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Sex Differences in Schizophrenia

Sex Differences in Schizophrenia Abstract Sex differences in schizophrenia, including variation in clinical symptoms, onset age, risk factors, response to treatment, and putative biological risk markers, are widely recognized to exist, yet are hard to explain by any pathogenetic mechanism.1,2 In his discussion of Olney and Farber's N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypothesis, Crow3 compares various (eg, neurohumoral, anatomical, physiological) theories of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. He further examines these theories for their ability to explain various known features of the disorder, eg, clinical symptoms, brain changes, and epidemiological characteristics. Among these epidemiological features, he includes the sex differences discussed earlier. He recognizes only 2 hypotheses, the corpus callosum change model and the abnormal language lateralization model, as being able to account successfully for sex differences in schizophrenia. Of the theories he compares, Crow expresses the opinion that the heteromodal association cortex model only "doubtfully explains" such sex differences. We be lieve that in fact References 1. Loranger AW. Sex difference in age at onset of schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1984;41:157-161.Crossref 2. DeLisi LE, Dauphinais ID, Hauser P. Gender differences in the brain: are they relevant to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia? Compr Psychiatry . 1989;30:197-208.Crossref 3. Olney JW, Farber NB. Cited by: Crow TJ. Constraints on concepts of pathogenesis: language and the speciation process as the key to the etiology of schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1995;52:1011-1014.Crossref 4. Schlaepfer TE, Harris GJ, Tien AY, Federman EB, Peng LW, Lee S, Pearlson GD. Pattern of decreased regional cortical gray matter volume using magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry . 1994;151:842-848. 5. Pearlson GD, Petty RG, Ross CA, Tien AY. Schizophrenia: a disease of heteromodal association cortex? Neuropsychopharmacology . 1996;14:1-17.Crossref 6. Schlaepfer TE, Harris GJ, Aylward EH, McArthur JC, Peng LW, Lee S, Pearlson GD. Structure differences in the cerebral cortex of normal male and female subjects . Psychiatry Res . 1995;61:129-135.Crossref 7. Gur RC, Gur RE, Obrist WD, Hungerbuhler JP, Younkin D, Rosen AD, Skolnick BE, Reivich M. Sex and handedness differences in cerebral blood flow during rest and cognitive activity . Science . 1982;217;659-661.Crossref 8. Pearlson GD, Pulver AE. Sex, schizophrenia and the cerebral cortex . In: Ancill RJ, Holliday S, Higenbottam J., eds. Schizophrenia: Exploring the Spectrum of Psychosis . New York, NY: Wiley Publishing Co; 1994; 344-362. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Sex Differences in Schizophrenia

Abstract

Abstract Sex differences in schizophrenia, including variation in clinical symptoms, onset age, risk factors, response to treatment, and putative biological risk markers, are widely recognized to exist, yet are hard to explain by any pathogenetic mechanism.1,2 In his discussion of Olney and Farber's N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypothesis, Crow3 compares various (eg, neurohumoral, anatomical, physiological) theories of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. He further examines these...
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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830140101019
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Sex differences in schizophrenia, including variation in clinical symptoms, onset age, risk factors, response to treatment, and putative biological risk markers, are widely recognized to exist, yet are hard to explain by any pathogenetic mechanism.1,2 In his discussion of Olney and Farber's N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypothesis, Crow3 compares various (eg, neurohumoral, anatomical, physiological) theories of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. He further examines these theories for their ability to explain various known features of the disorder, eg, clinical symptoms, brain changes, and epidemiological characteristics. Among these epidemiological features, he includes the sex differences discussed earlier. He recognizes only 2 hypotheses, the corpus callosum change model and the abnormal language lateralization model, as being able to account successfully for sex differences in schizophrenia. Of the theories he compares, Crow expresses the opinion that the heteromodal association cortex model only "doubtfully explains" such sex differences. We be lieve that in fact References 1. Loranger AW. Sex difference in age at onset of schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1984;41:157-161.Crossref 2. DeLisi LE, Dauphinais ID, Hauser P. Gender differences in the brain: are they relevant to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia? Compr Psychiatry . 1989;30:197-208.Crossref 3. Olney JW, Farber NB. Cited by: Crow TJ. Constraints on concepts of pathogenesis: language and the speciation process as the key to the etiology of schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1995;52:1011-1014.Crossref 4. Schlaepfer TE, Harris GJ, Tien AY, Federman EB, Peng LW, Lee S, Pearlson GD. Pattern of decreased regional cortical gray matter volume using magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry . 1994;151:842-848. 5. Pearlson GD, Petty RG, Ross CA, Tien AY. Schizophrenia: a disease of heteromodal association cortex? Neuropsychopharmacology . 1996;14:1-17.Crossref 6. Schlaepfer TE, Harris GJ, Aylward EH, McArthur JC, Peng LW, Lee S, Pearlson GD. Structure differences in the cerebral cortex of normal male and female subjects . Psychiatry Res . 1995;61:129-135.Crossref 7. Gur RC, Gur RE, Obrist WD, Hungerbuhler JP, Younkin D, Rosen AD, Skolnick BE, Reivich M. Sex and handedness differences in cerebral blood flow during rest and cognitive activity . Science . 1982;217;659-661.Crossref 8. Pearlson GD, Pulver AE. Sex, schizophrenia and the cerebral cortex . In: Ancill RJ, Holliday S, Higenbottam J., eds. Schizophrenia: Exploring the Spectrum of Psychosis . New York, NY: Wiley Publishing Co; 1994; 344-362.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1997

References

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