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Sleep Paralysis and Hypnagogic Hallucinations: Their Relationship to the Nightmare

Sleep Paralysis and Hypnagogic Hallucinations: Their Relationship to the Nightmare Abstract Imagination cannot conceive the horrors it [The Nightmare] frequently gives rise to, or language describe them in adequate terms . . . Everything horrible, disgusting or terrifying in the physical or moral world is brought before him in fearful array; he is hissed at by serpents, tortured by demons, stunned by the hollow voices and cold touch of apparitions . . . . At one moment he may have the consciousness of a malignant demon being at his side; then to shun the sight of so appalling an object, he will close his eyes, but still the fearful being makes its presence known; for its icy breath is felt diffusing itself over his visage, and he knows that he is face to face with a fiend. Then, if he looks up, he beholds horrid eyes glaring upon him, and an aspect of hell grinning at him with even more hellish malice. Or, he may have References 1. Macnish, R.: The Philosophy of Sleep , New York: Appleton and Co., 1834. 2. Jones, E.: On the Nightmare , New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1951. 3. Rauch, J.H.: Case of Nightmare Caused by Elongation of the Uvula and Cured by the Astringements Administered During an Attack of Cholera , Amer J Med Sci 23:435-436, 1852.Crossref 4. Waller, J.: A Treatise on the Incubus or Nightmare , London: E. Cox and Son, 1816. 5. Bond, J.: An Essay on the Incubus, or Nightmare , London: D. Wilson and T. Durham, 1753. 6. Fosgate, B.: Observation on the Nightmare , Amer J Med Sci 15:80-87, 1834.Crossref 7. Hodgkin, T.: On Nightmare, The Action of Anaesthetics, Etc. , Brit Med J 501-502 ( (May 16) ) 1863. 8. Lichtenstein, B.W., and Rosenblum, A.H.: Sleep Paralysis , J Nerv Ment Dis 95:153-155, 1942.Crossref 9. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis: A New Evaluation , Dis Nerv Syst 18:144-146, 1957. 10. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis Without Narcolepsy or Cataplexy: Report of a Case , JAMA 173:1129-1130, 1960.Crossref 11. Wilson, S.A.K.: The Narcolepsies , Brain 51:63-109, 1928.Crossref 12. Yoss, R., and Daly, D.: Criteria for the Diagnosis of the Narcoleptic Syndrome , Proc Mayo Clin 12:320-328, 1957. 13. Bonstedt, T.: Emotional Aspects of the Narcolepsies (With Report of a Case of Sleep Paralysis) , Dis Nerv Syst 15:291-297, 1954. 14. Chodoff, P.: Sleep Paralysis With Report of Two Cases , J Nerv Ment Dis 100:278-281, 1944.Crossref 15. Ethelberg, S.: Sleep Paralysis or Post Domital Chlastic Fits in Cortical Lesions of the Frontal Pole , Act Psychiat Neurol (suppl) 108:121-130, 1956. 16. Evart, H.C.: Sleep Paralysis in Medical Students , J Nerv Ment Dis 136:283-287, 1963.Crossref 17. Goode, G.B.: Sleep Paralysis , Arch Neurol 6:228-234, 1962.Crossref 18. Gowers, W.: The Borderland of Epilepsy , Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co., 1907. 19. Leder, H.L.: Sleep Paralysis , New York J Med 62:3470-3473, 1962. 20. Levin, M.: The Pathogenesis of Narcolepsy With a Consideration of Sleep Paralysis and Localized Sleep , J Neurol Psychopath 14:1-14, 1933.Crossref 21. Levin, M.: Premature Waking and Post Domital Paralysis , J Nerv Ment Dis 125:140-141, 1957.Crossref 22. Mitchell, S.W.: On Some of the Disorders of Sleep , Virginia Med Monthly 2:769-781, 1876. 23. Payn, S.B.: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Sleep Paralysis , J Nerv Ment Dis 140:427-433, 1965.Crossref 24. Rushton, J.G.: Sleep Paralysis , Med Clin N Amer 28:945-949, 1944. 25. Rushton, J.G.: Sleep Paralysis: Report of Two Cases , Proc Mayo Clin 19:51-54, 1944. 26. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis: Psychodynamics , Psychiat Quart 22:462-464, 1948.Crossref 27. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis , Amer J Psychiat 108:921-923, 1952. 28. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis , Psychosomatics 2:360-361, 1961.Crossref 29. Van der Heide, C., and Weinberg, J.: Sleep Paralysis and Combat Fatigue , Psychosom Med 7:330-334, 1945.Crossref 30. Weitzer, H.A.: Sleep Paralysis Successfully Treated With Insulin Hypoglycemia , Arch Neurol Psychiat 68:835-841, 1952.Crossref 31. Daniels, L.E.: Narcolepsy , Medicine 13:1-122, 1934.Crossref 32. Freud, S.: The Interpretation of Dreams , J. Strachey (trans.) , New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1955. 33. Schonberger, S.: A Clinical Contribution to the Analysis of the Nightmare-Syndrome , Psychoanal Rev 33:44-70, 1946. 34. Deutsch, H.: Psychoanalysis of the Neurosis , London: Hogarth Press, 1952. 35. Stem, M.: Pavor Nocturnus , Int J Psychoanal 32:302-304, 1951. 36. Lindsay, J.S.B.: Nightmares , Brit J Med Psychol 27:224-234, 1954.Crossref 37. Sperling, M.: Pavor Nocturnus , J Amer Psychoanal Assoc 6:79-94, 1958.Crossref 38. Farber, I.J.: Clinical Symposium: Psychotherapy of a Patient With Narcolepsy , J Hillside Hosp 11:29-41, 1962. 39. Morgenstern, A.J.: The Neurotic Component of Narcolepsy , Amer J Psychiat 122:306-312, 1965. 40. Smith, C.M.: Psychosomatic Aspects of Narcolepsy , J Ment Sci 104:593-607, 1958. 41. Aserinsky, E., and Kleitman, N.: Regularly Occurring Periods of Eye Motility, and Concomitant Phenomena During Sleep , Science 118:273-274, 1953.Crossref 42. Jouvet, M.: " Telencephalic and Rhombencephalic Sleep in the Cat ," in Wolstenholme, G., and O'Conner, M. (eds.): The Nature of Sleep , Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1961. 43. Jouvet, M.: Recherches sur les structure nerveuses et les m'ecanisms responsables des differentes phases du sommeil physiologique , Arch Ital Biol 100:125-206, 1962. 44. Rechtschaffen, A., et al: Nocturnal Sleep of Narcoleptics , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 15:599-609, 1963.Crossref 45. Sours, J.A.: Narcolepsy and Other Disturbances in the Sleep-Waking Rhythm: A Study of 115 Cases With Review of the Literature , J Nerv Ment Dis 137:525-542, 1963.Crossref 46. Oswald, I.: Sleep Mechanisms: Recent Advances , Proc Roy Soc Med 55:910-912, 1962. 47. Berger, R.J.: Tonus of Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles During Sleep and Dreaming , Science 118:840, 1961.Crossref 48. Jacobson, A., et al: Muscle Tonus in Human Subjects During Sleep and Dreaming , Exp Neurol 10:418-424, 1964.Crossref 49. Hodes, R., and Dement, W.C.: Depression of Electrically Induced Reflexes ("H-Reflexes") in Man During Low Voltage EEG "Sleep," Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 17:617-629, 1964.Crossref 50. Hishikawa, Y., et al: H-Reflex and EMG of the Mental and Hyoid Muscles During Sleep, With Special Reference to Narcolepsy , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 18:487-492 1965.Crossref 51. Rechtschaffen, A., and Dement, W.: " Studies on the Relation of Narcolepsy, Cataplexy, and Sleep With Low Voltage Random EEG Activity ," in Kety, S.S.; Evarts, E.V.; and Williams, H.L., (eds.): Sleep and Altered States of Consciousness , to be published. 52. Takahashi, Y., and Jimbo, M.: Polygraphic Study of Narcolepsy Syndrome With Special Reference to Hypnagogic Hallucinations and Cataplexy, Proceedings of a Joint Meeting of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and the American Psychiatric Assoc 1963, pp 343-349. 53. Dement, W.; Rechtschaffen, A.; and Gulevich, G.: The Nature of Narcoleptic Sleep Attack , Neurology 16:18-33, 1966.Crossref 54. Dement, W.; Rechtschaffen, A.; and Gulevich, G.: A Polygraphic Study of the Narcoleptic Sleep Attack , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 17:608-609, 1964.Crossref 55. Hishikawa, Y., and Kaneko, Z.: Electroencephalographic Study on Narcolepsy , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 18:249-259, 1965.Crossref 56. Globus, G.G.: Rapid Eye Movement in Real Time , Arch Gen Psychiat 15:654-659, 1966.Crossref 57. Freud, S.: The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , J. Strachey (trans.), London: Hogarth Press, 1958, vol 3. 58. Sieker, H.O.; Heyman, A.; and Birchfield, R.I.: The Effects of Natural Sleep and Hypersomnolent States on Respiratory Function , Ann Intern Med 52:500-506, 1960.Crossref 59. Birchfield, R.I; Sieker, H.O.; and Heyman, A.: Alterations in Blood Gases During Natural Sleep and Narcolepsy , Neurology 8 :107-112, 1958. 60. Bulow, K., and Ingvar, D.H.: Respiration and Electroencephalography in Narcolepsy , Neurology 13:321-326, 1963.Crossref 61. Altshuler, K.: Comments on Recent Sleep Research Related to Psychoanalytic Theory , Arch Gen Psychiat 15:235-239, 1966.Crossref 62. Dement, W.: " Experimental Dream Studies ," in Masserman, J.H. (ed.): Science and Psychoanalysis , New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1964, vol 7. 63. Fisher, C.: Psychoanalytic Implications of Recent Research in Sleep and Dreaming , J Amer Psychoanal Assoc 13:271-303, 1965.Crossref 64. Vogel, G.; Foulkes, D.: and Trosman, H.: Ego Functions and Dreaming During Sleep Onset , Arch Gen Psychiat 14:238-248, 1966.Crossref 65. Lehrman, S.R.: in discussion, I.J. Farber: Psychotherapy of a Patient With Narcolepsy , J Hillside Hosp 11:45-49, 1962. 66. Fisher, C.; Gross, J.; and Zuch, J.: A Cycle of Penile Erections Synchronous With Dreaming (REM) Sleep , Arch Gen Psychiat 12:29-45, 1965.Crossref 67. Snyder, F.: The New Biology of Dreaming , Arch Gen Psychiat 8:381-391, 1963.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Sleep Paralysis and Hypnagogic Hallucinations: Their Relationship to the Nightmare

Archives of General Psychiatry , Volume 17 (1) – Jul 1, 1967

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1967 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-990X
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1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730250090013
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Abstract

Abstract Imagination cannot conceive the horrors it [The Nightmare] frequently gives rise to, or language describe them in adequate terms . . . Everything horrible, disgusting or terrifying in the physical or moral world is brought before him in fearful array; he is hissed at by serpents, tortured by demons, stunned by the hollow voices and cold touch of apparitions . . . . At one moment he may have the consciousness of a malignant demon being at his side; then to shun the sight of so appalling an object, he will close his eyes, but still the fearful being makes its presence known; for its icy breath is felt diffusing itself over his visage, and he knows that he is face to face with a fiend. Then, if he looks up, he beholds horrid eyes glaring upon him, and an aspect of hell grinning at him with even more hellish malice. Or, he may have References 1. Macnish, R.: The Philosophy of Sleep , New York: Appleton and Co., 1834. 2. Jones, E.: On the Nightmare , New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1951. 3. Rauch, J.H.: Case of Nightmare Caused by Elongation of the Uvula and Cured by the Astringements Administered During an Attack of Cholera , Amer J Med Sci 23:435-436, 1852.Crossref 4. Waller, J.: A Treatise on the Incubus or Nightmare , London: E. Cox and Son, 1816. 5. Bond, J.: An Essay on the Incubus, or Nightmare , London: D. Wilson and T. Durham, 1753. 6. Fosgate, B.: Observation on the Nightmare , Amer J Med Sci 15:80-87, 1834.Crossref 7. Hodgkin, T.: On Nightmare, The Action of Anaesthetics, Etc. , Brit Med J 501-502 ( (May 16) ) 1863. 8. Lichtenstein, B.W., and Rosenblum, A.H.: Sleep Paralysis , J Nerv Ment Dis 95:153-155, 1942.Crossref 9. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis: A New Evaluation , Dis Nerv Syst 18:144-146, 1957. 10. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis Without Narcolepsy or Cataplexy: Report of a Case , JAMA 173:1129-1130, 1960.Crossref 11. Wilson, S.A.K.: The Narcolepsies , Brain 51:63-109, 1928.Crossref 12. Yoss, R., and Daly, D.: Criteria for the Diagnosis of the Narcoleptic Syndrome , Proc Mayo Clin 12:320-328, 1957. 13. Bonstedt, T.: Emotional Aspects of the Narcolepsies (With Report of a Case of Sleep Paralysis) , Dis Nerv Syst 15:291-297, 1954. 14. Chodoff, P.: Sleep Paralysis With Report of Two Cases , J Nerv Ment Dis 100:278-281, 1944.Crossref 15. Ethelberg, S.: Sleep Paralysis or Post Domital Chlastic Fits in Cortical Lesions of the Frontal Pole , Act Psychiat Neurol (suppl) 108:121-130, 1956. 16. Evart, H.C.: Sleep Paralysis in Medical Students , J Nerv Ment Dis 136:283-287, 1963.Crossref 17. Goode, G.B.: Sleep Paralysis , Arch Neurol 6:228-234, 1962.Crossref 18. Gowers, W.: The Borderland of Epilepsy , Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co., 1907. 19. Leder, H.L.: Sleep Paralysis , New York J Med 62:3470-3473, 1962. 20. Levin, M.: The Pathogenesis of Narcolepsy With a Consideration of Sleep Paralysis and Localized Sleep , J Neurol Psychopath 14:1-14, 1933.Crossref 21. Levin, M.: Premature Waking and Post Domital Paralysis , J Nerv Ment Dis 125:140-141, 1957.Crossref 22. Mitchell, S.W.: On Some of the Disorders of Sleep , Virginia Med Monthly 2:769-781, 1876. 23. Payn, S.B.: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Sleep Paralysis , J Nerv Ment Dis 140:427-433, 1965.Crossref 24. Rushton, J.G.: Sleep Paralysis , Med Clin N Amer 28:945-949, 1944. 25. Rushton, J.G.: Sleep Paralysis: Report of Two Cases , Proc Mayo Clin 19:51-54, 1944. 26. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis: Psychodynamics , Psychiat Quart 22:462-464, 1948.Crossref 27. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis , Amer J Psychiat 108:921-923, 1952. 28. Schneck, J.M.: Sleep Paralysis , Psychosomatics 2:360-361, 1961.Crossref 29. Van der Heide, C., and Weinberg, J.: Sleep Paralysis and Combat Fatigue , Psychosom Med 7:330-334, 1945.Crossref 30. Weitzer, H.A.: Sleep Paralysis Successfully Treated With Insulin Hypoglycemia , Arch Neurol Psychiat 68:835-841, 1952.Crossref 31. Daniels, L.E.: Narcolepsy , Medicine 13:1-122, 1934.Crossref 32. Freud, S.: The Interpretation of Dreams , J. Strachey (trans.) , New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1955. 33. Schonberger, S.: A Clinical Contribution to the Analysis of the Nightmare-Syndrome , Psychoanal Rev 33:44-70, 1946. 34. Deutsch, H.: Psychoanalysis of the Neurosis , London: Hogarth Press, 1952. 35. Stem, M.: Pavor Nocturnus , Int J Psychoanal 32:302-304, 1951. 36. Lindsay, J.S.B.: Nightmares , Brit J Med Psychol 27:224-234, 1954.Crossref 37. Sperling, M.: Pavor Nocturnus , J Amer Psychoanal Assoc 6:79-94, 1958.Crossref 38. Farber, I.J.: Clinical Symposium: Psychotherapy of a Patient With Narcolepsy , J Hillside Hosp 11:29-41, 1962. 39. Morgenstern, A.J.: The Neurotic Component of Narcolepsy , Amer J Psychiat 122:306-312, 1965. 40. Smith, C.M.: Psychosomatic Aspects of Narcolepsy , J Ment Sci 104:593-607, 1958. 41. Aserinsky, E., and Kleitman, N.: Regularly Occurring Periods of Eye Motility, and Concomitant Phenomena During Sleep , Science 118:273-274, 1953.Crossref 42. Jouvet, M.: " Telencephalic and Rhombencephalic Sleep in the Cat ," in Wolstenholme, G., and O'Conner, M. (eds.): The Nature of Sleep , Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1961. 43. Jouvet, M.: Recherches sur les structure nerveuses et les m'ecanisms responsables des differentes phases du sommeil physiologique , Arch Ital Biol 100:125-206, 1962. 44. Rechtschaffen, A., et al: Nocturnal Sleep of Narcoleptics , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 15:599-609, 1963.Crossref 45. Sours, J.A.: Narcolepsy and Other Disturbances in the Sleep-Waking Rhythm: A Study of 115 Cases With Review of the Literature , J Nerv Ment Dis 137:525-542, 1963.Crossref 46. Oswald, I.: Sleep Mechanisms: Recent Advances , Proc Roy Soc Med 55:910-912, 1962. 47. Berger, R.J.: Tonus of Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles During Sleep and Dreaming , Science 118:840, 1961.Crossref 48. Jacobson, A., et al: Muscle Tonus in Human Subjects During Sleep and Dreaming , Exp Neurol 10:418-424, 1964.Crossref 49. Hodes, R., and Dement, W.C.: Depression of Electrically Induced Reflexes ("H-Reflexes") in Man During Low Voltage EEG "Sleep," Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 17:617-629, 1964.Crossref 50. Hishikawa, Y., et al: H-Reflex and EMG of the Mental and Hyoid Muscles During Sleep, With Special Reference to Narcolepsy , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 18:487-492 1965.Crossref 51. Rechtschaffen, A., and Dement, W.: " Studies on the Relation of Narcolepsy, Cataplexy, and Sleep With Low Voltage Random EEG Activity ," in Kety, S.S.; Evarts, E.V.; and Williams, H.L., (eds.): Sleep and Altered States of Consciousness , to be published. 52. Takahashi, Y., and Jimbo, M.: Polygraphic Study of Narcolepsy Syndrome With Special Reference to Hypnagogic Hallucinations and Cataplexy, Proceedings of a Joint Meeting of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and the American Psychiatric Assoc 1963, pp 343-349. 53. Dement, W.; Rechtschaffen, A.; and Gulevich, G.: The Nature of Narcoleptic Sleep Attack , Neurology 16:18-33, 1966.Crossref 54. Dement, W.; Rechtschaffen, A.; and Gulevich, G.: A Polygraphic Study of the Narcoleptic Sleep Attack , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 17:608-609, 1964.Crossref 55. Hishikawa, Y., and Kaneko, Z.: Electroencephalographic Study on Narcolepsy , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 18:249-259, 1965.Crossref 56. Globus, G.G.: Rapid Eye Movement in Real Time , Arch Gen Psychiat 15:654-659, 1966.Crossref 57. Freud, S.: The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , J. Strachey (trans.), London: Hogarth Press, 1958, vol 3. 58. Sieker, H.O.; Heyman, A.; and Birchfield, R.I.: The Effects of Natural Sleep and Hypersomnolent States on Respiratory Function , Ann Intern Med 52:500-506, 1960.Crossref 59. Birchfield, R.I; Sieker, H.O.; and Heyman, A.: Alterations in Blood Gases During Natural Sleep and Narcolepsy , Neurology 8 :107-112, 1958. 60. Bulow, K., and Ingvar, D.H.: Respiration and Electroencephalography in Narcolepsy , Neurology 13:321-326, 1963.Crossref 61. Altshuler, K.: Comments on Recent Sleep Research Related to Psychoanalytic Theory , Arch Gen Psychiat 15:235-239, 1966.Crossref 62. Dement, W.: " Experimental Dream Studies ," in Masserman, J.H. (ed.): Science and Psychoanalysis , New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1964, vol 7. 63. Fisher, C.: Psychoanalytic Implications of Recent Research in Sleep and Dreaming , J Amer Psychoanal Assoc 13:271-303, 1965.Crossref 64. Vogel, G.; Foulkes, D.: and Trosman, H.: Ego Functions and Dreaming During Sleep Onset , Arch Gen Psychiat 14:238-248, 1966.Crossref 65. Lehrman, S.R.: in discussion, I.J. Farber: Psychotherapy of a Patient With Narcolepsy , J Hillside Hosp 11:45-49, 1962. 66. Fisher, C.; Gross, J.; and Zuch, J.: A Cycle of Penile Erections Synchronous With Dreaming (REM) Sleep , Arch Gen Psychiat 12:29-45, 1965.Crossref 67. Snyder, F.: The New Biology of Dreaming , Arch Gen Psychiat 8:381-391, 1963.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1967

References