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Skin Type, but Neither Race nor Gender, Influence Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function

Skin Type, but Neither Race nor Gender, Influence Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function Abstract Background and Design: Previous studies that compared transepidermal water loss in subjects of different race and sex showed minimal differences in basal permeability barrier function. These studies often did not assess the ability of the stratum corneum to withstand or recover from insults to the epidermal permeability barrier. We compared epidermal permeability barrier function in the following human subjects (age range, 22 to 38 years): white (n=8) vs Asian (n=6); male (n=7) vs female (n=7); and skin type II/III (n=14) vs skin type V/VI (n=7) (scale, I to VI). Basal transepidermal water loss was measured by evaporimetry (three sites) on the volar aspect of the forearm. Barrier integrity then was assessed by determining the number of tape strippings required to reach a transepidermal water loss greater than or equal to 20 g/m2 per hour. The rates of barrier recovery then were compared at 6, 24, and 48 hours and 1 week after abrogation. Results: Neither the number of tape strippings required to perturb the barrier nor the rates of barrier recovery were significantly different in white vs Asian subjects or in female vs male subjects. However, patients with skin types II/III re- quired only 29.6±2.4 tape strippings to perturb the barrier, while the skin type V/VI group required 66.7±6.9 tape strippings. Furthermore, while barrier function in skin type II/ III recovered by approximately 20% by 6 hours and 55% by 48 hours, barrier function in skin type V/VI, independent of race, recovered more quickly, 43% and 72% at 6 and 48 hours, respectively. Finally, neither the differences in barrier integrity nor in rates of recovery could be attributed to variations in cohesiveness, since stripping appears to remove the same weight of stratum corneum in both groups. Conclusions: Darkly pigmented skin displays both a more resistant barrier and one that recovers more quickly after perturbation by tape stripping than does the skin of individuals with lighter pigmentation. These findings have potential implications for transdermal delivery of topical or systemic therapeutic agents, the ability of individuals with different skin types to withstand environmental or occupational insults, and the influence of acquired hyperpigmentation or pigment loss to influence permeability.(Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1134-1138) References 1. Wilson D, Berardesca E, Maibach H. In vitro transepidermal water loss: differences between black and white human skin . Br J Dermatol. 1988;119:647-652.Crossref 2. Lammintausta K, Maibach H, Wilson D. Irritant reactivity in males and females . Contact Dermatitis. 1987;17:275-280. 3. Kompaore F, Marty J, Dupont C. In vivo evaluation of the stratum corneum barrier function in blacks, Caucasians, and Asians . Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6:200-207.Crossref 4. Berardesca E, Maibach H. Racial differences in sodium lauryl sulphate induced cutaneous irritation: black and white . Contact Dermatitis. 1988;18:65-70.Crossref 5. Goh C, Chia S. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulphate—as measured by skin water vapour loss—by sex and race . Clin Exp Dermatol. 1988;13:16-19.Crossref 6. Ghadially R, Brown B, Sequira-Martin S, Feingold K, Elias P. Structure, function and lipid composition of the aged permeability barrier . J Clin Invest . In press. 7. Katzung BG. Special aspects of geriatric pharmacology . In: Katzung BG. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology . East Norwalk, Conn: Appleton & Lange; 1992:862-863. 8. Parrish J, White H, Pathak M. Photomedicine . In: Fitzpatrick T, Eisen A, Wolff K, Freedberg J, Austen K, eds. Dermatology in General Medicine . 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International Book Co; 1979:942-994. 9. Grice KA. Transepidermal water loss . In: Jarrett A, ed. The Physiology andPathophysiology of the Skin . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1980;6:2116-2146. 10. Weigand D, Haygood C, Gaylor G. Cell layers and density of Negro and Caucasian stratum corneum . J Invest Dermatol. 1974;62:563-568.Crossref 11. Freeman R, Cockerell E, Armstrong J, Knox J. Sunlight as a factor influencing the thickness of epidermis . J Invest Dermatol. 1962;39:295-299.Crossref 12. Reinertson R, Wheatley V. Studies on the chemical composition of human epidermal lipids . J Invest Dermatol. 1959;32:49-58. 13. Elias PM, Cooper ER, Rorc A, Brown BE. Percutaneous transport in relation to stratum corneum structure and lipid composition . J Invest Dermatol. 1981;75:297-301.Crossref 14. Lampe MA, Burlingame AL, Whitney J, et al. Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations . J Lipid Res. 1983;24:120-130. 15. Wood LC, Jackson SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Cutaneous barrier perturbation stimulates cytokine production in the epidermis of mice . J Clin Invest. 1992;90:482-487.Crossref 16. Wood LC, Feingold KR, Sequeira-Martin SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C. Barrier function coordinately regulates epidermal IL-1 and IL-1RA mRNA levels . Exp Dermatol . 1994;3:56-60.Crossref 17. Nickoloff B, Naidu Y. Perturbation of epidermal barrier function correlates with initiation of cytokine cascade in human skin . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;34:535-546.Crossref 18. Sauder DN, Stanulis-Praeger BM, Gilchrest BA. Autocrine growth stimulation of human keratinocytes by epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor: implications for skin aging . Arch Dermatol Res. 1988;280:71-76.Crossref 19. Pillai S. Binding and biological effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes . J Clin Invest. 1989;83:816-821.Crossref 20. Swope VI, Sauder DN, McKenzie RC, et al. Synthesis of interleukin-1-α and -β by normal human melanocytes . J Invest Dermatol. 1994;102:749-753.Crossref 21. Nordlund JJ. The pigmenting system: an expanded perspective . Ann Dermatol . 1994;6:109-123. 22. Denda M, Koyama J, Hori J, et al. Age- and sex-dependent change in stratum corneum sphingolipids . Arch Dermatol Res. 1992;284:363-367.Crossref 23. Agner T, Damm P, Skouby S. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:455-570.Crossref 24. Berardesca E, Distante F, Vignoli GP, Rabbiosi G. Barrier function and stratum corneum water holding capacity: effect of site and menstrual cycle . In: Proceedings of the Tri-Continental Meeting of European Society of Dermatological Research, the Society of Investigative Dermatology, and the Japanese Society of Investigative Dermatology, November 1993; Kyoto, Japan. 25. Werner Y, Lindberg M. Transepidermal water loss in dry and clinically normal skin in patients with atopic dermatitis . Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) . 1985;65:102-105. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Skin Type, but Neither Race nor Gender, Influence Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1995.01690220040008
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract Background and Design: Previous studies that compared transepidermal water loss in subjects of different race and sex showed minimal differences in basal permeability barrier function. These studies often did not assess the ability of the stratum corneum to withstand or recover from insults to the epidermal permeability barrier. We compared epidermal permeability barrier function in the following human subjects (age range, 22 to 38 years): white (n=8) vs Asian (n=6); male (n=7) vs female (n=7); and skin type II/III (n=14) vs skin type V/VI (n=7) (scale, I to VI). Basal transepidermal water loss was measured by evaporimetry (three sites) on the volar aspect of the forearm. Barrier integrity then was assessed by determining the number of tape strippings required to reach a transepidermal water loss greater than or equal to 20 g/m2 per hour. The rates of barrier recovery then were compared at 6, 24, and 48 hours and 1 week after abrogation. Results: Neither the number of tape strippings required to perturb the barrier nor the rates of barrier recovery were significantly different in white vs Asian subjects or in female vs male subjects. However, patients with skin types II/III re- quired only 29.6±2.4 tape strippings to perturb the barrier, while the skin type V/VI group required 66.7±6.9 tape strippings. Furthermore, while barrier function in skin type II/ III recovered by approximately 20% by 6 hours and 55% by 48 hours, barrier function in skin type V/VI, independent of race, recovered more quickly, 43% and 72% at 6 and 48 hours, respectively. Finally, neither the differences in barrier integrity nor in rates of recovery could be attributed to variations in cohesiveness, since stripping appears to remove the same weight of stratum corneum in both groups. Conclusions: Darkly pigmented skin displays both a more resistant barrier and one that recovers more quickly after perturbation by tape stripping than does the skin of individuals with lighter pigmentation. These findings have potential implications for transdermal delivery of topical or systemic therapeutic agents, the ability of individuals with different skin types to withstand environmental or occupational insults, and the influence of acquired hyperpigmentation or pigment loss to influence permeability.(Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1134-1138) References 1. Wilson D, Berardesca E, Maibach H. In vitro transepidermal water loss: differences between black and white human skin . Br J Dermatol. 1988;119:647-652.Crossref 2. Lammintausta K, Maibach H, Wilson D. Irritant reactivity in males and females . Contact Dermatitis. 1987;17:275-280. 3. Kompaore F, Marty J, Dupont C. In vivo evaluation of the stratum corneum barrier function in blacks, Caucasians, and Asians . Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6:200-207.Crossref 4. Berardesca E, Maibach H. Racial differences in sodium lauryl sulphate induced cutaneous irritation: black and white . Contact Dermatitis. 1988;18:65-70.Crossref 5. Goh C, Chia S. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulphate—as measured by skin water vapour loss—by sex and race . Clin Exp Dermatol. 1988;13:16-19.Crossref 6. Ghadially R, Brown B, Sequira-Martin S, Feingold K, Elias P. Structure, function and lipid composition of the aged permeability barrier . J Clin Invest . In press. 7. Katzung BG. Special aspects of geriatric pharmacology . In: Katzung BG. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology . East Norwalk, Conn: Appleton & Lange; 1992:862-863. 8. Parrish J, White H, Pathak M. Photomedicine . In: Fitzpatrick T, Eisen A, Wolff K, Freedberg J, Austen K, eds. Dermatology in General Medicine . 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International Book Co; 1979:942-994. 9. Grice KA. Transepidermal water loss . In: Jarrett A, ed. The Physiology andPathophysiology of the Skin . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1980;6:2116-2146. 10. Weigand D, Haygood C, Gaylor G. Cell layers and density of Negro and Caucasian stratum corneum . J Invest Dermatol. 1974;62:563-568.Crossref 11. Freeman R, Cockerell E, Armstrong J, Knox J. Sunlight as a factor influencing the thickness of epidermis . J Invest Dermatol. 1962;39:295-299.Crossref 12. Reinertson R, Wheatley V. Studies on the chemical composition of human epidermal lipids . J Invest Dermatol. 1959;32:49-58. 13. Elias PM, Cooper ER, Rorc A, Brown BE. Percutaneous transport in relation to stratum corneum structure and lipid composition . J Invest Dermatol. 1981;75:297-301.Crossref 14. Lampe MA, Burlingame AL, Whitney J, et al. Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations . J Lipid Res. 1983;24:120-130. 15. Wood LC, Jackson SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Cutaneous barrier perturbation stimulates cytokine production in the epidermis of mice . J Clin Invest. 1992;90:482-487.Crossref 16. Wood LC, Feingold KR, Sequeira-Martin SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C. Barrier function coordinately regulates epidermal IL-1 and IL-1RA mRNA levels . Exp Dermatol . 1994;3:56-60.Crossref 17. Nickoloff B, Naidu Y. Perturbation of epidermal barrier function correlates with initiation of cytokine cascade in human skin . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;34:535-546.Crossref 18. Sauder DN, Stanulis-Praeger BM, Gilchrest BA. Autocrine growth stimulation of human keratinocytes by epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor: implications for skin aging . Arch Dermatol Res. 1988;280:71-76.Crossref 19. Pillai S. Binding and biological effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes . J Clin Invest. 1989;83:816-821.Crossref 20. Swope VI, Sauder DN, McKenzie RC, et al. Synthesis of interleukin-1-α and -β by normal human melanocytes . J Invest Dermatol. 1994;102:749-753.Crossref 21. Nordlund JJ. The pigmenting system: an expanded perspective . Ann Dermatol . 1994;6:109-123. 22. Denda M, Koyama J, Hori J, et al. Age- and sex-dependent change in stratum corneum sphingolipids . Arch Dermatol Res. 1992;284:363-367.Crossref 23. Agner T, Damm P, Skouby S. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24:455-570.Crossref 24. Berardesca E, Distante F, Vignoli GP, Rabbiosi G. Barrier function and stratum corneum water holding capacity: effect of site and menstrual cycle . In: Proceedings of the Tri-Continental Meeting of European Society of Dermatological Research, the Society of Investigative Dermatology, and the Japanese Society of Investigative Dermatology, November 1993; Kyoto, Japan. 25. Werner Y, Lindberg M. Transepidermal water loss in dry and clinically normal skin in patients with atopic dermatitis . Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) . 1985;65:102-105.

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1995

References