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Sociocultural Aspects of Depression in Medical Inpatients: I. Frequency and Social Variables

Sociocultural Aspects of Depression in Medical Inpatients: I. Frequency and Social Variables Abstract IN an earlier part of a comprehensive evaluation of depression in general medical inpatients,1,2 we found that those with lower socioeconomic status scored higher than others on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).3 A basic question was raised: how are social variables, especially class, related to the frequency of depressive illness in medical patients? We also wished to evaluate conventional methods (clinical examination and standard rating scales) for diagnosing depression—what are the class variations? Although interest in the sociology of mental illness has increased in the last 15 years, most studies focus on schizophrenia; also, a survey of the literature reveals a paucity of data concerning relationships between demographic characteristics and the frequency of depression among general medical inpatients. Age.—It has been commonly believed that the frequency of depression in psychiatric patients increases with age. Gutheil4 states that older people are more easily References 1. Schwab, J.J., et al: A Study of the Somatic Symptomatology of Depression in Medical Inpatients , Psychosomatics 6:273-277, 1965.Crossref 2. Schwab, J.J., et al: A Study of the Affective Symptomatology of Depression in Medical Inpatients , Psychosomatics 7:214-217, 1966.Crossref 3. Beck, A.T., et al: An Inventory for Measuring Depression , Arch Gen Psychiat 4:561-571, 1961.Crossref 4. Gutheil, E.A.: " Reactive Depression ," in Arieti, S. (ed.): American Handbook of Psychiatry , New York: Basic Books, 1959, p 346. 5. Grinker, R.R., et al: The Phenomena of Depressions , New York: Paul B. Hoeber Inc., 1961. 6. Redlich, F.C., and Freedman, D.X.: The Theory and Practice of Psychiatry , New York: Basic Books, 1966, pp 533-534. 7. Kielholz, P.: Diagnosis and Therapy of the Depressive States , Acta Psychosomatica Geigy 2:17 ( (Aug) ) 1959. 8. Essen-Muller, E., and Hagnell, O.: The Frequency and Risk of Depression Within a Rural Population Group in Scandinavia , Acta Psychiat Scand 37 ( (suppl 162) ):28-32, 1961.Crossref 9. Sorensen, A., and Stromgren, E.: Frequency of Depressive States Within Geographically Delimited Population Groups , Acta Psychiat Scand 37 ( (suppl 162) ):62-68, 1961.Crossref 10. Taylor, L., and Chave, S.: Mental Health and Environment , London: Longmans, Ltd., 1964. 11. Adams, R.D., and Hope, J.M.: " The Anxiety State and Psychasthenia ," in Harrison, T.R. (ed.): Principles of Internal Medicine , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., ed 4, 1962, pp 390-397. 12. Stainbrook, E.: " A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Depressive Reactions ," in Hoch, P.H., and Zubin, J.(eds.): Depression , New York: Grune and Stratton, 1954, pp 39-50. 13. Lemkau, P.; Teitze, C.; and Cooper, M.: Mental Hygiene Problems in an Urban District , Ment Hyg 26:100-119, 1942. 14. Prange, W.A.: Cultural Aspects of the Relatively Low Incidence of Depression in Southern Negroes , Int J Soc Psychiat 8:104, 1962.Crossref 15. Noyes, A., and Kolb, L.: Modern Clinical Psychiatry , Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, & Co., ed 6, 1963, p 305. 16. Briggs, P.F., et al: Working Outside the Home and the Occurrence of Depression in Middle-Aged Women , Ment Hyg 49:438-442, 1965. 17. Langner, T.S., and Michael, S.T.: The Midtown Manhattan Study: Life Stress and Mental Health , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., vol 2, 1963. 18. Hollingshead, A.B., and Redlich, F.C.: Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study , New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1958. 19. Munro, A.: Some Familial and Social Factors in Depressive Illness , Brit J Psychiat 112( (486) ):429-441 (May) 1966.Crossref 20. Clark, R.E.: Psychoses, Income, and Occupational Prestige , Amer J Sociol 54:433, (July) 1948May 1949.Crossref 21. Hare, E.H.: Mental Illness and Social Class in Bristol , Brit J Prevent Soc Med 9:191-195, 1955. 22. Hamilton, M.: A Rating Scale for Depression , J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 23:56-62, 1960.Crossref 23. Srole, L., et al: Mental Health in the Metropolis: The Midtown Manhattan Study , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., vol 1, 1962, pp 201-206. 24. Scott, W.A.: Social Psychological Correlates of Mental Illness and Mental Health , Psychol Bull 55 ( (2) ):65-85 (March) 1958.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Sociocultural Aspects of Depression in Medical Inpatients: I. Frequency and Social Variables

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1967 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730290021003
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Abstract

Abstract IN an earlier part of a comprehensive evaluation of depression in general medical inpatients,1,2 we found that those with lower socioeconomic status scored higher than others on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).3 A basic question was raised: how are social variables, especially class, related to the frequency of depressive illness in medical patients? We also wished to evaluate conventional methods (clinical examination and standard rating scales) for diagnosing depression—what are the class variations? Although interest in the sociology of mental illness has increased in the last 15 years, most studies focus on schizophrenia; also, a survey of the literature reveals a paucity of data concerning relationships between demographic characteristics and the frequency of depression among general medical inpatients. Age.—It has been commonly believed that the frequency of depression in psychiatric patients increases with age. Gutheil4 states that older people are more easily References 1. Schwab, J.J., et al: A Study of the Somatic Symptomatology of Depression in Medical Inpatients , Psychosomatics 6:273-277, 1965.Crossref 2. Schwab, J.J., et al: A Study of the Affective Symptomatology of Depression in Medical Inpatients , Psychosomatics 7:214-217, 1966.Crossref 3. Beck, A.T., et al: An Inventory for Measuring Depression , Arch Gen Psychiat 4:561-571, 1961.Crossref 4. Gutheil, E.A.: " Reactive Depression ," in Arieti, S. (ed.): American Handbook of Psychiatry , New York: Basic Books, 1959, p 346. 5. Grinker, R.R., et al: The Phenomena of Depressions , New York: Paul B. Hoeber Inc., 1961. 6. Redlich, F.C., and Freedman, D.X.: The Theory and Practice of Psychiatry , New York: Basic Books, 1966, pp 533-534. 7. Kielholz, P.: Diagnosis and Therapy of the Depressive States , Acta Psychosomatica Geigy 2:17 ( (Aug) ) 1959. 8. Essen-Muller, E., and Hagnell, O.: The Frequency and Risk of Depression Within a Rural Population Group in Scandinavia , Acta Psychiat Scand 37 ( (suppl 162) ):28-32, 1961.Crossref 9. Sorensen, A., and Stromgren, E.: Frequency of Depressive States Within Geographically Delimited Population Groups , Acta Psychiat Scand 37 ( (suppl 162) ):62-68, 1961.Crossref 10. Taylor, L., and Chave, S.: Mental Health and Environment , London: Longmans, Ltd., 1964. 11. Adams, R.D., and Hope, J.M.: " The Anxiety State and Psychasthenia ," in Harrison, T.R. (ed.): Principles of Internal Medicine , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., ed 4, 1962, pp 390-397. 12. Stainbrook, E.: " A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Depressive Reactions ," in Hoch, P.H., and Zubin, J.(eds.): Depression , New York: Grune and Stratton, 1954, pp 39-50. 13. Lemkau, P.; Teitze, C.; and Cooper, M.: Mental Hygiene Problems in an Urban District , Ment Hyg 26:100-119, 1942. 14. Prange, W.A.: Cultural Aspects of the Relatively Low Incidence of Depression in Southern Negroes , Int J Soc Psychiat 8:104, 1962.Crossref 15. Noyes, A., and Kolb, L.: Modern Clinical Psychiatry , Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, & Co., ed 6, 1963, p 305. 16. Briggs, P.F., et al: Working Outside the Home and the Occurrence of Depression in Middle-Aged Women , Ment Hyg 49:438-442, 1965. 17. Langner, T.S., and Michael, S.T.: The Midtown Manhattan Study: Life Stress and Mental Health , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., vol 2, 1963. 18. Hollingshead, A.B., and Redlich, F.C.: Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study , New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1958. 19. Munro, A.: Some Familial and Social Factors in Depressive Illness , Brit J Psychiat 112( (486) ):429-441 (May) 1966.Crossref 20. Clark, R.E.: Psychoses, Income, and Occupational Prestige , Amer J Sociol 54:433, (July) 1948May 1949.Crossref 21. Hare, E.H.: Mental Illness and Social Class in Bristol , Brit J Prevent Soc Med 9:191-195, 1955. 22. Hamilton, M.: A Rating Scale for Depression , J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 23:56-62, 1960.Crossref 23. Srole, L., et al: Mental Health in the Metropolis: The Midtown Manhattan Study , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., vol 1, 1962, pp 201-206. 24. Scott, W.A.: Social Psychological Correlates of Mental Illness and Mental Health , Psychol Bull 55 ( (2) ):65-85 (March) 1958.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1967

References