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Sodium and Hypertension: A Review

Sodium and Hypertension: A Review Abstract Abnormal sodium metabolism may be critical in the causation of certain forms of hypertension, particularly salt-sensitive hypertension. Long-term restriction of sodium intake in patients at high risk for the development of hypertension may reduce the chances of established hypertension occurring later. These high-risk patients in whom subsequent hypertension may be prevented include normotensive patients with family histories of hypertension, elderly patients, black patients, and those with low-renin hypertension. Treatment of hypertension with moderate sodium restriction to 70 mEq/day will significantly reduce blood pressure in a large percentage of patients, particularly known salt-sensitive hypertensive patients. This degree of restriction is also an effective adjunctive therapy for patients receiving antihypertensive medications. There is convincing experimental, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence that moderate sodium restriction helps prevent and assists in the treatment of hypertension in those patients who are genetically predisposed to develop primary hypertension or who already have hypertension. There is no evidence that this degree of sodium restriction is harmful. (Arch Intern Med 1986;146:179-185) References 1. Freis ED: Salt, volume, and the prevention of hypertension. Circulation 1976;53:589-595.Crossref 2. Page LB, Danion A, Moellering RC: Antecedents of cardiovascular disease in six Solomon Islands societies. Circulation 1974;49:1132-1146.Crossref 3. Ledingham JGG: Dietary salt and hypertension. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1982;3:399-408. 4. Ellison RC, Sosenko JM, Harper GP, et al: Obesity, sodium intake, and blood pressure in adolescents. Hypertension 1980;2( (suppl) ):I78-I82.Crossref 5. Porter GA: Chronology of the sodium hypothesis and hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:720-723.Crossref 6. Pickering G: Position paper: Dietary sodium and human hypertension. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1980;1:13-17. 7. Kannel WB: On the cardiovascular hazards of hypertension , in Onesti G, Klimt CR (eds): Hypertension: Determinants, Complications and Intervention . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1979, pt 2, chap 2, pp 143-149. 8. Blood Pressure, Insurance Experience and Its Implications . New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co, 1961. 9. Gordon T, Kannel WB: Introduction and general background , in Kannel WB, Jordan T (eds): The Framingham Study, Section I . Bethesda, Md, US National Heart Institute, 1968. 10. Kaplan NM: Clinical Hypertension , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1982. 11. Nutrition and Blood Pressure Control: Current status of dietary factors and hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983;98(part 2):697-890. 12. Reisin E, Abel R, Modan M, et al: Effects of weight loss without salt restriction on the reduction of blood pressure in overweight hypertensive patients. N Engl J Med 1978;298:1-6.Crossref 13. Maxwell MH, Kushiro T, Dornfeld LP, et al: BP changes in obese hypertensive subjects during rapid weight loss. Arch Intern Med 1984;144: 1581-1584.Crossref 14. Heyden S, Nelius SJ, Hames CG: Obesity, salt intake, and hypertension. J Cardiovasc Med 1980;5:987-994. 15. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group: Multiple risk factor intervention trial. JAMA 1982;248:1465-1477.Crossref 16. Helgeland A: Treatment of mild hypertension: A five-year controlled drug trial. Am J Med 1980;69:725-732.Crossref 17. Perry HM Jr, Goldman A, Lavin ML, et al: Evaluation of drug treatment in mild hypertension: VA-NHLBI trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1978;304:254-266.Crossref 18. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents: Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension: II. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90 through 114 mm Hg. JAMA 1970;213:1143-1152.Crossref 19. Smith WM: Treatment of mild hypertension: Results of a ten-year intervention trial. Circ Res 1977;40( (suppl 1) ):I98-I105.Crossref 20. Management Committee: The Australian therapeutic trial in mild hypertension. Lancet 1980;1:1261-1267. 21. Kaplan NM, Lowenstein J (eds): First-line therapy for hypertension: Changing directions. Am J Cardiol 1984;53:1A-58A.Crossref 22. Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group: Five-year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. JAMA 1979;242:2562-2571.Crossref 23. Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group: The effect of treatment on mortality in 'mild' hypertension. N Engl J Med 1982;307:976-980.Crossref 24. McMahon FG: Management of Essential Hypertension: The New Low-Dose Era , ed 2. Mount Kisco, NY, Futura Publishing Co Inc, 1984, pp 38-45. 25. Tobian L: Human essential hypertension: Implications of animal studies. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:729-734.Crossref 26. Dahl LK. Heine M, Tassinar L: Effects of chronic excess salt ingestion: Evidence that genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to experimental hypertension. J Exp Med 1962;115:1173-1190.Crossref 27. Tobian L, Lange J, Azar S, et al: Reduction of natriuretic capacity and renin release in isolated blood-perfused kidneys of Dahl hypertension-prone rats. Circ Res 1977;40( (suppl 1) ):192-197. 28. Hunt JC: Sodium intake and hypertension: A cause for concern. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:724-728.Crossref 29. Sever PS, Peart WS, Gordon D, et al: Blood pressure and its correlates in urban and tribal Africa. Lancet 1980;2:60-64.Crossref 30. Holden RA, Ostfeld AM, Freeman DH, et al: Dietary salt intake and blood pressure. JAMA 1983;250:365-369.Crossref 31. Hofman A, Harebrock A, Valkenburg HA: A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. JAMA 1983;250:370-373.Crossref 32. Ambard L, Beaujard E: Causes of arterial hypertension , in Ruskin A (ed): Classics in Arterial Hypertension . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1956, pp 297-310. 33. Allen FM, Sherrill JW: The treatment of arterial hypertension. J Metabol Res 1922;2:429-545. 34. Kempner W: Treatment of kidney disease and hypertensive vascular disease with rice diet. NC Med J 1944;5:125-133. 35. Watkins DM, Frueb HF, Hatch FT, et al: Effects of diet in essential hypertension: II. Results with unmodified Kempner rice diet in 50 hospitalized patients. Am J Med 1950;9:441-493.Crossref 36. Medical Research Council: The rice diet in the treatment of hypertension. Lancet 1950;2:509-513. 37. Morgan T, Gillies A, Morgan G, et al: Hypertension treated by salt restriction. Lancet 1978;1:227-230.Crossref 38. Morgan TO, Myers JB: Hypertension treated by sodium restriction. Med J Aust 1981;2:396-397. 39. Kawasaki T, Delea CS, Bartter FC, et al: The effects of high sodium and low sodium intakes on blood pressure and other related variables in human subjects with idiopathic hypertension. Am J Med 1978;64:193-198.Crossref 40. Silman AJ, Locke C, Mitchell P, et al: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a low sodium diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Lancet 1983;1:1179-1182.Crossref 41. Watt GCM, Edwards C: Dietary sodium restriction for mild hypertensives in general practice. Br Med J 1983;286:432-436.Crossref 42. MacGregor GA, Best FE, Cam JM: Double-blind randomized crossover trial of moderate sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1982;1:351-354.Crossref 43. Parijs J, Joossens JV, Van der Linden L, et al: Moderate sodium restriction and diuretics in the treatment of hypertension. Am Heart J 1973;85:22-34.Crossref 44. Parfrey PS, Markandue ND: Relation between arterial pressure, dietary sodium intake, and renin system in essential hypertension. Br Med J 1981;283:94-97.Crossref 45. Beard TC, Gray WR, Cooke HM: Randomized controlled trial of noadded-sodium diet for mild hypertension. Lancet 1982;2:455-458.Crossref 46. Carney S, Morgan T, Wilson M, et al: Sodium restriction and thiazide diuretics in the treatment of hypertension. Med J Aust 1975;1:803-807. 47. Magnani B, Ambrosioni E, Agosta R, et al: Comparison of the effects of pharmacological therapy and a low sodium diet on mild hypertension. Clin Sci 1976;51:625s-626s. 48. Skrabal F, Herholz H, Neumayr M, et al: Salt sensitivity in humans is linked to enhanced sympathetic responsiveness and to enhanced proximal tubular reabsorption. Hypertension 1984;6:152-158. 49. Falkner B, Onesti G, Hayes P: The role of sodium in essential hypertension in genetically hypertensive adolescents , in Onesti G, Kim KE (eds): Hypertension in the Young and the Old . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1981, pp 29-35. 50. Mark AL, Lawton WJ, Abboud FM, et al: Effects of high and low sodium intake on arterial pressure and forearm vascular resistance in borderline hypertension. Circ Res 1975;36( (suppl 1) ):I194-I198.Crossref 51. Laragh JH, Pecker MS: Dietary sodium and essential hypertension: Some myths, hopes, and truths. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:735-743.Crossref 52. Scribner BH: Salt and hypertension. JAMA 1983;250:388-389.Crossref 53. Kaplan NM: Dietary salt intake and blood pressure. JAMA 1984;251: 1429-1432.Crossref 54. Luft FC, Weinburger MH, Grim CE, et al: Sodium sensitivity in normotensive human subjects. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:758-762.Crossref 55. Luft FC, Weinberger MH, Grim CE: Sodium sensitivity and resistance in normotensive humans. Am J Med 1982;72:726-736.Crossref 56. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer J, Mirsky I, et al: Cardiac hypertrophy and performance of Dahl hypertensive rats on graded salt diets. Hypertension 1984;6:475-481.Crossref 57. Rapp JP, McPartland RP, Batten CL: Isoelectric focusing patterns of urinary kallikrein in Dahl salt-hypertension susceptible and resistant rats. Hypertension 1984;6:519-524.Crossref 58. Friedman SM: Monovalent and divalent ions in vascular tissue. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:753-758.Crossref 59. Genest J: Volume hormones and blood pressure. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:744-749.Crossref 60. Tuck ML, Gross C, Maxwell MH, et al: Erythrocyte Na+, K+, cotransport and Na+, K+ pump in black and caucasian hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1984;6:536-544.Crossref 61. Blaustein MP: Sodium transport and hypertension: Where are we going? Hypertension 1984;6:445-453.Crossref 62. Poston L: Evidence for a circulating sodium transport inhibitor in essential hypertension. Br Med J 1981;282:847-849.Crossref 63. Sakamaki T, Johnson JA, Zeigler DW, et al: Pressor hyperresponsiveness in saline-infused rabbits. Hypertension 1984;6:503-510.Crossref 64. Resnick LM, Laragh JH, Sealey JE, et al: Divalent cations in essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 1983;309:888-891.Crossref 65. Fujita T, Ando K: Hemodynamic and endocrine changes associated with potassium supplementation in sodium-loaded hypertensives. Hypertension 1984;6:184-192. 66. MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Smith SJ, et al: Moderate potassium supplementation in essential hypertension. Lancet 1982;2:567-570.Crossref 67. Nugent CA, Carnahan JE, Sheehan ET, et al: Salt restriction in hypertensive patients. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:1415-1417.Crossref 68. Luft F, Sloan RS, Lang CL, et al: Influence of home monitoring on compliance with a reduced sodium intake diet. Arch Intern Med 1984;144: 1963-1965.Crossref 69. Beauchamp GK, Bertino M, Engelman K: Modification of salt taste. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:763-769.Crossref 70. Wyatt CJ: Sodium in processed foods. Pract Cardiol 1981;7:83-105. 71. Sodium and Potassium in Foods and Drugs , ed 1. Chicago, American Medical Association, 1980. 72. VanBrummelen P, Schalekamp M, deGraeff J: Influence of sodium intake on hydrochlorothiazide-induced changes in blood pressure, serum electrolytes, renin and aldosterone in essential hypertension. Acta Med Scand 1978;204:151-157.Crossref 73. Warren SE, Vieweg WVR, O'Connor DT: Sympathetic nervous system activity during sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Clin Cardiol 1980;3:348-351.Crossref 74. Ram CVS, Garrett BN, Kaplan NM: Moderate sodium restriction and various diuretics in the treatment of hypertension: Effects of potassium wastage and blood pressure control. Arch Intern Med 1981;141:1015-1019.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Sodium and Hypertension: A Review

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 146 (1) – Jan 1, 1986

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1986 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1986.00360130217028
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Abstract

Abstract Abnormal sodium metabolism may be critical in the causation of certain forms of hypertension, particularly salt-sensitive hypertension. Long-term restriction of sodium intake in patients at high risk for the development of hypertension may reduce the chances of established hypertension occurring later. These high-risk patients in whom subsequent hypertension may be prevented include normotensive patients with family histories of hypertension, elderly patients, black patients, and those with low-renin hypertension. Treatment of hypertension with moderate sodium restriction to 70 mEq/day will significantly reduce blood pressure in a large percentage of patients, particularly known salt-sensitive hypertensive patients. This degree of restriction is also an effective adjunctive therapy for patients receiving antihypertensive medications. There is convincing experimental, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence that moderate sodium restriction helps prevent and assists in the treatment of hypertension in those patients who are genetically predisposed to develop primary hypertension or who already have hypertension. There is no evidence that this degree of sodium restriction is harmful. (Arch Intern Med 1986;146:179-185) References 1. Freis ED: Salt, volume, and the prevention of hypertension. Circulation 1976;53:589-595.Crossref 2. Page LB, Danion A, Moellering RC: Antecedents of cardiovascular disease in six Solomon Islands societies. Circulation 1974;49:1132-1146.Crossref 3. Ledingham JGG: Dietary salt and hypertension. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1982;3:399-408. 4. Ellison RC, Sosenko JM, Harper GP, et al: Obesity, sodium intake, and blood pressure in adolescents. Hypertension 1980;2( (suppl) ):I78-I82.Crossref 5. Porter GA: Chronology of the sodium hypothesis and hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:720-723.Crossref 6. Pickering G: Position paper: Dietary sodium and human hypertension. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1980;1:13-17. 7. Kannel WB: On the cardiovascular hazards of hypertension , in Onesti G, Klimt CR (eds): Hypertension: Determinants, Complications and Intervention . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1979, pt 2, chap 2, pp 143-149. 8. Blood Pressure, Insurance Experience and Its Implications . New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co, 1961. 9. Gordon T, Kannel WB: Introduction and general background , in Kannel WB, Jordan T (eds): The Framingham Study, Section I . Bethesda, Md, US National Heart Institute, 1968. 10. Kaplan NM: Clinical Hypertension , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1982. 11. Nutrition and Blood Pressure Control: Current status of dietary factors and hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983;98(part 2):697-890. 12. Reisin E, Abel R, Modan M, et al: Effects of weight loss without salt restriction on the reduction of blood pressure in overweight hypertensive patients. N Engl J Med 1978;298:1-6.Crossref 13. Maxwell MH, Kushiro T, Dornfeld LP, et al: BP changes in obese hypertensive subjects during rapid weight loss. Arch Intern Med 1984;144: 1581-1584.Crossref 14. Heyden S, Nelius SJ, Hames CG: Obesity, salt intake, and hypertension. J Cardiovasc Med 1980;5:987-994. 15. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group: Multiple risk factor intervention trial. JAMA 1982;248:1465-1477.Crossref 16. Helgeland A: Treatment of mild hypertension: A five-year controlled drug trial. Am J Med 1980;69:725-732.Crossref 17. Perry HM Jr, Goldman A, Lavin ML, et al: Evaluation of drug treatment in mild hypertension: VA-NHLBI trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1978;304:254-266.Crossref 18. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents: Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension: II. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90 through 114 mm Hg. JAMA 1970;213:1143-1152.Crossref 19. Smith WM: Treatment of mild hypertension: Results of a ten-year intervention trial. Circ Res 1977;40( (suppl 1) ):I98-I105.Crossref 20. Management Committee: The Australian therapeutic trial in mild hypertension. Lancet 1980;1:1261-1267. 21. Kaplan NM, Lowenstein J (eds): First-line therapy for hypertension: Changing directions. Am J Cardiol 1984;53:1A-58A.Crossref 22. Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group: Five-year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. JAMA 1979;242:2562-2571.Crossref 23. Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group: The effect of treatment on mortality in 'mild' hypertension. N Engl J Med 1982;307:976-980.Crossref 24. McMahon FG: Management of Essential Hypertension: The New Low-Dose Era , ed 2. Mount Kisco, NY, Futura Publishing Co Inc, 1984, pp 38-45. 25. Tobian L: Human essential hypertension: Implications of animal studies. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:729-734.Crossref 26. Dahl LK. Heine M, Tassinar L: Effects of chronic excess salt ingestion: Evidence that genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to experimental hypertension. J Exp Med 1962;115:1173-1190.Crossref 27. Tobian L, Lange J, Azar S, et al: Reduction of natriuretic capacity and renin release in isolated blood-perfused kidneys of Dahl hypertension-prone rats. Circ Res 1977;40( (suppl 1) ):192-197. 28. Hunt JC: Sodium intake and hypertension: A cause for concern. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:724-728.Crossref 29. Sever PS, Peart WS, Gordon D, et al: Blood pressure and its correlates in urban and tribal Africa. Lancet 1980;2:60-64.Crossref 30. Holden RA, Ostfeld AM, Freeman DH, et al: Dietary salt intake and blood pressure. JAMA 1983;250:365-369.Crossref 31. Hofman A, Harebrock A, Valkenburg HA: A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. JAMA 1983;250:370-373.Crossref 32. Ambard L, Beaujard E: Causes of arterial hypertension , in Ruskin A (ed): Classics in Arterial Hypertension . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1956, pp 297-310. 33. Allen FM, Sherrill JW: The treatment of arterial hypertension. J Metabol Res 1922;2:429-545. 34. Kempner W: Treatment of kidney disease and hypertensive vascular disease with rice diet. NC Med J 1944;5:125-133. 35. Watkins DM, Frueb HF, Hatch FT, et al: Effects of diet in essential hypertension: II. Results with unmodified Kempner rice diet in 50 hospitalized patients. Am J Med 1950;9:441-493.Crossref 36. Medical Research Council: The rice diet in the treatment of hypertension. Lancet 1950;2:509-513. 37. Morgan T, Gillies A, Morgan G, et al: Hypertension treated by salt restriction. Lancet 1978;1:227-230.Crossref 38. Morgan TO, Myers JB: Hypertension treated by sodium restriction. Med J Aust 1981;2:396-397. 39. Kawasaki T, Delea CS, Bartter FC, et al: The effects of high sodium and low sodium intakes on blood pressure and other related variables in human subjects with idiopathic hypertension. Am J Med 1978;64:193-198.Crossref 40. Silman AJ, Locke C, Mitchell P, et al: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a low sodium diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Lancet 1983;1:1179-1182.Crossref 41. Watt GCM, Edwards C: Dietary sodium restriction for mild hypertensives in general practice. Br Med J 1983;286:432-436.Crossref 42. MacGregor GA, Best FE, Cam JM: Double-blind randomized crossover trial of moderate sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1982;1:351-354.Crossref 43. Parijs J, Joossens JV, Van der Linden L, et al: Moderate sodium restriction and diuretics in the treatment of hypertension. Am Heart J 1973;85:22-34.Crossref 44. Parfrey PS, Markandue ND: Relation between arterial pressure, dietary sodium intake, and renin system in essential hypertension. Br Med J 1981;283:94-97.Crossref 45. Beard TC, Gray WR, Cooke HM: Randomized controlled trial of noadded-sodium diet for mild hypertension. Lancet 1982;2:455-458.Crossref 46. Carney S, Morgan T, Wilson M, et al: Sodium restriction and thiazide diuretics in the treatment of hypertension. Med J Aust 1975;1:803-807. 47. Magnani B, Ambrosioni E, Agosta R, et al: Comparison of the effects of pharmacological therapy and a low sodium diet on mild hypertension. Clin Sci 1976;51:625s-626s. 48. Skrabal F, Herholz H, Neumayr M, et al: Salt sensitivity in humans is linked to enhanced sympathetic responsiveness and to enhanced proximal tubular reabsorption. Hypertension 1984;6:152-158. 49. Falkner B, Onesti G, Hayes P: The role of sodium in essential hypertension in genetically hypertensive adolescents , in Onesti G, Kim KE (eds): Hypertension in the Young and the Old . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1981, pp 29-35. 50. Mark AL, Lawton WJ, Abboud FM, et al: Effects of high and low sodium intake on arterial pressure and forearm vascular resistance in borderline hypertension. Circ Res 1975;36( (suppl 1) ):I194-I198.Crossref 51. Laragh JH, Pecker MS: Dietary sodium and essential hypertension: Some myths, hopes, and truths. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:735-743.Crossref 52. Scribner BH: Salt and hypertension. JAMA 1983;250:388-389.Crossref 53. Kaplan NM: Dietary salt intake and blood pressure. JAMA 1984;251: 1429-1432.Crossref 54. Luft FC, Weinburger MH, Grim CE, et al: Sodium sensitivity in normotensive human subjects. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:758-762.Crossref 55. Luft FC, Weinberger MH, Grim CE: Sodium sensitivity and resistance in normotensive humans. Am J Med 1982;72:726-736.Crossref 56. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer J, Mirsky I, et al: Cardiac hypertrophy and performance of Dahl hypertensive rats on graded salt diets. Hypertension 1984;6:475-481.Crossref 57. Rapp JP, McPartland RP, Batten CL: Isoelectric focusing patterns of urinary kallikrein in Dahl salt-hypertension susceptible and resistant rats. Hypertension 1984;6:519-524.Crossref 58. Friedman SM: Monovalent and divalent ions in vascular tissue. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:753-758.Crossref 59. Genest J: Volume hormones and blood pressure. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:744-749.Crossref 60. Tuck ML, Gross C, Maxwell MH, et al: Erythrocyte Na+, K+, cotransport and Na+, K+ pump in black and caucasian hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1984;6:536-544.Crossref 61. Blaustein MP: Sodium transport and hypertension: Where are we going? Hypertension 1984;6:445-453.Crossref 62. Poston L: Evidence for a circulating sodium transport inhibitor in essential hypertension. Br Med J 1981;282:847-849.Crossref 63. Sakamaki T, Johnson JA, Zeigler DW, et al: Pressor hyperresponsiveness in saline-infused rabbits. Hypertension 1984;6:503-510.Crossref 64. Resnick LM, Laragh JH, Sealey JE, et al: Divalent cations in essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 1983;309:888-891.Crossref 65. Fujita T, Ando K: Hemodynamic and endocrine changes associated with potassium supplementation in sodium-loaded hypertensives. Hypertension 1984;6:184-192. 66. MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Smith SJ, et al: Moderate potassium supplementation in essential hypertension. Lancet 1982;2:567-570.Crossref 67. Nugent CA, Carnahan JE, Sheehan ET, et al: Salt restriction in hypertensive patients. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:1415-1417.Crossref 68. Luft F, Sloan RS, Lang CL, et al: Influence of home monitoring on compliance with a reduced sodium intake diet. Arch Intern Med 1984;144: 1963-1965.Crossref 69. Beauchamp GK, Bertino M, Engelman K: Modification of salt taste. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:763-769.Crossref 70. Wyatt CJ: Sodium in processed foods. Pract Cardiol 1981;7:83-105. 71. Sodium and Potassium in Foods and Drugs , ed 1. Chicago, American Medical Association, 1980. 72. VanBrummelen P, Schalekamp M, deGraeff J: Influence of sodium intake on hydrochlorothiazide-induced changes in blood pressure, serum electrolytes, renin and aldosterone in essential hypertension. Acta Med Scand 1978;204:151-157.Crossref 73. Warren SE, Vieweg WVR, O'Connor DT: Sympathetic nervous system activity during sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Clin Cardiol 1980;3:348-351.Crossref 74. Ram CVS, Garrett BN, Kaplan NM: Moderate sodium restriction and various diuretics in the treatment of hypertension: Effects of potassium wastage and blood pressure control. Arch Intern Med 1981;141:1015-1019.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1986

References