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SILVER CELLS AND SPIROCHETE-LIKE FORMATIONS: IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND OTHER DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

SILVER CELLS AND SPIROCHETE-LIKE FORMATIONS: IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND OTHER DISEASES OF THE... Abstract Granules with affinity for silver—silver granules—have been described at various times in pathologic and neuropathologic literature. Thus, Jahnel1 in 1919 spoke of dark granules which were scattered in the tissues, singly or in connection with threadlike fragments of Spirochaeta pallida. He stated that Levaditi and his co-workers described ultramicroscopic granules which, like Jahnel's granules, represented modified spirochetes. Jahnel saw the granules only in areas densely invaded by spirochetes, but never in areas free from them. Kon2 observed silver granules in practically every tissue and organ of the body, including the brain. Fine and coarse black or brown granules were present also in the cytoplasm of the ganglion cells, but not in their nuclei. In the brain of a rabbit "blackish" granules were present in the cortex, optic thalamus, corpora quadrigemina, cerebellum, pons, medulla, spinal cord and sympathetic and spinal ganglia. In the nuclei of the hypoglossal nerve, "dotlike" References 1. Jahnel, F.: Quoted from his Pathologische Anatomie der progressiven Paralyse , in Bumke, O.: Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1930, vol. 11, p. 513. 2. Kon, Y.: Ueber die Silberreaktion der Zellen , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1933. 3. Kuhn, P., and Steiner, G.: (a) Ueber Ursache der multiplen Sklerose , Med. Klin. 13:1007, 1917 4. Forschungen über die Aetiologie der multiplen Sklerose , München. med. Wchnschr. 66:1245, 1919. 5. Steiner, G.: (a) Untersuchungen zur Pathogenese der multiplen Sklerose , Zentralbl. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 47:701, 1927 6. Demonstration von Spirochäten im menschlichen Gehirn bei multipler Sklerose , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. 107:112, 1928Crossref 7. Krankheitserreger und Gewebsbefund bei multipler Sklerose: Vergleichend-histologisch-parasitologische Untersuchungen bei multipler Sklerose und anderen Spirochätosen , Ergebn. d. Hyg., Bakt., Immunitätsforsch. u. exper. Therap. 12:269-464, 1931 8. Ueber die Ursache der multiplen Sklerose: Entgegnung zu dem Aufsatz von Kuhn , Med. Klin. 30:269, 1934 9. Spirochäten im menschlichen Gehirn bei multipler Sklerose , Nervenarzt 1:457, 1928 10. Neues zur Aetiologie der multiplen Sklerose , Nervenarzt 5:281, 1932. 11. Formaldehyde-fixed tissue is washed in running water for from two to five hours; frozen sections 60 microns thick are carried into water and placed in 95 per cent alcohol overnight and for one to two minutes in 1 per cent solution of uranium nitrate in dehydrated alcohol (kept in a dark glass-stoppered bottle); they are then washed in two changes of hot water and allowed to remain in a third dish of hot water for one-half hour, placed for five minutes at room temperature in a 1 per cent solution of gum mastic, removed singly with a glass rod rinsed in dehydrated alcohol and rinsed in three changes of water, after which they are placed in 0.1 per cent solution of silver nitrate and heated until steam and bubbles appear. The sections should not be allowed to touch one another. They are allowed to cool for two or three minutes and washed twice in hot water, placed for five minutes at room temperature in the solution of gum mastic and removed again as mentioned before. A mixture of 5 per cent aqueous solution of pyrocatechin (freshly made) and 4 drops of mastic (3 per cent solution) is heated to the boiling point, and the sections placed therein and allowed to cool for six to eight minutes, washed in two changes of hot water and counterstained in a 1 per cent alcoholic solution of fuchsin, dehydrated in 95 per cent and dehydrated alcohol, cleared in xylene and mounted in balsam. The water used must be double distilled. The gum mastic is made with 95 per cent alcohol (6 per cent) and diluted to the desired degree with dehydrated alcohol. 12. Nishii, R.: Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen von Spirochäten und "minute bodies" bei der multiplen Sklerose , Arb. a. d. neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 31:153, 1929. 13. Pette, in discussion on Steiner.4b 14. Marburg, in discussion on Steiner.4b 15. Lüthy, F.: Zur Frage der Spirochätenbefunde bei multipler Sklerose , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 128:290, 1930.Crossref 16. Rogers, H. J.: The Question of Silver Cells as Proof of the Spirochetal Theory of Disseminated Sclerosis , J. Neurol. & Psychopath. 13:50, 1932. 17. Kopeloff, N., and Blackman, N.: Silver Cells (Steiner's Method) in Multiple Sclerosis Compared with Their Presence in Other Diseases , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 34:1297 ( (Dec.) ) 1935. 18. Blackman, N., and Putnam, T. J.: Nature of the "Silver Cells" Occurring in Multiple Sclerosis and Other Diseases , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 39:54 ( (Jan.) ) 1938. 19. Scheinker, I.: Ueber Spirochätenbefunde im Zentralnervensystem bei vier Fällen von multipler Sklerose , Wien. klin. Wchnschr. 51:307, 1938. 20. Hassin, G. B., and Bassoe, P.: A Contribution to the Histopathology of Epidemic ("Lethargic") Encephalitis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 2:24 ( (July) ) 1919. 21. Hassin, G. B., and Bassoe, P.: Myelitis and Myelomalacia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 6:32 ( (July) ) 1921. 22. Weed, L. H.: Studies on the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid , J. M. Research 31: 21 ( (Sept.) ) 1914 23. An Anatomical Consideration of the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid , Anat. Rec. 12:461, 1917. 24. Hassin, G. B.: Effect of Organic Brain and Spinal Cord Changes on the Subarachnoid Space, Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 14:468 ( (Oct.) ) 1925 25. Notes on the Nature and Origin of the Cerebrospinal Fluid , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 59:113, 1924. 26. Hassin, G. B.: Hydrocephalus: Studies of the Pathology and Pathogenesis, with Remarks on the Cerebrospinal Fluid , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 24: 1164 ( (Dec.) ) 1930 27. Hydrocephalus: Report of a Case in an Infant with Vestiges of a Choroid Plexus in the Fourth Ventricle Only , Hassin Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 27:406 ( (Feb.) ) 1932. 28. Hassin, G. B.: Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (Meningoencephalomyeloradiculitis) Versus Multiple Sclerosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 40:1111 ( (Dec.) ) 1938. 29. Hassin, G. B.: Studies in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 7:589 ( (May) ) 1922 30. Neuroptic Myelitis Versus Multiple Sclerosis , Hassin Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 37:1083 ( (May) ) 1937 31. Pathologic Features of Multiple Sclerosis and Allied Conditions , Hassin Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 38:713 ( (Oct.) ) 1937. 32. Spielmeyer, W.: Ueber einige anatomische Aehnlichkeiten zwischen progressiver Paralyse und multipler Sklerose (Untersuchungen über herdförmigen Markfaserschwund bei Paralyse) , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 1: 660, 1910. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

SILVER CELLS AND SPIROCHETE-LIKE FORMATIONS: IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND OTHER DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1939 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270150045003
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract Granules with affinity for silver—silver granules—have been described at various times in pathologic and neuropathologic literature. Thus, Jahnel1 in 1919 spoke of dark granules which were scattered in the tissues, singly or in connection with threadlike fragments of Spirochaeta pallida. He stated that Levaditi and his co-workers described ultramicroscopic granules which, like Jahnel's granules, represented modified spirochetes. Jahnel saw the granules only in areas densely invaded by spirochetes, but never in areas free from them. Kon2 observed silver granules in practically every tissue and organ of the body, including the brain. Fine and coarse black or brown granules were present also in the cytoplasm of the ganglion cells, but not in their nuclei. In the brain of a rabbit "blackish" granules were present in the cortex, optic thalamus, corpora quadrigemina, cerebellum, pons, medulla, spinal cord and sympathetic and spinal ganglia. In the nuclei of the hypoglossal nerve, "dotlike" References 1. Jahnel, F.: Quoted from his Pathologische Anatomie der progressiven Paralyse , in Bumke, O.: Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1930, vol. 11, p. 513. 2. Kon, Y.: Ueber die Silberreaktion der Zellen , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1933. 3. Kuhn, P., and Steiner, G.: (a) Ueber Ursache der multiplen Sklerose , Med. Klin. 13:1007, 1917 4. Forschungen über die Aetiologie der multiplen Sklerose , München. med. Wchnschr. 66:1245, 1919. 5. Steiner, G.: (a) Untersuchungen zur Pathogenese der multiplen Sklerose , Zentralbl. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 47:701, 1927 6. Demonstration von Spirochäten im menschlichen Gehirn bei multipler Sklerose , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. 107:112, 1928Crossref 7. Krankheitserreger und Gewebsbefund bei multipler Sklerose: Vergleichend-histologisch-parasitologische Untersuchungen bei multipler Sklerose und anderen Spirochätosen , Ergebn. d. Hyg., Bakt., Immunitätsforsch. u. exper. Therap. 12:269-464, 1931 8. Ueber die Ursache der multiplen Sklerose: Entgegnung zu dem Aufsatz von Kuhn , Med. Klin. 30:269, 1934 9. Spirochäten im menschlichen Gehirn bei multipler Sklerose , Nervenarzt 1:457, 1928 10. Neues zur Aetiologie der multiplen Sklerose , Nervenarzt 5:281, 1932. 11. Formaldehyde-fixed tissue is washed in running water for from two to five hours; frozen sections 60 microns thick are carried into water and placed in 95 per cent alcohol overnight and for one to two minutes in 1 per cent solution of uranium nitrate in dehydrated alcohol (kept in a dark glass-stoppered bottle); they are then washed in two changes of hot water and allowed to remain in a third dish of hot water for one-half hour, placed for five minutes at room temperature in a 1 per cent solution of gum mastic, removed singly with a glass rod rinsed in dehydrated alcohol and rinsed in three changes of water, after which they are placed in 0.1 per cent solution of silver nitrate and heated until steam and bubbles appear. The sections should not be allowed to touch one another. They are allowed to cool for two or three minutes and washed twice in hot water, placed for five minutes at room temperature in the solution of gum mastic and removed again as mentioned before. A mixture of 5 per cent aqueous solution of pyrocatechin (freshly made) and 4 drops of mastic (3 per cent solution) is heated to the boiling point, and the sections placed therein and allowed to cool for six to eight minutes, washed in two changes of hot water and counterstained in a 1 per cent alcoholic solution of fuchsin, dehydrated in 95 per cent and dehydrated alcohol, cleared in xylene and mounted in balsam. The water used must be double distilled. The gum mastic is made with 95 per cent alcohol (6 per cent) and diluted to the desired degree with dehydrated alcohol. 12. Nishii, R.: Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen von Spirochäten und "minute bodies" bei der multiplen Sklerose , Arb. a. d. neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 31:153, 1929. 13. Pette, in discussion on Steiner.4b 14. Marburg, in discussion on Steiner.4b 15. Lüthy, F.: Zur Frage der Spirochätenbefunde bei multipler Sklerose , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 128:290, 1930.Crossref 16. Rogers, H. J.: The Question of Silver Cells as Proof of the Spirochetal Theory of Disseminated Sclerosis , J. Neurol. & Psychopath. 13:50, 1932. 17. Kopeloff, N., and Blackman, N.: Silver Cells (Steiner's Method) in Multiple Sclerosis Compared with Their Presence in Other Diseases , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 34:1297 ( (Dec.) ) 1935. 18. Blackman, N., and Putnam, T. J.: Nature of the "Silver Cells" Occurring in Multiple Sclerosis and Other Diseases , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 39:54 ( (Jan.) ) 1938. 19. Scheinker, I.: Ueber Spirochätenbefunde im Zentralnervensystem bei vier Fällen von multipler Sklerose , Wien. klin. Wchnschr. 51:307, 1938. 20. Hassin, G. B., and Bassoe, P.: A Contribution to the Histopathology of Epidemic ("Lethargic") Encephalitis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 2:24 ( (July) ) 1919. 21. Hassin, G. B., and Bassoe, P.: Myelitis and Myelomalacia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 6:32 ( (July) ) 1921. 22. Weed, L. H.: Studies on the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid , J. M. Research 31: 21 ( (Sept.) ) 1914 23. An Anatomical Consideration of the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid , Anat. Rec. 12:461, 1917. 24. Hassin, G. B.: Effect of Organic Brain and Spinal Cord Changes on the Subarachnoid Space, Choroid Plexus and Cerebrospinal Fluid , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 14:468 ( (Oct.) ) 1925 25. Notes on the Nature and Origin of the Cerebrospinal Fluid , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 59:113, 1924. 26. Hassin, G. B.: Hydrocephalus: Studies of the Pathology and Pathogenesis, with Remarks on the Cerebrospinal Fluid , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 24: 1164 ( (Dec.) ) 1930 27. Hydrocephalus: Report of a Case in an Infant with Vestiges of a Choroid Plexus in the Fourth Ventricle Only , Hassin Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 27:406 ( (Feb.) ) 1932. 28. Hassin, G. B.: Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (Meningoencephalomyeloradiculitis) Versus Multiple Sclerosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 40:1111 ( (Dec.) ) 1938. 29. Hassin, G. B.: Studies in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 7:589 ( (May) ) 1922 30. Neuroptic Myelitis Versus Multiple Sclerosis , Hassin Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 37:1083 ( (May) ) 1937 31. Pathologic Features of Multiple Sclerosis and Allied Conditions , Hassin Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 38:713 ( (Oct.) ) 1937. 32. Spielmeyer, W.: Ueber einige anatomische Aehnlichkeiten zwischen progressiver Paralyse und multipler Sklerose (Untersuchungen über herdförmigen Markfaserschwund bei Paralyse) , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 1: 660, 1910.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1939

References

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