Abstract The problem of proprioception in the extraocular movements has been examined previously. Cooper, Daniel, and Whitteridge demonstrated on histological grounds that proprioceptors exist in the extrinsic eye muscles of man. By electrophysiological methods, they showed that the nerves from the eye muscles carry afferent impulses from stretch receptors to the brain stem. We were interested in finding out if these afferent impulses from the eye muscles had a cortical or conscious component similar to that present in other musculature, or whether vision (retinoception) or touch (of cornea and conjunctiva on conjunctiva) is a major factor. If these eye movements are knowledgeable when vision and touch are obtunded, then the term "proprioception"—("appreciation of position, balance, and changes in equilibrium on the part of the muscular system, especially during locomotion"), according to Blakiston's New Gould Medical Dictionary—may be properly used with reference to the extraocular muscles. If this is not the References 1. EOG's are described in detail in Part I of this paper, this issue, p. 125. 2. Cooper, S.; Daniel, P., and Whitteridge, D.: Muscle Spindles and Other Sensory Endings in the Extrinsic Eye Muscles , Brain 78:564, 1955.Crossref 3. Jones, H. W.; Hoerr, N. L., and Osol, A., Editors: Blakiston's New Gould Medical Dictionary , Philadelphia, Blakiston Company (division of McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.), 1949, Pl. 822. 4. Daniel, P.: Spiral Nerve Endings in the Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Man , J. Anat. 80:189, 1946. 5. Sunderland, S., and Hughes, E. S. R.: Pupillo-Constrictor Pathway and Nerves to the Ocular Muscles in Man , Brain 69:301, 1946.Crossref 6. Barker, D.: The Innervation of the Muscle-Spindle , Quart. J. Micr. Soc. 89:143, 1948. 7. Cooper, S., and Whitteridge, D.: Afferent Discharges from Extraocular Muscles , J. Physiol. 108:41, 1949.
Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Jul 1, 1961