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Serial Determinations of Melanoma Tumor—Associated Antigen and Antibody in Patients With Stage I Melanoma

Serial Determinations of Melanoma Tumor—Associated Antigen and Antibody in Patients With Stage I... Abstract • The correlation of circulating immune complexes (CICs) and the clinical course of malignant melanoma has not been consistent when using nonspecific assays for CIC. To improve predictability, serial serum samples from patients with pathologic stage I melanoma were analyzed for the presence of antimelanoma tumor—associated antigen (TAA) antibody by direct radioimmunoassay and for the presence of melanoma TAA in CIC by the antigen competition method. Immunochemically characterized TAA was isolated from the spent culture medium of a melanoma cell line. Seventy-five percent of patients with melanoma TAA-specific immune complex (IC) had recurrences, while 71% of patients without melanoma TAA-specific IC remained free of disease for prolonged periods (up to 14 years of follow-up). Anti-TAA antibody titers did not correlate with disease recurrence. Our results demonstrate a correlation with melanoma TAA-specific IC and disease recurrence. The absence of melanoma TAA-specific IC is associated with a low risk of recurrence. Fluctuations in melanoma TAA-specific IC levels indicate a dynamic tumor host immunobiology and the need for serial follow-up. (Arch Surg 1986;121:1342-1345) References 1. Clark WH Jr, From L, Bernardino EA, et al: The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanoma of the skin . Cancer Res 1969;29:705-727. 2. Breslow A: Prognostic factors in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma . J Cutan Pathol 1979;6:208-212.Crossref 3. Balch CM, Murad TM, Soong SJ, et al: A multifactorial analysis of melanoma: Prognostic histopathologic features comparing Clark's and Breslow's staging methods . Ann Surg 1978;118:732-742.Crossref 4. Gromet MA, Epstein WL, Blois MS: The regressing thin melanoma: A distinctive lesion with metastatic potential . Cancer 1978;72:2282-2292.Crossref 5. Woods JE, Soule EH, Creagan ET: Metastasis and death in patients with thin melanomas (less than 0.76 mm) . Ann Surg 1983;198:63-64.Crossref 6. Naruns PL, Nizze JA, Cochran AJ, et al: Recurrence potential of thin primary melanomas . Cancer 1986;57:545-548.Crossref 7. Bystryn JC: Shedding and degradation of cell surface macromolecules and melanoma associated antigens by human melanoma , in Reisfield RA, Ferrone S (eds): Melanoma Antigens and Antibodies . New York, Plenum Publishing Corp, 1982, chap 3. 8. Black PH: Shedding from the cell surface of normal and cancer cells . Adv Cancer Res 1980;32:75-199. 9. Ruell P, Murray E, McCarthy WH, et al: Evaluation of assays to detect immune complexes as an immunodiagnostic aid in patients with melanoma . Oncodev Biol Med 1982;3:1-12. 10. Salinas FA, Wee KH, Silver HKB: Immune complexes and human neoplasia: Detection and quantitation of circulating immune complexes by the fetal liver cell assay . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1981;12:11-19.Crossref 11. Horvath M, Fekete B, Rahoty P: Investigation of circulating immune complexes in patients with breast cancer . Oncoloy 1982;39:20-22.Crossref 12. Gupta RK, Golub SH, Morton DL: Correlation between tumor burden and anticomplementary activity in sera from cancer patients . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1979;6:63-71. 13. Kristensen E, Brandslund I, Nielson H, et al: Prognostic value of assays for circulating immune complexes and natural cytotoxicity in malignant skin melanoma (stage I and II) . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:31-36.Crossref 14. Heberman RB, Bordes M, Lambert PH, et al: A report on international comparative evaluation of possible value of assays for immune complex for diagnosis of human cancer . Int J Cancer 1981;27:569-576.Crossref 15. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Studies of a melanoma tumor associated antigen detected in the spent culture medium of a human melanoma cell line by allogeneic antibody: I. Purification and development of a radioimmunoassay . JNCI 1984;72:67-74. 16. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Studies of a melanoma tumor associated antigen detected in the spent culture medium of a human melanoma cell line by allogeneic antibody: II. Immunobiologic characterization . JNCI 1984;72: 75-82. 17. Gupta RK, Leitch AM, Morton DL: Nature of antigens and antibodies in immune complexes isolated by staphylococcal protein A from plasma of melanoma patients . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1983;16:40-47.Crossref 18. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Double-antibody method and the protein A bearing Staphylococcus aureus cells: Methods compared for separating bound and free antigen in radioimmunoassay . Clin Chem 1979;25:752-756. 19. Killian CS, Yang N, Enrich LJ, et al: Prognostic importance of prostate specific antigen for monitoring patients with stage B2 to Dl prostate cancer . Cancer Res 1985;45:886-891. 20. Kato H, Tamai K, Morioka H, et al: Tumor antigen TA-4 in the detection of recurrence in cervical squamous cell carcinoma . Cancer 1984;54:1544-1546.Crossref 21. Shaw HM, Beattie CW, McCarthy WH, et al: Late relapses from cutaneous stage I malignant melanoma . Arch Surg 1985;120:1155-1159.Crossref 22. Bystryn JC: Release of cell-surface tumor-associated antigens by viable melanoma cells from humans . JNCI 1979;59:325-328. 23. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Clinical significance and nature of circulating immune complexes in melanoma patients , in Salinas FA, Hanna MG Jr (eds): Immune Complexes and Human Cancer . New York, Plenum Publishing Corp, 1985, chap 1. 24. DeKernian JB, Ramming KP, Gupta RK: The detection and clinical significance of antibodies to tumor associated antigens in patients with renal cell carcinoma . J Urol 1979;122:300-305. 25. Horn L, Horn HL: An immunologic approach to the therapy of cancer? Lancet 1971;2:466.Crossref 26. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Suggestive evidence for in vivo binding of specific anti-tumor antiboides of human melanoma . Cancer Res 1975;35: 58-62. 27. Sulitzeanu D: Human cancer-associated antigens: Present status and implications for immunodiagnosis . Adv Cancer Res 1985;44:1-43. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

Serial Determinations of Melanoma Tumor—Associated Antigen and Antibody in Patients With Stage I Melanoma

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1986 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
eISSN
1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1986.01400110134023
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The correlation of circulating immune complexes (CICs) and the clinical course of malignant melanoma has not been consistent when using nonspecific assays for CIC. To improve predictability, serial serum samples from patients with pathologic stage I melanoma were analyzed for the presence of antimelanoma tumor—associated antigen (TAA) antibody by direct radioimmunoassay and for the presence of melanoma TAA in CIC by the antigen competition method. Immunochemically characterized TAA was isolated from the spent culture medium of a melanoma cell line. Seventy-five percent of patients with melanoma TAA-specific immune complex (IC) had recurrences, while 71% of patients without melanoma TAA-specific IC remained free of disease for prolonged periods (up to 14 years of follow-up). Anti-TAA antibody titers did not correlate with disease recurrence. Our results demonstrate a correlation with melanoma TAA-specific IC and disease recurrence. The absence of melanoma TAA-specific IC is associated with a low risk of recurrence. Fluctuations in melanoma TAA-specific IC levels indicate a dynamic tumor host immunobiology and the need for serial follow-up. (Arch Surg 1986;121:1342-1345) References 1. Clark WH Jr, From L, Bernardino EA, et al: The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanoma of the skin . Cancer Res 1969;29:705-727. 2. Breslow A: Prognostic factors in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma . J Cutan Pathol 1979;6:208-212.Crossref 3. Balch CM, Murad TM, Soong SJ, et al: A multifactorial analysis of melanoma: Prognostic histopathologic features comparing Clark's and Breslow's staging methods . Ann Surg 1978;118:732-742.Crossref 4. Gromet MA, Epstein WL, Blois MS: The regressing thin melanoma: A distinctive lesion with metastatic potential . Cancer 1978;72:2282-2292.Crossref 5. Woods JE, Soule EH, Creagan ET: Metastasis and death in patients with thin melanomas (less than 0.76 mm) . Ann Surg 1983;198:63-64.Crossref 6. Naruns PL, Nizze JA, Cochran AJ, et al: Recurrence potential of thin primary melanomas . Cancer 1986;57:545-548.Crossref 7. Bystryn JC: Shedding and degradation of cell surface macromolecules and melanoma associated antigens by human melanoma , in Reisfield RA, Ferrone S (eds): Melanoma Antigens and Antibodies . New York, Plenum Publishing Corp, 1982, chap 3. 8. Black PH: Shedding from the cell surface of normal and cancer cells . Adv Cancer Res 1980;32:75-199. 9. Ruell P, Murray E, McCarthy WH, et al: Evaluation of assays to detect immune complexes as an immunodiagnostic aid in patients with melanoma . Oncodev Biol Med 1982;3:1-12. 10. Salinas FA, Wee KH, Silver HKB: Immune complexes and human neoplasia: Detection and quantitation of circulating immune complexes by the fetal liver cell assay . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1981;12:11-19.Crossref 11. Horvath M, Fekete B, Rahoty P: Investigation of circulating immune complexes in patients with breast cancer . Oncoloy 1982;39:20-22.Crossref 12. Gupta RK, Golub SH, Morton DL: Correlation between tumor burden and anticomplementary activity in sera from cancer patients . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1979;6:63-71. 13. Kristensen E, Brandslund I, Nielson H, et al: Prognostic value of assays for circulating immune complexes and natural cytotoxicity in malignant skin melanoma (stage I and II) . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1980;9:31-36.Crossref 14. Heberman RB, Bordes M, Lambert PH, et al: A report on international comparative evaluation of possible value of assays for immune complex for diagnosis of human cancer . Int J Cancer 1981;27:569-576.Crossref 15. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Studies of a melanoma tumor associated antigen detected in the spent culture medium of a human melanoma cell line by allogeneic antibody: I. Purification and development of a radioimmunoassay . JNCI 1984;72:67-74. 16. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Studies of a melanoma tumor associated antigen detected in the spent culture medium of a human melanoma cell line by allogeneic antibody: II. Immunobiologic characterization . JNCI 1984;72: 75-82. 17. Gupta RK, Leitch AM, Morton DL: Nature of antigens and antibodies in immune complexes isolated by staphylococcal protein A from plasma of melanoma patients . Cancer Immunol Immunother 1983;16:40-47.Crossref 18. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Double-antibody method and the protein A bearing Staphylococcus aureus cells: Methods compared for separating bound and free antigen in radioimmunoassay . Clin Chem 1979;25:752-756. 19. Killian CS, Yang N, Enrich LJ, et al: Prognostic importance of prostate specific antigen for monitoring patients with stage B2 to Dl prostate cancer . Cancer Res 1985;45:886-891. 20. Kato H, Tamai K, Morioka H, et al: Tumor antigen TA-4 in the detection of recurrence in cervical squamous cell carcinoma . Cancer 1984;54:1544-1546.Crossref 21. Shaw HM, Beattie CW, McCarthy WH, et al: Late relapses from cutaneous stage I malignant melanoma . Arch Surg 1985;120:1155-1159.Crossref 22. Bystryn JC: Release of cell-surface tumor-associated antigens by viable melanoma cells from humans . JNCI 1979;59:325-328. 23. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Clinical significance and nature of circulating immune complexes in melanoma patients , in Salinas FA, Hanna MG Jr (eds): Immune Complexes and Human Cancer . New York, Plenum Publishing Corp, 1985, chap 1. 24. DeKernian JB, Ramming KP, Gupta RK: The detection and clinical significance of antibodies to tumor associated antigens in patients with renal cell carcinoma . J Urol 1979;122:300-305. 25. Horn L, Horn HL: An immunologic approach to the therapy of cancer? Lancet 1971;2:466.Crossref 26. Gupta RK, Morton DL: Suggestive evidence for in vivo binding of specific anti-tumor antiboides of human melanoma . Cancer Res 1975;35: 58-62. 27. Sulitzeanu D: Human cancer-associated antigens: Present status and implications for immunodiagnosis . Adv Cancer Res 1985;44:1-43.

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1986

References