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Sex Differences in Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adoptees

Sex Differences in Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adoptees Abstract • The present study follows up adoptees separated at birth from the biologic parents to assess the importance of genetic and environmental factors in adolescent antisocial behavior. The dependent variable is an antisocial symptom count that tallies antisocial but not necessarily criminal behaviors in adolescence. The independent variables are of two types, genetic and environmental. Genetic variables refer to psychiatric diagnoses of the biologic family. Environmental variables are those identified by previous research as associated with adolescent antisocial behavior. Our results indicate that boys are more vulnerable than girls to the adverse effects of a psychiatrically ill adoptive family member or divorce in the adoptive parents. There is not a significant sex difference in genetic predictors. In the total sample, the genetic variables that predict antisocial behavior are having an antisocial or alcoholic biologic relative. This finding is in agreement with other heritability studies of antisocial behavior. References 1. Slater E, Cowie V: The Genetics of Mental Disorders . London, Oxford University Press, 1971. 2. Cloninger CR, Guze SB: Psychiatric illness in the families of female criminals: A study of 288 first-degree relatives . Br J Psychiatry 122:697-703, 1973.Crossref 3. Guze SB: Criminality and Psychiatric Disorders . New York, Oxford University Press, 1976. 4. Crowe R: An adoption study of antisocial personality . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:785-791, 1974.Crossref 5. Cadoret RJ: Psychopathology in adopted-away offspring of biologic parents with antisocial behavior . Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:176-184, 1978.Crossref 6. Hutchings B, Mednick SA: Registered criminality in the adoptive and biological parents of registered male criminal adoptees , in Fieve RR, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research in Psychiatry . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975. 7. Bohman M: A study of adopted children, their background, environment, and adjustment . Acta Paediatr Scand 61:90-97, 1972.Crossref 8. Robins L: Deviant Children Grown Up: A Sociological and Psychiatric Perspective . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1966. 9. Rutter M: Epidemiological strategies and psychiatric concepts in research on the vulnerable child , in Anthony EJ, Koupernick C (eds): The Child in His Family, Vol III . New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1974. 10. Glueck S, Glueck E: Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency . Cambridge, Commonwealth Fund, 1950. 11. West DJ, Farrington DP: Who Becomes Delinquent? London, William Heinemann Ltd, 1975. 12. McCord W, McCord J: The Psychopath: An Essay on the Criminal Mind . Princeton, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co, 1964. 13. Bowlby J: Maternal Care and Mental Health . Geneva, World Health Organization, 1951. 14. Yarrow LJ: The crucial nature of early experience , in Glass DC (ed): Environmental Influences . New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1968, pp 101-113. 15. Rutter M: Maternal Deprivation Reassessed . Great Britain, C Nichols & Co Ltd, 1972. 16. Ainsworth MD: The effects of maternal deprivation: A review of findings and controversy in the context of research strategy , in Bowlby J (ed): Deprivation in Maternal Care: A Reassessment of Its Effects . Geneva, World Health Organization, 1962. 17. Gardner DB, Hawkes GR, Burchinal LG: Noncontinuous mothering in infancy and development in later childhood . Child Dev 32:225-234, 1961. 18. Pease D, Gardner DB: Research on the effects of non-continuous mothering . Child Dev 29:141-148, 1958. 19. Jenkins RL, Glickman S: Common syndromes in child psychiatry . Am J Orthopsychiatry 16:244-254, 1946.Crossref 20. Feighner JP, Robins E, Guze SB, et al: Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:57-63, 1972.Crossref 21. Guze SB, Goodwin D, Crane J: Criminality and psychiatric disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 20:583-591, 1969.Crossref 22. Hollingshead B: Two-factor Index of Social Position . New Haven, Conn, 1957. 23. Bishop YM, Fienberg SE, Holland PW: Discrete Multivariate Analysis: Theory and Practice . Cambridge, MIT Press, 1975, p 492. 24. Barr AJ, Goodnight JH, Sall JP, et al: A User's Guide to SAS-76 . Raleigh, NC, Sparks Press, 1976. 25. Rutter M: Sex differences in children's responses to family stress , in Anthony EJ, Koupernick C (eds): The Child in His Family , Vol I. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1970. 26. Hinde RA, Spencer-Booth Y: Effects of brief separations from mothers during infancy on behavior of rhesus monkeys 6-24 months later . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 12:157-172, 1971.Crossref 27. Stacey M, Deardon R, Pill R, et al: Hospitals, Children and Their Families: The Report of a Pilot Study . London, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1970. 28. Wolkind SN, Rutter M: Children who have been "in care"—an epidemiological study . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 14:97-105, 1973.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Sex Differences in Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adoptees

Archives of General Psychiatry , Volume 37 (10) – Oct 1, 1980

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1980 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1980.01780230089013
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The present study follows up adoptees separated at birth from the biologic parents to assess the importance of genetic and environmental factors in adolescent antisocial behavior. The dependent variable is an antisocial symptom count that tallies antisocial but not necessarily criminal behaviors in adolescence. The independent variables are of two types, genetic and environmental. Genetic variables refer to psychiatric diagnoses of the biologic family. Environmental variables are those identified by previous research as associated with adolescent antisocial behavior. Our results indicate that boys are more vulnerable than girls to the adverse effects of a psychiatrically ill adoptive family member or divorce in the adoptive parents. There is not a significant sex difference in genetic predictors. In the total sample, the genetic variables that predict antisocial behavior are having an antisocial or alcoholic biologic relative. This finding is in agreement with other heritability studies of antisocial behavior. References 1. Slater E, Cowie V: The Genetics of Mental Disorders . London, Oxford University Press, 1971. 2. Cloninger CR, Guze SB: Psychiatric illness in the families of female criminals: A study of 288 first-degree relatives . Br J Psychiatry 122:697-703, 1973.Crossref 3. Guze SB: Criminality and Psychiatric Disorders . New York, Oxford University Press, 1976. 4. Crowe R: An adoption study of antisocial personality . Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:785-791, 1974.Crossref 5. Cadoret RJ: Psychopathology in adopted-away offspring of biologic parents with antisocial behavior . Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:176-184, 1978.Crossref 6. Hutchings B, Mednick SA: Registered criminality in the adoptive and biological parents of registered male criminal adoptees , in Fieve RR, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research in Psychiatry . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975. 7. Bohman M: A study of adopted children, their background, environment, and adjustment . Acta Paediatr Scand 61:90-97, 1972.Crossref 8. Robins L: Deviant Children Grown Up: A Sociological and Psychiatric Perspective . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1966. 9. Rutter M: Epidemiological strategies and psychiatric concepts in research on the vulnerable child , in Anthony EJ, Koupernick C (eds): The Child in His Family, Vol III . New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1974. 10. Glueck S, Glueck E: Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency . Cambridge, Commonwealth Fund, 1950. 11. West DJ, Farrington DP: Who Becomes Delinquent? London, William Heinemann Ltd, 1975. 12. McCord W, McCord J: The Psychopath: An Essay on the Criminal Mind . Princeton, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co, 1964. 13. Bowlby J: Maternal Care and Mental Health . Geneva, World Health Organization, 1951. 14. Yarrow LJ: The crucial nature of early experience , in Glass DC (ed): Environmental Influences . New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1968, pp 101-113. 15. Rutter M: Maternal Deprivation Reassessed . Great Britain, C Nichols & Co Ltd, 1972. 16. Ainsworth MD: The effects of maternal deprivation: A review of findings and controversy in the context of research strategy , in Bowlby J (ed): Deprivation in Maternal Care: A Reassessment of Its Effects . Geneva, World Health Organization, 1962. 17. Gardner DB, Hawkes GR, Burchinal LG: Noncontinuous mothering in infancy and development in later childhood . Child Dev 32:225-234, 1961. 18. Pease D, Gardner DB: Research on the effects of non-continuous mothering . Child Dev 29:141-148, 1958. 19. Jenkins RL, Glickman S: Common syndromes in child psychiatry . Am J Orthopsychiatry 16:244-254, 1946.Crossref 20. Feighner JP, Robins E, Guze SB, et al: Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:57-63, 1972.Crossref 21. Guze SB, Goodwin D, Crane J: Criminality and psychiatric disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 20:583-591, 1969.Crossref 22. Hollingshead B: Two-factor Index of Social Position . New Haven, Conn, 1957. 23. Bishop YM, Fienberg SE, Holland PW: Discrete Multivariate Analysis: Theory and Practice . Cambridge, MIT Press, 1975, p 492. 24. Barr AJ, Goodnight JH, Sall JP, et al: A User's Guide to SAS-76 . Raleigh, NC, Sparks Press, 1976. 25. Rutter M: Sex differences in children's responses to family stress , in Anthony EJ, Koupernick C (eds): The Child in His Family , Vol I. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1970. 26. Hinde RA, Spencer-Booth Y: Effects of brief separations from mothers during infancy on behavior of rhesus monkeys 6-24 months later . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 12:157-172, 1971.Crossref 27. Stacey M, Deardon R, Pill R, et al: Hospitals, Children and Their Families: The Report of a Pilot Study . London, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1970. 28. Wolkind SN, Rutter M: Children who have been "in care"—an epidemiological study . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 14:97-105, 1973.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1980

References