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Serologic Evidence of Cryptosporidium Infection in US Volunteers Before and During Peace Corps Service in Africa

Serologic Evidence of Cryptosporidium Infection in US Volunteers Before and During Peace Corps... Abstract • To obtain prevalence data on Cryptosporidium infection in healthy US adults and to determine how often Cryptosporidium infection occurs after relocation to a situation of potentially great exposure, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-Cryptosporidium IgM or IgG was used to examine serum from 75 US Peace Corps volunteers before overseas service and after up to two years in West Africa. Of the volunteers, 32% had detectable anti-Cryptosporidium IgG initially, suggesting that infection sometime in life is common. After six weeks, one year, or two years overseas, 5% (1/19), 14% (8/56), and 13.6% (3/22), respectively, became newly IgG positive. This implies that the risk of acquiring Cryptosporidium infection and its associated diarrhea is real for travelers and temporary workers in endemic areas. Persistence of IgG and/or IgM response for 12 months or more occurred in some volunteers, although the significance is unclear. (Arch Intern Med 1989;149:894-897) References 1. Fayer R, Ungar BLP: Cryptosporidium spp and cryptosporidiosis . Microbiol Rev 1986;50:458-483. 2. Mata L: Cryptosporidium and other protozoa in diarrheal disease in less developed countries . Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:5117-5130.Crossref 3. Smith G, van den Ende J: Cryptosporidiosis among black children in hospital in South Africa . J Infect 1986;13:25-30.Crossref 4. Zar F, Geiseler PJ, Brown VA: Asymptomatic carriage of Cryptosporidium in the stool of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . J Infect Dis 1985;151:195.Crossref 5. Pohjola S, Jokipii AMM, Jokipii L: Sporadic cryptosporidiosis in rural population is asymptomatic and associated with contact to cattle . Acta Vet Scand 1986;27:91-102. 6. Jokipii L, Jokipii AMM: Timing of symptoms and oocyst excretion in human cryptosporidiosis . N Engl J Med 1986;26:1643-1647.Crossref 7. Stehr-Green JK, McCaig L, Remsen HM, et al: Shedding of oocysts in immunocompetent individuals infected with Cryptosporidium . Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987;36:338-342. 8. Baxby D, Hart CA, Blundell N: Shedding of oocysts by immunocompetent individuals with cryptosporidiosis . J Hyg 1985;95:703-709.Crossref 9. Garcia LS, Bruckner DA, Brewer TC, et al: Techniques for recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens . J Clin Microbiol 1983;18:185-190. 10. Sterling CR, Arrowood MJ: Detection of Cryptosporidium spp infections using a direct immunofluorescent assay . Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:5139-5142.Crossref 11. Jackson B, Casemore DP: Cryptosporidium and diarrhea . Br Med J 1986;293:625-626.Crossref 12. Baxby D, Blundell N, Hart CA: Excretion of atypical oocysts by patients with cryptosporidiosis . Lancet 1987;1:974.Crossref 13. Ungar BLP, Soave R, Fayer R, et al: Enzyme immunoassay detection of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies to Cryptosporidium in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons . J Infect Dis 1986;153:570-578.Crossref 14. Koch KL, Phillips DJ, Current WL: Cryptosporidiosis in hospital personnel: Evidence for person-to-person transmission . Ann Intern Med 1984;102:593-596.Crossref 15. Casemore DP: The antibody response to Cryptosporidium development of a serological test and its use in a study of immunologically normal persons . J Infect 1987;14:125-134.Crossref 16. Tzipori S, Campbell I: Prevalence of Cryptosporidium antibodies in ten animal species . J Clin Microbiol 1981;14:455-456. 17. Ungar BLP, Gilman RH, Lanata CF, et al: Seroepidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in two Latin American populations . J Infect Dis 1988;157:551-556.Crossref 18. Pohjola S, Oksanen H, Jokipii L, et al: Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students . Scand J Infect Dis 1986;18:173-178.Crossref 19. Ongerth JE, Stibbs HH: Identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water . Appl Environ Microbiol 1987;53:672-676. 20. Rose JB: Occurrence and significance of Cryptosporidium in water . J Am Water Works Assoc 1988;80:53-58. 21. Isaac-Renton JL, Fogel D, Stibbs HH, et al: Giardia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water . Lancet 1987;1:973-974.Crossref 22. Rush BA, Chapman PA, Ineson RW: Cryptosporidium and drinking water . Lancet 1987;2:632-633.Crossref 23. Reinthaler FF, Hermentin K, Mascher F, et al: Cryptosporidiosis in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria . Trop Med Parasitol 1987;38:51-52. 24. Carstensen H, Hansen HL, Kristiansen HO, et al: The epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal parasitoses in children in Southern Guinea-Bissau . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987;81:860-864.Crossref 25. Hojlyng N, Molbak K, Jepsen S: Cryptosporidium spp, a frequent cause of diarrhea in Liberian children . J Clin Microbiol 1986;23:1109-1113. 26. Addy P.A.-K., Aikins B: Cryptosporidiosis in diarrheal children in Kamasi, Ghana . Lancet 1986;1:735.Crossref 27. Campbell PN, Current WL: Demonstration of serum antibodies to Cryptosporidium spp in normal and immunodeficient humans with confirmed infections . J Clin Microbiol 1983;18:165-169. 28. Current WL, Reese NC: A comparison of endogenous development in three isolates of Cryptosporidium in suckling mice . J Protozool 1986;33:98-108.Crossref 29. Holley HP, Thiers BH; Cryptosporidiosis in a patient receiving immunosuppressive therapy: Possible activation of a latent infection . Dig Dis Sci 1986;31:1004-1007.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Serologic Evidence of Cryptosporidium Infection in US Volunteers Before and During Peace Corps Service in Africa

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1989 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1989.00390040100020
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • To obtain prevalence data on Cryptosporidium infection in healthy US adults and to determine how often Cryptosporidium infection occurs after relocation to a situation of potentially great exposure, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-Cryptosporidium IgM or IgG was used to examine serum from 75 US Peace Corps volunteers before overseas service and after up to two years in West Africa. Of the volunteers, 32% had detectable anti-Cryptosporidium IgG initially, suggesting that infection sometime in life is common. After six weeks, one year, or two years overseas, 5% (1/19), 14% (8/56), and 13.6% (3/22), respectively, became newly IgG positive. This implies that the risk of acquiring Cryptosporidium infection and its associated diarrhea is real for travelers and temporary workers in endemic areas. Persistence of IgG and/or IgM response for 12 months or more occurred in some volunteers, although the significance is unclear. (Arch Intern Med 1989;149:894-897) References 1. Fayer R, Ungar BLP: Cryptosporidium spp and cryptosporidiosis . Microbiol Rev 1986;50:458-483. 2. Mata L: Cryptosporidium and other protozoa in diarrheal disease in less developed countries . Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:5117-5130.Crossref 3. Smith G, van den Ende J: Cryptosporidiosis among black children in hospital in South Africa . J Infect 1986;13:25-30.Crossref 4. Zar F, Geiseler PJ, Brown VA: Asymptomatic carriage of Cryptosporidium in the stool of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . J Infect Dis 1985;151:195.Crossref 5. Pohjola S, Jokipii AMM, Jokipii L: Sporadic cryptosporidiosis in rural population is asymptomatic and associated with contact to cattle . Acta Vet Scand 1986;27:91-102. 6. Jokipii L, Jokipii AMM: Timing of symptoms and oocyst excretion in human cryptosporidiosis . N Engl J Med 1986;26:1643-1647.Crossref 7. Stehr-Green JK, McCaig L, Remsen HM, et al: Shedding of oocysts in immunocompetent individuals infected with Cryptosporidium . Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987;36:338-342. 8. Baxby D, Hart CA, Blundell N: Shedding of oocysts by immunocompetent individuals with cryptosporidiosis . J Hyg 1985;95:703-709.Crossref 9. Garcia LS, Bruckner DA, Brewer TC, et al: Techniques for recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens . J Clin Microbiol 1983;18:185-190. 10. Sterling CR, Arrowood MJ: Detection of Cryptosporidium spp infections using a direct immunofluorescent assay . Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:5139-5142.Crossref 11. Jackson B, Casemore DP: Cryptosporidium and diarrhea . Br Med J 1986;293:625-626.Crossref 12. Baxby D, Blundell N, Hart CA: Excretion of atypical oocysts by patients with cryptosporidiosis . Lancet 1987;1:974.Crossref 13. Ungar BLP, Soave R, Fayer R, et al: Enzyme immunoassay detection of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies to Cryptosporidium in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons . J Infect Dis 1986;153:570-578.Crossref 14. Koch KL, Phillips DJ, Current WL: Cryptosporidiosis in hospital personnel: Evidence for person-to-person transmission . Ann Intern Med 1984;102:593-596.Crossref 15. Casemore DP: The antibody response to Cryptosporidium development of a serological test and its use in a study of immunologically normal persons . J Infect 1987;14:125-134.Crossref 16. Tzipori S, Campbell I: Prevalence of Cryptosporidium antibodies in ten animal species . J Clin Microbiol 1981;14:455-456. 17. Ungar BLP, Gilman RH, Lanata CF, et al: Seroepidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in two Latin American populations . J Infect Dis 1988;157:551-556.Crossref 18. Pohjola S, Oksanen H, Jokipii L, et al: Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students . Scand J Infect Dis 1986;18:173-178.Crossref 19. Ongerth JE, Stibbs HH: Identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water . Appl Environ Microbiol 1987;53:672-676. 20. Rose JB: Occurrence and significance of Cryptosporidium in water . J Am Water Works Assoc 1988;80:53-58. 21. Isaac-Renton JL, Fogel D, Stibbs HH, et al: Giardia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water . Lancet 1987;1:973-974.Crossref 22. Rush BA, Chapman PA, Ineson RW: Cryptosporidium and drinking water . Lancet 1987;2:632-633.Crossref 23. Reinthaler FF, Hermentin K, Mascher F, et al: Cryptosporidiosis in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria . Trop Med Parasitol 1987;38:51-52. 24. Carstensen H, Hansen HL, Kristiansen HO, et al: The epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal parasitoses in children in Southern Guinea-Bissau . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987;81:860-864.Crossref 25. Hojlyng N, Molbak K, Jepsen S: Cryptosporidium spp, a frequent cause of diarrhea in Liberian children . J Clin Microbiol 1986;23:1109-1113. 26. Addy P.A.-K., Aikins B: Cryptosporidiosis in diarrheal children in Kamasi, Ghana . Lancet 1986;1:735.Crossref 27. Campbell PN, Current WL: Demonstration of serum antibodies to Cryptosporidium spp in normal and immunodeficient humans with confirmed infections . J Clin Microbiol 1983;18:165-169. 28. Current WL, Reese NC: A comparison of endogenous development in three isolates of Cryptosporidium in suckling mice . J Protozool 1986;33:98-108.Crossref 29. Holley HP, Thiers BH; Cryptosporidiosis in a patient receiving immunosuppressive therapy: Possible activation of a latent infection . Dig Dis Sci 1986;31:1004-1007.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1989

References