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Scaling of Visual Acuity Measurements

Scaling of Visual Acuity Measurements Abstract • Comparison of visual acuity measurements under different conditions (eg, age, refractive error, disease progress, recovery from injury) depends crucially on the scale applied to values of the minimum angle of resolution. Four kinds of scales are examined: the minimum angle of resolution (MAR) in linear, logarithmic, exponential, and reciprocal measures. To help construct an equal-discriminability scale for visual acuity, the standard errors of the mean minimum angle of resolution in five different retinal locations were determined experimentally in two observers. Because the ratio of standard error/mean was found to be nearly a constant, the logarithmic scale of MAR is recommended for adoption as a standard for visual acuity: in it the just noticeable differences in acuity are everywhere equal on the scale. References 1. Snell AC, Sterling S: Percentage evaluation of macular vision . Arch Ophthalmol 54:443-461, 1925. 2. Wilcox WW: The basis of the dependence of visual acuity on illumination . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 18:47-56, 1932.Crossref 3. Weymouth FW: Visual sensory units and the minimal angle of resolution . Am J Ophthalmol 46:102-113, 1958. 4. Teller DY, Morse R, Borton R, et al: Visual acuity for vertical and diagonal gratings in human infants . Vision Res 14:1433-1439, 1974.Crossref 5. Laurance L: Visual Optics and Sight Testing , ed 3. London, School of Optics, 1926. 6. Hirsch MJ: Relation of visual acuity to myopia . Arch Ophthalmol 34:418-421, 1945.Crossref 7. Peters HB: The relationship between refractive errors and visual acuity at three age levels . Am J Optometry 38:194-198, 1961.Crossref 8. Wertheim T: Uber die indirekte Sehschärfe . Z Psychol Physiol Sinnesorg 7:172-189, 1894. 9. Weymouth FW, Hines DC, Acres HL, et al: Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation . Am J Ophthalmol 11:947-960, 1928. 10. Green J: Notes on the clinical determination of the acuteness of vision including the construction and graduation of optotypes . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 10:644-654, 1905. 11. Ogle KN: On the problem of an international nomenclature for designating visual acuity . Am J Ophthalmol 36:909-920, 1953. 12. Sloan LL: New test charts for the measurement of visual acuity at far and near distances . Am J Ophthalmol 48:807-813, 1959. 13. Bennett AG: Ophthalmic test types . Br J Physiol Opt 22:238-271, 1965. 14. British Standard: BS 4274:1968: Test Charts for Determining Distance Visual Acuity. British Standards Institute, 1968. 15. Deutsche Normen: DIN 58 220 B1 1,3. Sehschärfebestimmung. Beuth-Vertrieb, 1974. 16. Bailey IL, Lovie JE: New design principles for visual acuity letter charts . Am J Optom Physiol Opt 53:740-745, 1976.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Scaling of Visual Acuity Measurements

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 97 (2) – Feb 1, 1979

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1979 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1979.01020010173020
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Comparison of visual acuity measurements under different conditions (eg, age, refractive error, disease progress, recovery from injury) depends crucially on the scale applied to values of the minimum angle of resolution. Four kinds of scales are examined: the minimum angle of resolution (MAR) in linear, logarithmic, exponential, and reciprocal measures. To help construct an equal-discriminability scale for visual acuity, the standard errors of the mean minimum angle of resolution in five different retinal locations were determined experimentally in two observers. Because the ratio of standard error/mean was found to be nearly a constant, the logarithmic scale of MAR is recommended for adoption as a standard for visual acuity: in it the just noticeable differences in acuity are everywhere equal on the scale. References 1. Snell AC, Sterling S: Percentage evaluation of macular vision . Arch Ophthalmol 54:443-461, 1925. 2. Wilcox WW: The basis of the dependence of visual acuity on illumination . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 18:47-56, 1932.Crossref 3. Weymouth FW: Visual sensory units and the minimal angle of resolution . Am J Ophthalmol 46:102-113, 1958. 4. Teller DY, Morse R, Borton R, et al: Visual acuity for vertical and diagonal gratings in human infants . Vision Res 14:1433-1439, 1974.Crossref 5. Laurance L: Visual Optics and Sight Testing , ed 3. London, School of Optics, 1926. 6. Hirsch MJ: Relation of visual acuity to myopia . Arch Ophthalmol 34:418-421, 1945.Crossref 7. Peters HB: The relationship between refractive errors and visual acuity at three age levels . Am J Optometry 38:194-198, 1961.Crossref 8. Wertheim T: Uber die indirekte Sehschärfe . Z Psychol Physiol Sinnesorg 7:172-189, 1894. 9. Weymouth FW, Hines DC, Acres HL, et al: Visual acuity within the area centralis and its relation to eye movements and fixation . Am J Ophthalmol 11:947-960, 1928. 10. Green J: Notes on the clinical determination of the acuteness of vision including the construction and graduation of optotypes . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 10:644-654, 1905. 11. Ogle KN: On the problem of an international nomenclature for designating visual acuity . Am J Ophthalmol 36:909-920, 1953. 12. Sloan LL: New test charts for the measurement of visual acuity at far and near distances . Am J Ophthalmol 48:807-813, 1959. 13. Bennett AG: Ophthalmic test types . Br J Physiol Opt 22:238-271, 1965. 14. British Standard: BS 4274:1968: Test Charts for Determining Distance Visual Acuity. British Standards Institute, 1968. 15. Deutsche Normen: DIN 58 220 B1 1,3. Sehschärfebestimmung. Beuth-Vertrieb, 1974. 16. Bailey IL, Lovie JE: New design principles for visual acuity letter charts . Am J Optom Physiol Opt 53:740-745, 1976.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1979

References