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ROLE OF HEREDITY IN ETIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF STRABISMUS

ROLE OF HEREDITY IN ETIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF STRABISMUS Abstract ALTHOUGH it may seem a far-fetched endeavor to use the ponderous tool of genetics in the interpretation of everyday problems in strabismus, the hereditary approach, nevertheless, yields many clues in the etiology and management of strabismus. The aim of the present study was to analyze the multiple factors in the pathogenesis and etiology of strabismus and their transmissions. Genetics was used only as a tool for this purpose. Special attention was devoted to similar types of squint in the same family, with the hope that they may show similar patterns of response to surgical and orthoptic treatment. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Although it has been observed since the time of Hippocrates that, among other physiognomic traits, strabismus may be transmitted from parent to offspring, there have been relatively few studies analyzing the hereditary factors. Hippocrates1 stated: "If then children with bald heads are born to parents with bald heads; and References 1. Hippocrates: Airs, Waters and Places , in The Genuine Works of Hippocrates , translated by Francis Adams, New York, William Wood & Company, 1886, p. 171. 2. Böhm, L.: Das Schielen und der Sehnenschnitt in seiner Wirkungen auf Stellung und Sehkraft der Augen , Berlin, Dunker & Humblot, 1845. 3. Schmidt-Rimpler, H.: Augenheilkunde und Ophthalmoskopie , Ed. 7, Leipzig, S. Hirzel, 1901, p. 601. 4. von Graefe, A.: Motilitätstörung (1898) , in von Graefe, A., and Saemisch, E. T.: Handbuch der Augenheilkunde , Ed. 2, Berlin, Julius Springer, 1939, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 149. 5. Varese, P. M.: Vizio congenito ed ereditario della statica del bulbo oculare , Arch. ottal. 9:143-146, 1901. 6. Cohn, H.: Über Vererbung und Behandlung des Einwärts-Schielen , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 41:1047-1051, 1904. 7. Parinaud, H.: Le strabisme et son traitement , Paris, O. Dion, 1899, pp. 56-60. 8. Holthouse, E.: Convergent Strabismus and Its Treatment , London, S. A. Churchill, 1897, pp. 13-15. 9. Lang, W., and Barrett, J. W.: Concomitant Convergent Strabismus , Roy. London Ophth. Hosp. Rep. 12:133-148, 1889. 10. Worth, C. A.: Squint: Its Causes, Pathology, and Treatment , Ed. 5, London, Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1923, pp. 54, 61. 11. Post, L. T.: Suggestions for the Surgical Management of Strabismus , Am. J. Ophth. 32:345-350, 1949. 12. Clausen, W., and Bauer, J.: Beiträge und Gedanken zur Lehre von der Vererbung des Strabismus concomitans , Ztschr. Augenh. 50:314-334, 1923. 13. Waardenburg, P. J.: Das menschliche Auge und seine Erbanlagen , The Hague, Martinus Nijhof, 1932, pp. 103-109. 14. Chavasse, F. B.: Worth's Squint, or Binocular Reflexes and the Treatment of Strabismus , Seventh Edition, edited by F. Bernard Chavasse, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., 1939, pp. 308-310. 15. Czellitzer, A.: Wie vererebt sich Schielen? Arch. Rassen- u. Gesellsch. Biol. 14:377-394, 1922-1923. 16. Sicherer, W.: Weiterer Beitrag zur Vererbung des Schielens , München. med. Wchnschr. 54:1231, 1232, 1907 17. 56:2707, 1909. 18. Landon, E. B.: Hereditary Transmission of Squint , Brit. M. J. 2:1228, 1909.Crossref 19. Dufour, O.: Rev. méd. Suisse Rom. 29:322, 1909. 20. Vogt, A.: Über Vererbung von Augenleiden , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 53:188-193, 1923. 21. Burnett, S. M.: Am. J. Ophth., St. Louis 4:299, 1887. 22. Blitz, Am. J. Ophth., St. Louis 4:299, 1887. 23. Minor, James L.: Some Impressions of Certain Eye Affections in the Negro as Compared with the White Race , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 12:460-465, 1910. 24. Kollock, C. W., in discussion on Minor,22 p. 465. 25. Gover, M., and Yankey, J. B.: Physical Impairments of Members of Low-Income Farm Families—11,490 Persons in 2,477 Farm Security Administration Borrower Families, 1940 , Pub. Health Rep. 59:1163-1184 ( (Sept. 8) ) 1944; Reprint 2576.Crossref 26. Holm, S.: Le strabisme concomitant chez les palénégrides au Gabon, Afrique equatoriale française: Contribution à la question de race et de strabisme , Acta ophth. 17:367-387, 1939.Crossref 27. Scobee, R. G.: Esotropia , Am. J. Ophth. 34:817-833, 1951. 28. The following ophthalmologists furnished the pedigrees noted: Family 51, Dr. Adolph Posner; Family 47, Dr. Abraham J. Lanchner; Family 66, Dr. Hunter H. Romaine; Family 70, Dr. Arthur B. Duel; Family 80A, Dr. Bernard A. Roberts. 29. In two family trees that are not reported here, there were cousins, one of whom had the usual type of esotropia, while the other had a horizontal nystagmus but no strabismus. In another family, a sister had a monocular esotropia; her brother had a horizontal nystagmus. 30. Stern, C.: The Principles of Human Genetics , San Francisco, W. H. Freeman & Company, 1950, pp. 133-135. 31. von Csapody-Mócsy, M.: Ein Beitrag zur Pathologie des Begleitschielens , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 92:385-387, 1934. 32. Barrie, T. S.: The Incidence of Squint at Various Ages , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 42:273-277, 1922. 33. Stern, C.: The Principles of Human Genetics , San Francisco, W. H. Freeman & Company, 1950, p. 160. 34. O'Brien, C. S.: Strabismus Ophthalmic Symposium , edited by James H. Allen, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1951, pp. 388-393. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

ROLE OF HEREDITY IN ETIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF STRABISMUS

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1952 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1952.01700030004001
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract ALTHOUGH it may seem a far-fetched endeavor to use the ponderous tool of genetics in the interpretation of everyday problems in strabismus, the hereditary approach, nevertheless, yields many clues in the etiology and management of strabismus. The aim of the present study was to analyze the multiple factors in the pathogenesis and etiology of strabismus and their transmissions. Genetics was used only as a tool for this purpose. Special attention was devoted to similar types of squint in the same family, with the hope that they may show similar patterns of response to surgical and orthoptic treatment. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Although it has been observed since the time of Hippocrates that, among other physiognomic traits, strabismus may be transmitted from parent to offspring, there have been relatively few studies analyzing the hereditary factors. Hippocrates1 stated: "If then children with bald heads are born to parents with bald heads; and References 1. Hippocrates: Airs, Waters and Places , in The Genuine Works of Hippocrates , translated by Francis Adams, New York, William Wood & Company, 1886, p. 171. 2. Böhm, L.: Das Schielen und der Sehnenschnitt in seiner Wirkungen auf Stellung und Sehkraft der Augen , Berlin, Dunker & Humblot, 1845. 3. Schmidt-Rimpler, H.: Augenheilkunde und Ophthalmoskopie , Ed. 7, Leipzig, S. Hirzel, 1901, p. 601. 4. von Graefe, A.: Motilitätstörung (1898) , in von Graefe, A., and Saemisch, E. T.: Handbuch der Augenheilkunde , Ed. 2, Berlin, Julius Springer, 1939, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 149. 5. Varese, P. M.: Vizio congenito ed ereditario della statica del bulbo oculare , Arch. ottal. 9:143-146, 1901. 6. Cohn, H.: Über Vererbung und Behandlung des Einwärts-Schielen , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 41:1047-1051, 1904. 7. Parinaud, H.: Le strabisme et son traitement , Paris, O. Dion, 1899, pp. 56-60. 8. Holthouse, E.: Convergent Strabismus and Its Treatment , London, S. A. Churchill, 1897, pp. 13-15. 9. Lang, W., and Barrett, J. W.: Concomitant Convergent Strabismus , Roy. London Ophth. Hosp. Rep. 12:133-148, 1889. 10. Worth, C. A.: Squint: Its Causes, Pathology, and Treatment , Ed. 5, London, Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1923, pp. 54, 61. 11. Post, L. T.: Suggestions for the Surgical Management of Strabismus , Am. J. Ophth. 32:345-350, 1949. 12. Clausen, W., and Bauer, J.: Beiträge und Gedanken zur Lehre von der Vererbung des Strabismus concomitans , Ztschr. Augenh. 50:314-334, 1923. 13. Waardenburg, P. J.: Das menschliche Auge und seine Erbanlagen , The Hague, Martinus Nijhof, 1932, pp. 103-109. 14. Chavasse, F. B.: Worth's Squint, or Binocular Reflexes and the Treatment of Strabismus , Seventh Edition, edited by F. Bernard Chavasse, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., 1939, pp. 308-310. 15. Czellitzer, A.: Wie vererebt sich Schielen? Arch. Rassen- u. Gesellsch. Biol. 14:377-394, 1922-1923. 16. Sicherer, W.: Weiterer Beitrag zur Vererbung des Schielens , München. med. Wchnschr. 54:1231, 1232, 1907 17. 56:2707, 1909. 18. Landon, E. B.: Hereditary Transmission of Squint , Brit. M. J. 2:1228, 1909.Crossref 19. Dufour, O.: Rev. méd. Suisse Rom. 29:322, 1909. 20. Vogt, A.: Über Vererbung von Augenleiden , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 53:188-193, 1923. 21. Burnett, S. M.: Am. J. Ophth., St. Louis 4:299, 1887. 22. Blitz, Am. J. Ophth., St. Louis 4:299, 1887. 23. Minor, James L.: Some Impressions of Certain Eye Affections in the Negro as Compared with the White Race , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 12:460-465, 1910. 24. Kollock, C. W., in discussion on Minor,22 p. 465. 25. Gover, M., and Yankey, J. B.: Physical Impairments of Members of Low-Income Farm Families—11,490 Persons in 2,477 Farm Security Administration Borrower Families, 1940 , Pub. Health Rep. 59:1163-1184 ( (Sept. 8) ) 1944; Reprint 2576.Crossref 26. Holm, S.: Le strabisme concomitant chez les palénégrides au Gabon, Afrique equatoriale française: Contribution à la question de race et de strabisme , Acta ophth. 17:367-387, 1939.Crossref 27. Scobee, R. G.: Esotropia , Am. J. Ophth. 34:817-833, 1951. 28. The following ophthalmologists furnished the pedigrees noted: Family 51, Dr. Adolph Posner; Family 47, Dr. Abraham J. Lanchner; Family 66, Dr. Hunter H. Romaine; Family 70, Dr. Arthur B. Duel; Family 80A, Dr. Bernard A. Roberts. 29. In two family trees that are not reported here, there were cousins, one of whom had the usual type of esotropia, while the other had a horizontal nystagmus but no strabismus. In another family, a sister had a monocular esotropia; her brother had a horizontal nystagmus. 30. Stern, C.: The Principles of Human Genetics , San Francisco, W. H. Freeman & Company, 1950, pp. 133-135. 31. von Csapody-Mócsy, M.: Ein Beitrag zur Pathologie des Begleitschielens , Klin. Monatsbl. Augenh. 92:385-387, 1934. 32. Barrie, T. S.: The Incidence of Squint at Various Ages , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 42:273-277, 1922. 33. Stern, C.: The Principles of Human Genetics , San Francisco, W. H. Freeman & Company, 1950, p. 160. 34. O'Brien, C. S.: Strabismus Ophthalmic Symposium , edited by James H. Allen, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1951, pp. 388-393.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1952

References

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