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School Vision Testing

School Vision Testing Abstract From time to time there is a need for papers to be heard on subjects closely allied with the practice of ophthalmology but which do not have any obvious dramatic appeal. Vision testing in the schools is one such topic. The school population represents a most challenging and fertile area for the practice of preventive medicine. The role attributed to defective vision as a cause of unsatisfactory school progress led to the early establishment of school vision testing programs. Although the belief in the importance of the visual sense in scholastic achievement has not diminished, there have occurred over the past 20 years certain modifications in the educational philosophy of learning, which have shifted the emphasis of vision from a predominantly functional role toward its rightful place as an integral part of the general health care of the child.1 Ophthalmologists have been associated with the development of school vision References 1. Identification of School Children Requiring Eye Care, The National Medical Foundation for Eye Care, Report No. 7, New York, 1959. 2. Foote, F. M., and Crane, M. M.: An Evaluation of Vision Screening , Exceptional Child. 20: 153-161, 1954. 3. Betts, E. A.: Prevention and Correction of Reading Difficulties , Evanston, Ill., Row, Peterson & Company, 1936. 4. Hunt, W. T., Jr., and Betts, E. A.: Visual Problems: Certain Assumptions and Data , Am. J. Ophth. 25:1084-1094, 1942. 5. Sherman, R. A.: Personal communication to the author. 6. Peters, G. A.: An Appraisal of Visual Defects of Children in Indiana , J. Indiana M.A. 31: 237-238, 1938. 7. Oak, L., and Sloane, A. E.: The Betts Visual Sensation and Perception Tests , Arch. Ophth. 22: 832-843, 1939.Crossref 8. Betts Charts Not Acceptable, Report of Council on Physical Therapy , J.A.M.A. 113:937-938, 1939. 9. Sloane, A. E.: Massachusetts Vision Test: An Improved Method of Testing Eyes of School Children , Arch. Ophth. 24:924-939, 1940.Crossref 10. Massachusetts Vision Test Acceptable, Report of the Council on Physical Therapy , J.A.M.A. 135:158-159, 1947. 11. Imus, H. A.: Industrial Ophthalmology: Visual Testing Technics , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 52:370-384, 1948. 12. Crane, M. M.; Foote, F. M.; Scobee, R. G., and Green, E. L.: Screening School Children for Visual Defects, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Children's Bureau Publication No. 345, 1954. 13. Lancaster, W. B.; Dunphy, E. B.; Leahey, B. D.; Regan, J. J.; Sloane, A. E.; Yasuna, E. R.;; Stuart, H. C.; Gallagher, J. R., and Schmidt, W.: Standards for Referral of School Children for an Eye Examination , Am. J. Ophth. 37:710-718, 1954. 14. Standards for Referral of School Children for an Eye Examination, Committee Report of the New England Ophthalmological Society and Massachusetts Medical Society, Section of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology , Sight-Saving Rev. 23:223-225, 1953. 15. Department of Public Health, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, to be published. 16. Sulzman, J. H., and Davis, C. J.: The New York School Vision Tester , New York J. Med. 58:833-837, 1958. 17. Diskan, S. M.: A New Visual Screening Test for School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 39:369-374, 1955. 18. Vision , Am. Optic. Publication 36:4-5, 1952. 19. National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, A Guide for Eye Inspection and Testing Visual Acuity, Publication No. 180. 20. Scobee, R. G.: Vision Testing of School Children , Sight-Saving Rev. 20:88-95, 1950. 21. Sloane, A. E.; Dunphy, E. B.; Emmons, W. V., and Gallagher, J. R.: A Comparison of Refraction Results on the Same Individuals , Am. J. Ophth. 37:696-699, 1954. 22. Scobee, R. G.: Needless Referrals , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1302-1303, 1950. 23. Screening School Children for Visual Errors, Queries and Minor Notes , J.A.M.A. 146: 1364, 1951. 24. Eames, T. H.: A New Approach to Testing the Eyes of School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 24:1170-1173, 1941. 25. Yasuna, E. R., and Green, L. S.: An Evaluation of the Massachusetts Vision Test for Visual Screening of School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 35: 235-240, 1952. 26. Benton, C. D., Jr.: Analysis of Results with the Massachusetts Vision Test with Recommendations for Improving Its Accuracy , Am. J. Ophth. 36:363-364, 1953. 27. Gutman, E. B.: School Vision Screening , Sight-Saving Rev. 26:212-219, 1956. 28. Gray, D.: A Program for Vision Screening of School Children in Illinois , Sight-Saving Rev. 19:41-44, 1949. 29. Austin, C.: A Small Research Study of 2,077 Examined Children to Determine Screening Accuracy, Michigan Department of Health, 1960. 30. Leverett, H. M.: Vision Test Performance of School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 44:508-519, 1957. 31. Austin, C.: Personal communication to the author. 32. Kempf, G. A.; Jarmon, B. L., and Collins, S. D.: A Special Study of the Vision of School Children , Pub. Health Rep. 43:1713-1739, 1928.Crossref 33. Collins, S. D.: The Eyesight of the School Child as Determined by the Snellen Test , Pub. Health Rep. 39:3013-3027, 1924.Crossref 34. Vision Screening Manual, Vision Section, Division of Maternal and Child Health, Michigan Department of Health, August, 1959. 35. Allen, H. F.: Testing of Visual Acuity in Pre-School Children , Pediatrics 19:1093-1100, 1957. 36. Krimsky, E.: Children's Eye Problems , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1956, p. 175. 37. Colasuonno, T. M.: Preschool Vision Screening Study in Douglas County, Oregon, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, Publication No. 280, 1958. 38. Cunningham, F.: Preschool Vision Screening , Sight-Saving Rev. 27:91-95, 1957. 39. Moran, C. T.: Preschool Vision Screening in Louisville , Sight-Saving Rev. 28:92-95, 1958. 40. Sloane, A. E., and Gallagher, J. R.: A Vision Test for Pediatrician's Use , J. Pediat. 28: 140-144, 1946.Crossref 41. Gallagher, J. R.: Medical Care of the Adolescent , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1960, p. 245. 42. Schering Corporation (Bloomfield, N.J.): Personal communication to the author. 43. Breakey, A. S., and Berens, C.: To be published. 44. Scobee, R. G., and Green, E. L.: Relationships Between Lateral Heterophoria, Prism Vergence, and the Near Point , Am. J. Ophth. 31: 427-441, 1958. 45. WSMA Recommendations Regarding Visual Screening of Pre-School and School Age Children , Northwest Med. 57:802-804, 1958. 46. Blum, H. L.; Peters, H. B., and Bettman, J. W.: Vision Screening for Elementary Schools, The Orinda Study , Berkeley, University of California Press, 1959. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1960 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1960.01840010765019
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract From time to time there is a need for papers to be heard on subjects closely allied with the practice of ophthalmology but which do not have any obvious dramatic appeal. Vision testing in the schools is one such topic. The school population represents a most challenging and fertile area for the practice of preventive medicine. The role attributed to defective vision as a cause of unsatisfactory school progress led to the early establishment of school vision testing programs. Although the belief in the importance of the visual sense in scholastic achievement has not diminished, there have occurred over the past 20 years certain modifications in the educational philosophy of learning, which have shifted the emphasis of vision from a predominantly functional role toward its rightful place as an integral part of the general health care of the child.1 Ophthalmologists have been associated with the development of school vision References 1. Identification of School Children Requiring Eye Care, The National Medical Foundation for Eye Care, Report No. 7, New York, 1959. 2. Foote, F. M., and Crane, M. M.: An Evaluation of Vision Screening , Exceptional Child. 20: 153-161, 1954. 3. Betts, E. A.: Prevention and Correction of Reading Difficulties , Evanston, Ill., Row, Peterson & Company, 1936. 4. Hunt, W. T., Jr., and Betts, E. A.: Visual Problems: Certain Assumptions and Data , Am. J. Ophth. 25:1084-1094, 1942. 5. Sherman, R. A.: Personal communication to the author. 6. Peters, G. A.: An Appraisal of Visual Defects of Children in Indiana , J. Indiana M.A. 31: 237-238, 1938. 7. Oak, L., and Sloane, A. E.: The Betts Visual Sensation and Perception Tests , Arch. Ophth. 22: 832-843, 1939.Crossref 8. Betts Charts Not Acceptable, Report of Council on Physical Therapy , J.A.M.A. 113:937-938, 1939. 9. Sloane, A. E.: Massachusetts Vision Test: An Improved Method of Testing Eyes of School Children , Arch. Ophth. 24:924-939, 1940.Crossref 10. Massachusetts Vision Test Acceptable, Report of the Council on Physical Therapy , J.A.M.A. 135:158-159, 1947. 11. Imus, H. A.: Industrial Ophthalmology: Visual Testing Technics , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 52:370-384, 1948. 12. Crane, M. M.; Foote, F. M.; Scobee, R. G., and Green, E. L.: Screening School Children for Visual Defects, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Children's Bureau Publication No. 345, 1954. 13. Lancaster, W. B.; Dunphy, E. B.; Leahey, B. D.; Regan, J. J.; Sloane, A. E.; Yasuna, E. R.;; Stuart, H. C.; Gallagher, J. R., and Schmidt, W.: Standards for Referral of School Children for an Eye Examination , Am. J. Ophth. 37:710-718, 1954. 14. Standards for Referral of School Children for an Eye Examination, Committee Report of the New England Ophthalmological Society and Massachusetts Medical Society, Section of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology , Sight-Saving Rev. 23:223-225, 1953. 15. Department of Public Health, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, to be published. 16. Sulzman, J. H., and Davis, C. J.: The New York School Vision Tester , New York J. Med. 58:833-837, 1958. 17. Diskan, S. M.: A New Visual Screening Test for School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 39:369-374, 1955. 18. Vision , Am. Optic. Publication 36:4-5, 1952. 19. National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, A Guide for Eye Inspection and Testing Visual Acuity, Publication No. 180. 20. Scobee, R. G.: Vision Testing of School Children , Sight-Saving Rev. 20:88-95, 1950. 21. Sloane, A. E.; Dunphy, E. B.; Emmons, W. V., and Gallagher, J. R.: A Comparison of Refraction Results on the Same Individuals , Am. J. Ophth. 37:696-699, 1954. 22. Scobee, R. G.: Needless Referrals , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1302-1303, 1950. 23. Screening School Children for Visual Errors, Queries and Minor Notes , J.A.M.A. 146: 1364, 1951. 24. Eames, T. H.: A New Approach to Testing the Eyes of School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 24:1170-1173, 1941. 25. Yasuna, E. R., and Green, L. S.: An Evaluation of the Massachusetts Vision Test for Visual Screening of School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 35: 235-240, 1952. 26. Benton, C. D., Jr.: Analysis of Results with the Massachusetts Vision Test with Recommendations for Improving Its Accuracy , Am. J. Ophth. 36:363-364, 1953. 27. Gutman, E. B.: School Vision Screening , Sight-Saving Rev. 26:212-219, 1956. 28. Gray, D.: A Program for Vision Screening of School Children in Illinois , Sight-Saving Rev. 19:41-44, 1949. 29. Austin, C.: A Small Research Study of 2,077 Examined Children to Determine Screening Accuracy, Michigan Department of Health, 1960. 30. Leverett, H. M.: Vision Test Performance of School Children , Am. J. Ophth. 44:508-519, 1957. 31. Austin, C.: Personal communication to the author. 32. Kempf, G. A.; Jarmon, B. L., and Collins, S. D.: A Special Study of the Vision of School Children , Pub. Health Rep. 43:1713-1739, 1928.Crossref 33. Collins, S. D.: The Eyesight of the School Child as Determined by the Snellen Test , Pub. Health Rep. 39:3013-3027, 1924.Crossref 34. Vision Screening Manual, Vision Section, Division of Maternal and Child Health, Michigan Department of Health, August, 1959. 35. Allen, H. F.: Testing of Visual Acuity in Pre-School Children , Pediatrics 19:1093-1100, 1957. 36. Krimsky, E.: Children's Eye Problems , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1956, p. 175. 37. Colasuonno, T. M.: Preschool Vision Screening Study in Douglas County, Oregon, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, Publication No. 280, 1958. 38. Cunningham, F.: Preschool Vision Screening , Sight-Saving Rev. 27:91-95, 1957. 39. Moran, C. T.: Preschool Vision Screening in Louisville , Sight-Saving Rev. 28:92-95, 1958. 40. Sloane, A. E., and Gallagher, J. R.: A Vision Test for Pediatrician's Use , J. Pediat. 28: 140-144, 1946.Crossref 41. Gallagher, J. R.: Medical Care of the Adolescent , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1960, p. 245. 42. Schering Corporation (Bloomfield, N.J.): Personal communication to the author. 43. Breakey, A. S., and Berens, C.: To be published. 44. Scobee, R. G., and Green, E. L.: Relationships Between Lateral Heterophoria, Prism Vergence, and the Near Point , Am. J. Ophth. 31: 427-441, 1958. 45. WSMA Recommendations Regarding Visual Screening of Pre-School and School Age Children , Northwest Med. 57:802-804, 1958. 46. Blum, H. L.; Peters, H. B., and Bettman, J. W.: Vision Screening for Elementary Schools, The Orinda Study , Berkeley, University of California Press, 1959.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1960

References

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