Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Smoking and the Risk of Gallstones-Reply

Smoking and the Risk of Gallstones-Reply Abstract In Reply.— Dr Lowenfels proposes that the apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking on gallstone formation described in our study1 may be artifactual and a result of selecting control subjects from a trauma hospital. This is, indeed, a plausible hypothesis. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that this control series of hospitalized patients, and others from the same institution, have been used in several, published case-control studies, including investigations of colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, and breast cancer.2-4 In none of these studies was cigarette smoking found to be in excess in the control series relative to the cases. Unless all of these cancers are positively associated with cigarette smoking, it is unlikely that the potential bias would limit itself to our present study. Additionally, our understanding of the biological role of smoking on estrogen concentration and on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as cited in our article, should References 1. Pastides H, Tzonou A, Trichopoulos D, et al. A case-control study of the relationship between smoking, diet, and gallbladder disease . Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1409-1412.Crossref 2. Manousos O, Day NE, Trichopoulos D, et al. Diet and colorectal cancer: a case-control study . Int J Cancer. 1983;32:1-5.Crossref 3. Tzonou A, Day NE, Trichopoulos D, et al. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer in Greece: a case-control study . Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1985;20:1045-1052.Crossref 4. Trichopoulos D, Ouranos G, Day NE, et al. Diet and cancer of the stomach: a case-control study in Greece. Int J Cancer. 1985;36:291-297. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Smoking and the Risk of Gallstones-Reply

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 151 (2) – Feb 1, 1991

Smoking and the Risk of Gallstones-Reply

Abstract

Abstract In Reply.— Dr Lowenfels proposes that the apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking on gallstone formation described in our study1 may be artifactual and a result of selecting control subjects from a trauma hospital. This is, indeed, a plausible hypothesis. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that this control series of hospitalized patients, and others from the same institution, have been used in several, published case-control studies, including investigations of...
Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/smoking-and-the-risk-of-gallstones-reply-Rz3O8G5YU4
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1991.00400020134030
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract In Reply.— Dr Lowenfels proposes that the apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking on gallstone formation described in our study1 may be artifactual and a result of selecting control subjects from a trauma hospital. This is, indeed, a plausible hypothesis. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that this control series of hospitalized patients, and others from the same institution, have been used in several, published case-control studies, including investigations of colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, and breast cancer.2-4 In none of these studies was cigarette smoking found to be in excess in the control series relative to the cases. Unless all of these cancers are positively associated with cigarette smoking, it is unlikely that the potential bias would limit itself to our present study. Additionally, our understanding of the biological role of smoking on estrogen concentration and on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as cited in our article, should References 1. Pastides H, Tzonou A, Trichopoulos D, et al. A case-control study of the relationship between smoking, diet, and gallbladder disease . Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1409-1412.Crossref 2. Manousos O, Day NE, Trichopoulos D, et al. Diet and colorectal cancer: a case-control study . Int J Cancer. 1983;32:1-5.Crossref 3. Tzonou A, Day NE, Trichopoulos D, et al. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer in Greece: a case-control study . Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1985;20:1045-1052.Crossref 4. Trichopoulos D, Ouranos G, Day NE, et al. Diet and cancer of the stomach: a case-control study in Greece. Int J Cancer. 1985;36:291-297.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1991

References