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Somatostatin and a Long-Acting Analogue, Octreotide Acetate: Relevance to Dermatology

Somatostatin and a Long-Acting Analogue, Octreotide Acetate: Relevance to Dermatology Abstract Somatostatin, release inhibitor hormone or factor, was first isolated from hypothalamic extracts by Guillemin and Gerich1 in 1972. As is illustrated in Altman and associates' work,2 published in this issue of the Archives, this hormone and its analogues may be useful in treating a variety of diseases caused by the excess of certain hormones and mediators of inflammation. The 14-amino acid peptide was subsequently identified in pancreas (D cells of the islets of Langerhans), stomach, small intestine, and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. The amino acid sequence of somatostatin and its synthesis in the laboratory were quickly followed by many pharmacologic and physiologic studies, which revealed that somatostatin has many actions in addition to inhibiting the secretion of growth hormone (Table 1).3 The original authors recognized that somatostatin might have clinical applications in the management of acromegaly and juvenile diabetes. However, several undesirable characteristics References 1. Guillemin R, Gerich JE: Somatostatin: Physiological and clinical significance . Annu Rev Med 1976;27:379-388.Crossref 2. Altman AR, Tschen JA, Rice L: Treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome with a long-acting somatostatin analogue . Arch Dermatol 1989;125:394-396.Crossref 3. Reichlin S: Somatostatin . N Engl J Med 1983;309:1556-1563.Crossref 4. Bauer W, Briner M, Doepfner W, et al: SMS 201-995: A very potent and selective octapeptide of somatostatin with prolonged actions . Life Sci 1982;31:1133-1140.Crossref 5. Marbach P, Neufeld M, Pless J: Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs . Adv Exp Med Biol 1985;188:339-353. 6. Barnard LB, Grantham WG, Lamberton P, et al: Treatment of resistant acromegaly with a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) . Ann Intern Med 1986;105:856-861.Crossref 7. Sandler LM, Burrin JM, Williams G, et al: Effective long-term treatment of acromegaly with a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) . Clin Endocrinol 1987;26:85-95.Crossref 8. Pieters GF, van Liessum PA, Smals AG, et al: Long-term treatment of acromegaly with Sandostatin (SMS 201-995): Normalization of most anomalous growth hormone responses . Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1987;286:9-18. 9. Geffner ME, Nagel RA, Dietrich RB, et al: Treatment of acromegaly with a somatostatin analog in a patient with McCune-Albright syndrome . J Pediatr 1987;111:740-743.Crossref 10. Chiodini PG, Cozzi R, Dallabonzana D, et al: Medical treatment of acromegaly with SMS 201-995, a somatostatin analog: A comparison with bromocriptine . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;64:447-453.Crossref 11. Lamberts SWJ: A guide to the clinical use of the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 (Sandostatin) . Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1987;286:54-56. 12. Vandersteen PR, Scheithauer BW: Glucagonoma syndrome: A clinicopathologic, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural study . J Am Acad Dermatol 1985;12:1032-1039.Crossref 13. Sohier J, Jeanmougin M, Lombrail P, et al: Rapid improvement of skin lesions in glucagonomas with intravenous somatostatin infusion . Lancet 1980;1:40.Crossref 14. Elsborg L, Glenthj A: Effect of somatostatin in necrolytic migratory erythema of glucagonoma . Acta Med Scand 1985; 218:245-249.Crossref 15. Kvols LK, Buck M, Moertel CG, et al: Treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma with a somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) . Ann Intern Med 1987;107:162-168.Crossref 16. Altimari AF, Bhoopalam N, O'Dorisio T, et al: Use of a somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) in the glucagonoma syndrome . Surgery 1986;100:989-996. 17. Ch'ng JL, Anderson JV, Williams SJ, et al: Remission of symptoms during long term treatment of metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumours with long acting somatostatin analogue . Br Med J 1986;292:981-988.Crossref 18. Santangelo WC, Unger RH, Orci L, et al: Somatostatin analog-induced remission of necrolytic migratory erythema without changes in plasma glucagon concentrations . Pancreas 1986; 1:464-469.Crossref 19. Kvols LK, Moertel CG, O'Connell MJ, et al: Treatment of the malignant carcinoid syndrome: Evaluation of a long-acting somatostatin analogue . N Engl J Med 1986;315:663-666.Crossref 20. Souquet JC, Sassolas G, Forichon J, et al: Clinical and hormone effects of a long-acting somatostatin analogue in pancreatic endocrine tumors and in carcinoid syndrome . Cancer 1987; 59:1654-1660.Crossref 21. Creutzfeldt W, Stockmann F: Carcinoids and carcinoid syndrome . Am J Med 1987;82( (suppl 5B) ):4-16.Crossref 22. Oates JA: The carcinoid syndrome . N Engl J Med 1986; 315:702-704.Crossref 23. Wilson DM, Hoffman AR: Reduction of pituitary size by the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in a patient with an islet cell tumour secreting growth hormone releasing factor . Acta Endocrinol 1986;113:23-28. 24. Wiedenmann B, Rath U, Radsch R, et al: Tumor regression of ileal carcinoid under the treatment with the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 . Klin Wochenschr 1988;66:75-77.Crossref 25. Barkan AL, Shenker Y, Grekin RJ, et al: Acromegaly from ectopic growth hormone releasing hormone secretion by a malignant carcinoid tumor . Cancer 1988;61:221-226.Crossref 26. Kraenzlin ME, Ch'ng JL, Wood SM, et al: Long-term treatment of a VIPoma with somatostatin analogue resulting in remission of symptoms and possible shrinkage of metastases . Gastroenterology 1985;88:185-187.Crossref 27. Reubi JC: A somatostatin analogue inhibits chondrosarcoma and insulinoma tumour growth . Acta Endocrinol 1985;109:108-114. 28. Upp JR, Olson D, Poston GJ, et al: Inhibition of growth of two human pancreatic adenocarcinomas in vivo by somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 . Am J Surg 1988;155:29-35.Crossref 29. Reubi JC: Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors . JAMA 1987;257:3277.Crossref 30. Williams G, Anderson JV, Williams SJ, et al: Clinical evaluation of SMS 201-995: Long-term treatment in gut neuroendocrine tumors, efficacy of oral administration, and possible use in non-tumoural inappropriate TSH hypersecretion . Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1987;286:26-36. 31. Krejs GJ, Orci L, Conlon JM, et al: Somatostatinoma syndrome: Biochemical, morphologic and clinical features . N Engl J Med 1979;301:285-292.Crossref 32. Gerich JE: Somatostatin and diabetes . Am J Med 1981; 70:619-626.Crossref 33. Spinas GA, Bock A, Keller U: Reduced postprandial hyperglycemia after subcutaneous injection of a somatostatin-analogue (SMS 201-995) in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Diabetes Care 1985;8:429-435.Crossref 34. Plewe G, Noelken G, Krause U, et al: Suppression of growth hormone and somatomedin-C by long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 in type I diabetes mellitus . Horm Res 1987;27:7-12.Crossref 35. Barkan AL, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, et al: Treatment of acromegaly with the long-acting somatostatin analog 201-995 . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;66:16-23.Crossref 36. Kaloustian E, Guillauseau PJ, Chayvialle JA, et al: Tumeur mixte du pancreas endocrine (VIPome, glucagonome) . Presse Med 1987;16:2217-2220. 37. Koelz A, Kraenzlin M, Gyr K, et al: Escape of the response to a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) in patients with VIPoma . Gastroenterology 1987;92:527-531. 38. Weber G, Klughardt G, Neidhardt M: Psoriasis and human growth hormone: Aetiology and therapy . Arch Dermatol Res 1981;270:361-365.Crossref 39. Priestley GC, Gawkrodger DJ, Seth J, et al: Growth hormone levels in psoriasis . Arch Dermatol Res 1984;276:147-150.Crossref 40. Nickoloff BJ, Misra P, Morhenn VB, et al: Plasma somatomedin-C levels in psoriasis . Br J Dermatol 1987;116:15-20.Crossref 41. Mackie RM, Beastall GM, Thomson JA: Growth hormone levels in psoriasis . Arch Dermatol Res 1983;275:207.Crossref 42. Weber G, Klughardt G, Neidhardt M, et al: Treatment of psoriasis with somatostatin . Arch Dermatol Res 1982;272:31-36.Crossref 43. Guilou JJ, Boulanger A, Barneon G, et al: Somatostatin treatment of psoriasis . Arch Dermatol Res 1982;274:249-257.Crossref 44. Venier A, DeSimone C, Forni L, et al: Treatment of severe psoriasis with somatostatin: Four years of experience . Arch Dermatol Res 1988;280( (suppl) ):S51-S54. 45. Matucci-Cerinic M, Lotti T, Cappugi P, et al: Somatostatin treatment of psoriatic arthritis . Int J Dermatol 1988;27:56-58.Crossref 46. Matt LH, Kingston TJ, Bouget T, et al: Treatment of severe psoriasis with somatostatin . Read before the Summer Session of the American Academy of Dermatology, July 15, 1987, San Diego . 47. Gorsulowsky D, Ellis C, Milgraurn S, et al: Intravenous somatostatin for treatment of severe psoriasis . Read before the Summer Session of the American Academy of Dermatology, July 15, 1987, San Diego . 48. Camisa C, O'Dorisio TM, Maceyko R, et al: Improvement of psoriasis with chronic use of somatostatin (SMS) analog 201-995, abstracted . Clin Res 1987;35:673A. 49. Tucker WFG, MacNeil S, Dawson RA, et al: Calmodulin levels in psoriasis: The effect of treatment . Acta Derm Venereol 1986;66:241-244. 50. Saiag P, Coulomb B, Lebreton C, et al: Psoriatic fibroblasts induce hyperproliferation of normal keratinocytes in a skin equivalent model in vitro . Science 1985;230:669-672.Crossref 51. Clemmons DR: Multiple hormones stimulate the production of somatomedin by cultured human fibroblasts . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;58:850-856.Crossref 52. Van Wyck JJ, Graves DC, Casella SJ, et al: Evidence from monoclonal antibody studies that insulin stimulates deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis through the type I somatomedin receptor . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61:639-643.Crossref 53. Misra P, Nickoloff BJ, Morhenn VB, et al: Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I on human keratinocytes . J Invest Dermatol 1986;87:264-267.Crossref 54. Nickoloff BJ, Misra P, Morhenn VB, et al: Insulin-like growth factor-I/somatomedin-C stimulates human keratinocyte proliferation , in Farber EM, Nall L, Morhenn V, et al (eds): Psoriasis: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium . New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, 1987, pp 338-339. 55. Nanney LB, Stroschek CM, Magid M, et al: Altered [I-125] epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis . J Invest Dermatol 1986;86:260-265.Crossref 56. Farber EM, Nickoloff BJ, Recht B, et al: Stress, symmetry, and psoriasis: Possible role of neuropeptides . J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;14:305-311.Crossref 57. Brodin GE, Olgart L, Panopoulos P: Evidence that substance P is a mediator of antidromic vasodilation using somatostatin as a release inhibitor . Acta Physiol Scand 1981;113:155-159.Crossref 58. Camisa C, Schacht G, O'Dorisio TM, et al: The effect of chronic administration of a somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) on secretion of growth, pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones in psoriatic subjects, abstracted . Clin Res 1987;35:861A. 59. Payan DG, Hess CA, Goetzl EJ: Inhibition of somatostatin of the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and Molt-4 lymphoblasts . Cell Immunol 1984;84:433-438.Crossref 60. Bhathena SJ, Louie J, Schechter GP, et al: Identification of human mononuclear leukocytes bearing receptors for somatostatin and glucagon . Diabetes 1981;30:127-131.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Somatostatin and a Long-Acting Analogue, Octreotide Acetate: Relevance to Dermatology

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 125 (3) – Mar 1, 1989

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1989 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
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1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1989.01670150097017
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Abstract

Abstract Somatostatin, release inhibitor hormone or factor, was first isolated from hypothalamic extracts by Guillemin and Gerich1 in 1972. As is illustrated in Altman and associates' work,2 published in this issue of the Archives, this hormone and its analogues may be useful in treating a variety of diseases caused by the excess of certain hormones and mediators of inflammation. The 14-amino acid peptide was subsequently identified in pancreas (D cells of the islets of Langerhans), stomach, small intestine, and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. The amino acid sequence of somatostatin and its synthesis in the laboratory were quickly followed by many pharmacologic and physiologic studies, which revealed that somatostatin has many actions in addition to inhibiting the secretion of growth hormone (Table 1).3 The original authors recognized that somatostatin might have clinical applications in the management of acromegaly and juvenile diabetes. However, several undesirable characteristics References 1. Guillemin R, Gerich JE: Somatostatin: Physiological and clinical significance . Annu Rev Med 1976;27:379-388.Crossref 2. Altman AR, Tschen JA, Rice L: Treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome with a long-acting somatostatin analogue . Arch Dermatol 1989;125:394-396.Crossref 3. Reichlin S: Somatostatin . N Engl J Med 1983;309:1556-1563.Crossref 4. Bauer W, Briner M, Doepfner W, et al: SMS 201-995: A very potent and selective octapeptide of somatostatin with prolonged actions . Life Sci 1982;31:1133-1140.Crossref 5. Marbach P, Neufeld M, Pless J: Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs . Adv Exp Med Biol 1985;188:339-353. 6. Barnard LB, Grantham WG, Lamberton P, et al: Treatment of resistant acromegaly with a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) . Ann Intern Med 1986;105:856-861.Crossref 7. Sandler LM, Burrin JM, Williams G, et al: Effective long-term treatment of acromegaly with a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) . Clin Endocrinol 1987;26:85-95.Crossref 8. Pieters GF, van Liessum PA, Smals AG, et al: Long-term treatment of acromegaly with Sandostatin (SMS 201-995): Normalization of most anomalous growth hormone responses . Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1987;286:9-18. 9. Geffner ME, Nagel RA, Dietrich RB, et al: Treatment of acromegaly with a somatostatin analog in a patient with McCune-Albright syndrome . J Pediatr 1987;111:740-743.Crossref 10. Chiodini PG, Cozzi R, Dallabonzana D, et al: Medical treatment of acromegaly with SMS 201-995, a somatostatin analog: A comparison with bromocriptine . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;64:447-453.Crossref 11. Lamberts SWJ: A guide to the clinical use of the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 (Sandostatin) . Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1987;286:54-56. 12. Vandersteen PR, Scheithauer BW: Glucagonoma syndrome: A clinicopathologic, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural study . J Am Acad Dermatol 1985;12:1032-1039.Crossref 13. Sohier J, Jeanmougin M, Lombrail P, et al: Rapid improvement of skin lesions in glucagonomas with intravenous somatostatin infusion . Lancet 1980;1:40.Crossref 14. Elsborg L, Glenthj A: Effect of somatostatin in necrolytic migratory erythema of glucagonoma . Acta Med Scand 1985; 218:245-249.Crossref 15. Kvols LK, Buck M, Moertel CG, et al: Treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma with a somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) . Ann Intern Med 1987;107:162-168.Crossref 16. Altimari AF, Bhoopalam N, O'Dorisio T, et al: Use of a somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) in the glucagonoma syndrome . Surgery 1986;100:989-996. 17. Ch'ng JL, Anderson JV, Williams SJ, et al: Remission of symptoms during long term treatment of metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumours with long acting somatostatin analogue . Br Med J 1986;292:981-988.Crossref 18. Santangelo WC, Unger RH, Orci L, et al: Somatostatin analog-induced remission of necrolytic migratory erythema without changes in plasma glucagon concentrations . Pancreas 1986; 1:464-469.Crossref 19. Kvols LK, Moertel CG, O'Connell MJ, et al: Treatment of the malignant carcinoid syndrome: Evaluation of a long-acting somatostatin analogue . N Engl J Med 1986;315:663-666.Crossref 20. Souquet JC, Sassolas G, Forichon J, et al: Clinical and hormone effects of a long-acting somatostatin analogue in pancreatic endocrine tumors and in carcinoid syndrome . Cancer 1987; 59:1654-1660.Crossref 21. Creutzfeldt W, Stockmann F: Carcinoids and carcinoid syndrome . Am J Med 1987;82( (suppl 5B) ):4-16.Crossref 22. Oates JA: The carcinoid syndrome . N Engl J Med 1986; 315:702-704.Crossref 23. Wilson DM, Hoffman AR: Reduction of pituitary size by the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in a patient with an islet cell tumour secreting growth hormone releasing factor . Acta Endocrinol 1986;113:23-28. 24. Wiedenmann B, Rath U, Radsch R, et al: Tumor regression of ileal carcinoid under the treatment with the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 . Klin Wochenschr 1988;66:75-77.Crossref 25. Barkan AL, Shenker Y, Grekin RJ, et al: Acromegaly from ectopic growth hormone releasing hormone secretion by a malignant carcinoid tumor . Cancer 1988;61:221-226.Crossref 26. Kraenzlin ME, Ch'ng JL, Wood SM, et al: Long-term treatment of a VIPoma with somatostatin analogue resulting in remission of symptoms and possible shrinkage of metastases . Gastroenterology 1985;88:185-187.Crossref 27. Reubi JC: A somatostatin analogue inhibits chondrosarcoma and insulinoma tumour growth . Acta Endocrinol 1985;109:108-114. 28. Upp JR, Olson D, Poston GJ, et al: Inhibition of growth of two human pancreatic adenocarcinomas in vivo by somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 . Am J Surg 1988;155:29-35.Crossref 29. Reubi JC: Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors . JAMA 1987;257:3277.Crossref 30. Williams G, Anderson JV, Williams SJ, et al: Clinical evaluation of SMS 201-995: Long-term treatment in gut neuroendocrine tumors, efficacy of oral administration, and possible use in non-tumoural inappropriate TSH hypersecretion . Acta Endocrinol Suppl 1987;286:26-36. 31. Krejs GJ, Orci L, Conlon JM, et al: Somatostatinoma syndrome: Biochemical, morphologic and clinical features . N Engl J Med 1979;301:285-292.Crossref 32. Gerich JE: Somatostatin and diabetes . Am J Med 1981; 70:619-626.Crossref 33. Spinas GA, Bock A, Keller U: Reduced postprandial hyperglycemia after subcutaneous injection of a somatostatin-analogue (SMS 201-995) in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Diabetes Care 1985;8:429-435.Crossref 34. Plewe G, Noelken G, Krause U, et al: Suppression of growth hormone and somatomedin-C by long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 in type I diabetes mellitus . Horm Res 1987;27:7-12.Crossref 35. Barkan AL, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, et al: Treatment of acromegaly with the long-acting somatostatin analog 201-995 . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;66:16-23.Crossref 36. Kaloustian E, Guillauseau PJ, Chayvialle JA, et al: Tumeur mixte du pancreas endocrine (VIPome, glucagonome) . Presse Med 1987;16:2217-2220. 37. Koelz A, Kraenzlin M, Gyr K, et al: Escape of the response to a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) in patients with VIPoma . Gastroenterology 1987;92:527-531. 38. Weber G, Klughardt G, Neidhardt M: Psoriasis and human growth hormone: Aetiology and therapy . Arch Dermatol Res 1981;270:361-365.Crossref 39. Priestley GC, Gawkrodger DJ, Seth J, et al: Growth hormone levels in psoriasis . Arch Dermatol Res 1984;276:147-150.Crossref 40. Nickoloff BJ, Misra P, Morhenn VB, et al: Plasma somatomedin-C levels in psoriasis . Br J Dermatol 1987;116:15-20.Crossref 41. Mackie RM, Beastall GM, Thomson JA: Growth hormone levels in psoriasis . Arch Dermatol Res 1983;275:207.Crossref 42. Weber G, Klughardt G, Neidhardt M, et al: Treatment of psoriasis with somatostatin . Arch Dermatol Res 1982;272:31-36.Crossref 43. Guilou JJ, Boulanger A, Barneon G, et al: Somatostatin treatment of psoriasis . Arch Dermatol Res 1982;274:249-257.Crossref 44. Venier A, DeSimone C, Forni L, et al: Treatment of severe psoriasis with somatostatin: Four years of experience . Arch Dermatol Res 1988;280( (suppl) ):S51-S54. 45. Matucci-Cerinic M, Lotti T, Cappugi P, et al: Somatostatin treatment of psoriatic arthritis . Int J Dermatol 1988;27:56-58.Crossref 46. Matt LH, Kingston TJ, Bouget T, et al: Treatment of severe psoriasis with somatostatin . Read before the Summer Session of the American Academy of Dermatology, July 15, 1987, San Diego . 47. Gorsulowsky D, Ellis C, Milgraurn S, et al: Intravenous somatostatin for treatment of severe psoriasis . Read before the Summer Session of the American Academy of Dermatology, July 15, 1987, San Diego . 48. Camisa C, O'Dorisio TM, Maceyko R, et al: Improvement of psoriasis with chronic use of somatostatin (SMS) analog 201-995, abstracted . Clin Res 1987;35:673A. 49. Tucker WFG, MacNeil S, Dawson RA, et al: Calmodulin levels in psoriasis: The effect of treatment . Acta Derm Venereol 1986;66:241-244. 50. Saiag P, Coulomb B, Lebreton C, et al: Psoriatic fibroblasts induce hyperproliferation of normal keratinocytes in a skin equivalent model in vitro . Science 1985;230:669-672.Crossref 51. Clemmons DR: Multiple hormones stimulate the production of somatomedin by cultured human fibroblasts . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;58:850-856.Crossref 52. Van Wyck JJ, Graves DC, Casella SJ, et al: Evidence from monoclonal antibody studies that insulin stimulates deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis through the type I somatomedin receptor . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61:639-643.Crossref 53. Misra P, Nickoloff BJ, Morhenn VB, et al: Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I on human keratinocytes . J Invest Dermatol 1986;87:264-267.Crossref 54. Nickoloff BJ, Misra P, Morhenn VB, et al: Insulin-like growth factor-I/somatomedin-C stimulates human keratinocyte proliferation , in Farber EM, Nall L, Morhenn V, et al (eds): Psoriasis: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium . New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, 1987, pp 338-339. 55. Nanney LB, Stroschek CM, Magid M, et al: Altered [I-125] epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis . J Invest Dermatol 1986;86:260-265.Crossref 56. Farber EM, Nickoloff BJ, Recht B, et al: Stress, symmetry, and psoriasis: Possible role of neuropeptides . J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;14:305-311.Crossref 57. Brodin GE, Olgart L, Panopoulos P: Evidence that substance P is a mediator of antidromic vasodilation using somatostatin as a release inhibitor . Acta Physiol Scand 1981;113:155-159.Crossref 58. Camisa C, Schacht G, O'Dorisio TM, et al: The effect of chronic administration of a somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) on secretion of growth, pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones in psoriatic subjects, abstracted . Clin Res 1987;35:861A. 59. Payan DG, Hess CA, Goetzl EJ: Inhibition of somatostatin of the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and Molt-4 lymphoblasts . Cell Immunol 1984;84:433-438.Crossref 60. Bhathena SJ, Louie J, Schechter GP, et al: Identification of human mononuclear leukocytes bearing receptors for somatostatin and glucagon . Diabetes 1981;30:127-131.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1989

References