohlrausch, A.: Untersuchungen mit farbigen Schwellenprüflichtern über den Dunkeladaptationsverlauf des normalen Auges , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 196: 113. 1922.Crossref 8. Piper, H.: Ueber Dunkeladaptation , Ztschr. f. Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg. 31:161, 1903. 9. Hecht, S.: The Nature of Foveal Dark Adaptation , J. Gen. Physiol. 4:113 ( (Nov.) ) 1921.Crossref 10. Hecht, S.; Haig, C., and Chase, A. M.: The Influence of Light Adaptation on Subsequent Dark Adaptation of the Eye , J. Gen. Physiol. 20:831 ( (July) ) 1937.Crossref 11. Hecht, S.; Haig, C., and Wald, G.: Dark Adaptation of Retinal Fields of Different Size and Location , J. Gen. Physiol. 19:321 ( (Nov.) ) 1935.Crossref 12. Sloan, L. L.: Instruments and Technique for the Clinical Testing of Light Sense: III. Control Fixation in the Dark-Adapted Eye , Arch. Ophth. 22:228 ( (Aug.) ) 1939.Crossref 13. Haig, C.; Hecht, S., and Patek, A. J.: Vitamin A and Rod-Cone Adaptation in Cirrhosis of the Liver , Science 87:534 ( (June 10) ) 1938.Crossref 14. Graham, C. H., and Margaria, R.: Area and the Intensity-Time Relation in the Peripheral Retina , Am. J. Physiol. 113:299 ( (Oct.) ) 1935. 15. Boll, F.: Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina , Monatsber. d. berl. Akad. , (Nov. 12) , 1876, p. 783. 16. Kuehne, W.: Chemische Vorgänge in der Netzhaut , in Hermann, L.: Handbuch der Physiologie , Leipzig, F. C. W. Vogel, 1879, vol. 3, p. 235. 17. Parinaud, H.: L'héméralopie et les fonctions du pourpre visuel , Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. 93:286, 1881. 18. Ludvigh, E.: Determination and Significance of the Scotopic Retinal Visibility Curve , Arch. Ophth. 20:713 ( (Nov.) ) 1938.Crossref 19. Wald, G.: Photo-Habile Pigments of the Chicken Retina , Nature, London 140:545 ( (Sept. 25) ) 1937.Crossref 20. Hecht, S.; Chase, A. M., and Shlaer, S.: The Diffusion Coefficient and Molecular Size of Visual Purple , Science 85:567 ( (June 11) ) 1937.Crossref 21. Lythgoe, R. J., and Goodeve, C. F.: Visual Purple , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 57:88, 1937. 22. Fridericia, L. S., and Holm, E.: Experimental Contribution to the Study of the Relation Between Night Blindness and Malnutrition: Influence of Deficiency of Fat-Soluble A Vitamin in the Diet on the Visual Purple in the Eyes of Rats , Am. J. Physiol. 73:63 ( (June) ) 1925. 23. Tansley, K.: The Regeneration of Visual Purple: Its Relation to Dark Adaptation and Night Blindness , J. Physiol. 71:442 ( (April) ) 1931. 24. Yudkin, A. M.; Kriss, M., and Smith, A. H.: Vitamin A Potency of Retinal Tissue , Am. J. Physiol. 97:611 ( (July) ) 1931. 25. Wald, G.: Vitamin A in Eye Tissues , J. Gen. Physiol. 18:905 ( (July) ) 1935Crossref 26. On the Distribution of Vitamins A1 and A2 , Wald J. Gen. Physiol. 22:391 ( (Jan.) ) 1939.Crossref 27. Wald, G., and Clark, A. B.: Visual Adaptation and Chemistry of the Rods , J. Gen. Physiol. 21:93 ( (Sept.) ) 1937.Crossref 28. Bitot: Mémoire sur une lésion conjunctivale non encore décrite, coïncidant avec l'héméralopie , Gaz. hebd. de méd. et de chir. 10:284 ( (May) ) 1863. 29. Hecht, S., and Mandelbaum, J.: (a) Rod-Cone Dark Adaptation and Vitamin A , Science 88:219 ( (Sept. 2) ) 1938Crossref 30. (b) The Relation Between Vitamin A and Dark Adaptation , J. A. M. A. 112:1910 ( (May 13) ) 1939.Crossref 31. Wald, G.; Jeghers, H., and Arminio, J.: An Experiment in Human Dietary Night-Blindness , Am. J. Physiol. 123:732 ( (Sept.) ) 1938.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1940

References

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