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Self-control in Psychotic Disorders

Self-control in Psychotic Disorders Abstract • Our follow-up study of 20 psychiatric patients and a review of the relevant literature support the idea that some persons may be able to exert control over their own psychiatric symptoms. This self-regulation process consists of three phases: In the first phase, persons become aware of the existence of psychotic or prepsychotic behavior by self-monitoring. In the second phase, self-evaluation, the person recognizes the implications of these behaviors as a signal of disorder. In these phases, detecting early affective signals that may herald the onset of psychotic symptoms and noting the sequences of events often followed by symptoms are particularly important. Once these symptoms or their precursors are detected, phase 3 occurs in which mechanisms of self-control are employed. Three such mechanisms are particularly common: self-instruction, reduced involvement in activity, and increased involvement in activity. References 1. Falloon IR, Talbot RE: Persistent auditory hallucinations: Coping mechanisms and implications for management . Psychol Med 1981;11:329-339.Crossref 2. Arieti S: Psychotherapy of schizophrenia: New or revised procedures . Am J Psychother 1980;34:464-476. 3. Kanfer FH: The maintenance of behavior by self-generated stimuli and reinforcement , in Jacobs A, Sachs LB (eds): The Psychology of Private Events: Perspectives on Covert Response Systems . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1971, pp 39-59. 4. Rehm LP: A self-control model of depression . Behav Ther 1977;8:787-804.Crossref 5. Fuchs CZ, Rehm LP: A self-control behavior therapy program for depression . J Consult Clin Psychol 1977;45:206-215.Crossref 6. Meichenbaum D, Cameron R: Training schizophrenics to talk to themselves: A means of developing attentional controls . Behav Ther 1973;4:515-534.Crossref 7. Strauss JS, Hafez H: Clinical questions and 'real' research . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:1592-1597. 8. Arieti S: Interpretation of Schizophrenia , ed 2, New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974. 9. Sullivan HS: Clinical Studies in Psychiatry . New York, WW Norton & Co, 1953. 10. Donlon P, Blacker K: Stages of schizophrenic decompensation and reintegration . J Nerv Ment Dis , 1973;157:200-208.Crossref 11. Chapman J: Early symptoms of schizophrenia . Br J Psychiatry , 1966;112:225-251.Crossref 12. Herz MI: Relapse in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry , 1980;137:801-805. 13. Docherty JP, Van Kammen DP, Siris SG, et al: Stages of onset of schizophrenic psychosis . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:420-426. 14. Cameron N: Reasoning, regression, and communication in schizophrenics . Psychol Monogr 1938;50:221.Crossref 15. Arieti S: Special logic of schizophrenic and other types of autistic thought . Psychiatry 1948;11:325. 16. Payne RW: Cognitive abnormalities , in Eysenck HJ (ed): Handbook of Abnormal Psychology . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1961, pp 420-483. 17. McKellar P: Imagination and Thinking . London, Cohen and West, 1957. 18. Slade PD: The external control of auditory hallucinations: An information theory analysis . Br J Soc Clin Psychol 1974;13:73-79.Crossref 19. Antrobus JS: Information theory and stimulus-independent thought . Br J Psychol 1968;59:423-430.Crossref 20. Rosenthal D: Genetic Theory and Abnormal Behavior . St Louis, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1970. 21. Liberman RP, Teigen J, Patterson R, et al: Reducing delusional speech in chronic paranoid schizophrenics . J Appl Behav Anal 1973;6:57-64.Crossref 22. Wincze JP, Leitenberg H, Agras WS: The effects of token reinforcement and feedback on the delusional verbal behavior of chronic paranoid schizophrenics . J Appl Behav Anal 1972;5:247-262.Crossref 23. Ayllon T, Azrin NH: The Token Economy: A Motivational System for Therapy and Rehabilitation . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968. 24. Strauss JS, Loevsky L, Glazer W, et al: Organizing the complexities of schizophrenia . J Nerv Ment Dis 1981;169:120-126.Crossref 25. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT: Prediction of outcome in schizophrenia: III. Five-year outcome and its predictors . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:159-163.Crossref 26. Strauss JS, Giller E, Glaser W: The role of work in recovery from schizophrenia. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 1981. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Self-control in Psychotic Disorders

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790090103016
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Our follow-up study of 20 psychiatric patients and a review of the relevant literature support the idea that some persons may be able to exert control over their own psychiatric symptoms. This self-regulation process consists of three phases: In the first phase, persons become aware of the existence of psychotic or prepsychotic behavior by self-monitoring. In the second phase, self-evaluation, the person recognizes the implications of these behaviors as a signal of disorder. In these phases, detecting early affective signals that may herald the onset of psychotic symptoms and noting the sequences of events often followed by symptoms are particularly important. Once these symptoms or their precursors are detected, phase 3 occurs in which mechanisms of self-control are employed. Three such mechanisms are particularly common: self-instruction, reduced involvement in activity, and increased involvement in activity. References 1. Falloon IR, Talbot RE: Persistent auditory hallucinations: Coping mechanisms and implications for management . Psychol Med 1981;11:329-339.Crossref 2. Arieti S: Psychotherapy of schizophrenia: New or revised procedures . Am J Psychother 1980;34:464-476. 3. Kanfer FH: The maintenance of behavior by self-generated stimuli and reinforcement , in Jacobs A, Sachs LB (eds): The Psychology of Private Events: Perspectives on Covert Response Systems . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1971, pp 39-59. 4. Rehm LP: A self-control model of depression . Behav Ther 1977;8:787-804.Crossref 5. Fuchs CZ, Rehm LP: A self-control behavior therapy program for depression . J Consult Clin Psychol 1977;45:206-215.Crossref 6. Meichenbaum D, Cameron R: Training schizophrenics to talk to themselves: A means of developing attentional controls . Behav Ther 1973;4:515-534.Crossref 7. Strauss JS, Hafez H: Clinical questions and 'real' research . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:1592-1597. 8. Arieti S: Interpretation of Schizophrenia , ed 2, New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974. 9. Sullivan HS: Clinical Studies in Psychiatry . New York, WW Norton & Co, 1953. 10. Donlon P, Blacker K: Stages of schizophrenic decompensation and reintegration . J Nerv Ment Dis , 1973;157:200-208.Crossref 11. Chapman J: Early symptoms of schizophrenia . Br J Psychiatry , 1966;112:225-251.Crossref 12. Herz MI: Relapse in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry , 1980;137:801-805. 13. Docherty JP, Van Kammen DP, Siris SG, et al: Stages of onset of schizophrenic psychosis . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:420-426. 14. Cameron N: Reasoning, regression, and communication in schizophrenics . Psychol Monogr 1938;50:221.Crossref 15. Arieti S: Special logic of schizophrenic and other types of autistic thought . Psychiatry 1948;11:325. 16. Payne RW: Cognitive abnormalities , in Eysenck HJ (ed): Handbook of Abnormal Psychology . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1961, pp 420-483. 17. McKellar P: Imagination and Thinking . London, Cohen and West, 1957. 18. Slade PD: The external control of auditory hallucinations: An information theory analysis . Br J Soc Clin Psychol 1974;13:73-79.Crossref 19. Antrobus JS: Information theory and stimulus-independent thought . Br J Psychol 1968;59:423-430.Crossref 20. Rosenthal D: Genetic Theory and Abnormal Behavior . St Louis, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1970. 21. Liberman RP, Teigen J, Patterson R, et al: Reducing delusional speech in chronic paranoid schizophrenics . J Appl Behav Anal 1973;6:57-64.Crossref 22. Wincze JP, Leitenberg H, Agras WS: The effects of token reinforcement and feedback on the delusional verbal behavior of chronic paranoid schizophrenics . J Appl Behav Anal 1972;5:247-262.Crossref 23. Ayllon T, Azrin NH: The Token Economy: A Motivational System for Therapy and Rehabilitation . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968. 24. Strauss JS, Loevsky L, Glazer W, et al: Organizing the complexities of schizophrenia . J Nerv Ment Dis 1981;169:120-126.Crossref 25. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT: Prediction of outcome in schizophrenia: III. Five-year outcome and its predictors . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:159-163.Crossref 26. Strauss JS, Giller E, Glaser W: The role of work in recovery from schizophrenia. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 1981.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1983

References