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Simultaneous Recording of Electroretinogram and Visual Evoked Response: Focal Stimulation Under Direct Observation

Simultaneous Recording of Electroretinogram and Visual Evoked Response: Focal Stimulation Under... Abstract • A system has been tested that allows simultaneous recording of the retinal response (electroretinogram [ERG]) and the occipital response (visual evoked response [VER]) with focal photic stimulation of the retina under direct observalion of the fundus. A helium-neon gas laser is used as a stimulus source. The laser is chopped either by a pen motor or a rotating disc. The laser is attached to a biomicroscope through which the examiner can observe the fundus of the subject during the entire recording session. The optically clear contact lens is made with a flat surface that neutralizes refraction due to the cornea, thereby allowing fundus observation by microscope. Two metal wires mounted inside and outside of the lens serve as the electrode for the ERG. Graticules consisting of concentric circles and radial lines are projected onto the subject's fundus, providing a pattern that the examiner can use to determine the exact location to be stimulated in the fundus. With proper adjustment of stimulus and background illumination, local ERG and VER can be recorded simultaneously by stimulating the macula. (Arch Ophthalmol 95:1205-1208, 1977) References 1. Copenhaver RM, Beinhocker GD: Evoked occipital potentials recorded from scalp electrodes in response to focal visual illumination . Invest Ophthalmol 2:393-406, 1963. 2. Potts AM, Nagaya T: Studies on the visual evoked response: I. The use of the 0.06 degree red target for evaluation of foveal function . Invest Ophthalmol 4:303-309, 1965. 3. Schreinemachers HP, Henkes HE: Relation between localized retinal stimuli and the visual evoked response in man . Ophthalmologica 155: 17-27, 1968.Crossref 4. Ohba N: Visual evoked response in man by localized retinal stimulation . Jap J Ophthalmol 11:221-226, 1967. 5. Armington JC, Tepas DI, Kropel WJ, et al: Summation of retinal potentials . J Opt Soc Am 51:877-886, 1961.Crossref 6. Crampton GH, Armington JC: Area-intensity relation and retinal location in the human electroretinogram . Am J Physiol 181:47-53, 1955. 7. Brindley GS, Westheimer G: The spatial properties of the human electroretinogram . J Physiol 179:518-537, 1965. 8. Aiba TS, Alpern M, Maaseidvaag F: The electroretinogram evoked by the excitation of human foveal cones . J Physiol 189:43-62, 1967. 9. Gouras P, Gunkel RD, Jones J: Spatial differences in the human ERG . Invest Ophthalmol 1:333-339, 1962. 10. Arden GB, Bankes JLK: Foveal electroretinogram as a clinical test . Br J Ophthalmol 50:740, 1966.Crossref 11. Jacobson JH, Kawasaki K, Hirose T: The human electroretinogram and occipital potential in response to focal illumination of the retina . Invest Ophthalmol 8:545-556, 1969. 12. Rietveld WJ, Tordoir WE, Duyff JW: Contribution of fovea and parafovea to the visual evoked response . Acta Physiol Pharmacol Neurol 13:330-339, 1965. 13. Eason RG, Oden D, White CT: Visually evoked cortical potentials and reaction time in relation to site of retinal stimulation . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 22:313-324, 1967.Crossref 14. Armington JC: The electroretinogram, the visual evoked potential and the area-luminance relation . Vision Res 8:263-276, 1968.Crossref 15. Van Lith GHM, Henkes HE: The local electric response of the central retinal area , in Proceedings International Symposium for Clinical Electroretinography . Leipzig, Veb Georg Thieme, 1968, pp 163-170. 16. Nagata M, Honda Y: Studies on the local electric response of the human retina: I. An instrument for stimulating local retinal areas in various photic conditions . Ada Soc Ophthalmol Jap 74:388-394, 1970. 17. Nagata M, Honda Y: Studies on local electric response of the human retina: VI. Macular ERGs of a typical central serous retinopathy . Ada Soc Ophthalmol Jap 74:957-964, 1970. 18. Van Lith GHM, Henkes HE: The relationship between ERG and VER . Ophthalmic Res 1:40-47, 1970.Crossref 19. Nakamura Z: Studies on the clinical application of the human visual evoked potentials: 2. Macular function and VEP . Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jap 79:1192-1200, 1975. 20. Eisenberg MF, Copenhaver RM: A fiberoptic ophthalmoscope for focal retinal stimulation . Med Res Eng 6:23-25, 1967. 21. Inoue J, Takeo K, Akiba T: The visual evoked potentials to focal illumination of the retina by direct view ophthalmoscopy . Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jap 77:1149-1160, 1973. 22. Shipley T: The visually evoked occipitogram in strabismic amblyopia under direct-view ophthalmoscopy . J Pediatr Ophthalmol 6: 97-112, 1969. 23. Hirose T, Larson E: Photostimulator for local VER . Jap J Ophthalmol 20:347-352, 1976. 24. Hirose T, Wolf E, Malin S: Human visual evoked response to focal illumination of the retina: Clinical applications , in Pruett RC, Regan CDJ (eds): Retina Congress . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1974, pp 55-78. 25. Jasper HH: The ten-twenty electrode system of the international federation . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 10:371-379, 1958. 26. Nagata M: Studies of the photopic ERG of the human retina . Jap J Ophthalmol 7:94-124, 1963. 27. Ciganek L: Excitability cycle of the visual cortex in man . Ann NY Acad Sci 112:241-253, 1964.Crossref 28. Clynes M, Kohn M, Lifshitz K: Dynamics and spatial behavior of light evoked potentials, their modification under hypnosis, and on-line correlation in relation to rhythmic components . Ann NY Acad Sci 112:468-509, 1964.Crossref 29. Brown KT: The electroretinogram: Its components and their origins . Vision Res 8: 633-677, 1968.Crossref 30. Dowling JE: Organization of vertebrate retinas . Invest Ophthalmol 9:655-680, 1970. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Simultaneous Recording of Electroretinogram and Visual Evoked Response: Focal Stimulation Under Direct Observation

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1977 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1977.04450070103009
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract • A system has been tested that allows simultaneous recording of the retinal response (electroretinogram [ERG]) and the occipital response (visual evoked response [VER]) with focal photic stimulation of the retina under direct observalion of the fundus. A helium-neon gas laser is used as a stimulus source. The laser is chopped either by a pen motor or a rotating disc. The laser is attached to a biomicroscope through which the examiner can observe the fundus of the subject during the entire recording session. The optically clear contact lens is made with a flat surface that neutralizes refraction due to the cornea, thereby allowing fundus observation by microscope. Two metal wires mounted inside and outside of the lens serve as the electrode for the ERG. Graticules consisting of concentric circles and radial lines are projected onto the subject's fundus, providing a pattern that the examiner can use to determine the exact location to be stimulated in the fundus. With proper adjustment of stimulus and background illumination, local ERG and VER can be recorded simultaneously by stimulating the macula. (Arch Ophthalmol 95:1205-1208, 1977) References 1. Copenhaver RM, Beinhocker GD: Evoked occipital potentials recorded from scalp electrodes in response to focal visual illumination . Invest Ophthalmol 2:393-406, 1963. 2. Potts AM, Nagaya T: Studies on the visual evoked response: I. The use of the 0.06 degree red target for evaluation of foveal function . Invest Ophthalmol 4:303-309, 1965. 3. Schreinemachers HP, Henkes HE: Relation between localized retinal stimuli and the visual evoked response in man . Ophthalmologica 155: 17-27, 1968.Crossref 4. Ohba N: Visual evoked response in man by localized retinal stimulation . Jap J Ophthalmol 11:221-226, 1967. 5. Armington JC, Tepas DI, Kropel WJ, et al: Summation of retinal potentials . J Opt Soc Am 51:877-886, 1961.Crossref 6. Crampton GH, Armington JC: Area-intensity relation and retinal location in the human electroretinogram . Am J Physiol 181:47-53, 1955. 7. Brindley GS, Westheimer G: The spatial properties of the human electroretinogram . J Physiol 179:518-537, 1965. 8. Aiba TS, Alpern M, Maaseidvaag F: The electroretinogram evoked by the excitation of human foveal cones . J Physiol 189:43-62, 1967. 9. Gouras P, Gunkel RD, Jones J: Spatial differences in the human ERG . Invest Ophthalmol 1:333-339, 1962. 10. Arden GB, Bankes JLK: Foveal electroretinogram as a clinical test . Br J Ophthalmol 50:740, 1966.Crossref 11. Jacobson JH, Kawasaki K, Hirose T: The human electroretinogram and occipital potential in response to focal illumination of the retina . Invest Ophthalmol 8:545-556, 1969. 12. Rietveld WJ, Tordoir WE, Duyff JW: Contribution of fovea and parafovea to the visual evoked response . Acta Physiol Pharmacol Neurol 13:330-339, 1965. 13. Eason RG, Oden D, White CT: Visually evoked cortical potentials and reaction time in relation to site of retinal stimulation . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 22:313-324, 1967.Crossref 14. Armington JC: The electroretinogram, the visual evoked potential and the area-luminance relation . Vision Res 8:263-276, 1968.Crossref 15. Van Lith GHM, Henkes HE: The local electric response of the central retinal area , in Proceedings International Symposium for Clinical Electroretinography . Leipzig, Veb Georg Thieme, 1968, pp 163-170. 16. Nagata M, Honda Y: Studies on the local electric response of the human retina: I. An instrument for stimulating local retinal areas in various photic conditions . Ada Soc Ophthalmol Jap 74:388-394, 1970. 17. Nagata M, Honda Y: Studies on local electric response of the human retina: VI. Macular ERGs of a typical central serous retinopathy . Ada Soc Ophthalmol Jap 74:957-964, 1970. 18. Van Lith GHM, Henkes HE: The relationship between ERG and VER . Ophthalmic Res 1:40-47, 1970.Crossref 19. Nakamura Z: Studies on the clinical application of the human visual evoked potentials: 2. Macular function and VEP . Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jap 79:1192-1200, 1975. 20. Eisenberg MF, Copenhaver RM: A fiberoptic ophthalmoscope for focal retinal stimulation . Med Res Eng 6:23-25, 1967. 21. Inoue J, Takeo K, Akiba T: The visual evoked potentials to focal illumination of the retina by direct view ophthalmoscopy . Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jap 77:1149-1160, 1973. 22. Shipley T: The visually evoked occipitogram in strabismic amblyopia under direct-view ophthalmoscopy . J Pediatr Ophthalmol 6: 97-112, 1969. 23. Hirose T, Larson E: Photostimulator for local VER . Jap J Ophthalmol 20:347-352, 1976. 24. Hirose T, Wolf E, Malin S: Human visual evoked response to focal illumination of the retina: Clinical applications , in Pruett RC, Regan CDJ (eds): Retina Congress . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1974, pp 55-78. 25. Jasper HH: The ten-twenty electrode system of the international federation . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 10:371-379, 1958. 26. Nagata M: Studies of the photopic ERG of the human retina . Jap J Ophthalmol 7:94-124, 1963. 27. Ciganek L: Excitability cycle of the visual cortex in man . Ann NY Acad Sci 112:241-253, 1964.Crossref 28. Clynes M, Kohn M, Lifshitz K: Dynamics and spatial behavior of light evoked potentials, their modification under hypnosis, and on-line correlation in relation to rhythmic components . Ann NY Acad Sci 112:468-509, 1964.Crossref 29. Brown KT: The electroretinogram: Its components and their origins . Vision Res 8: 633-677, 1968.Crossref 30. Dowling JE: Organization of vertebrate retinas . Invest Ophthalmol 9:655-680, 1970.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1977

References