Abstract In current literature there seems to be increasing emphasis on the psychogenic aspects of diseases, even those illnesses which are usually considered purely biological in etiology, such as pulmonary tuberculosis.17 In an effort to clarify the area of "psychosomatic disorders" and to differentiate conversion hysteria, organ neuroses, and typical biological diseases, the psychiatric term "psychophysiologic autonomic and visceral disorder" is now preferred. This term implies that the "symptoms are due to a chronic and exaggerated state of normal physiologic expression of emotion... which may lead to structural changes."2 Psychophysiologic disorders, then, are restricted to those disorders that involve organs and viscera innervated by the autonomic nervous system, rather than by a more voluntary control or perception. The concept involved in the definition has directed research toward studying each type of disorder and its related personality type or traits. This approach, however, has created conflicting findings and disagreements. For References 1. Alexander, F., and French, T. M., Editors: Studies in Psychosomatic Medicine: An Approach to the Causes and Treatment of Vegetative Disturbances , New York, The Ronald Press Company, 1948. 2. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual: Mental Disorders, prepared by the Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics of the American Psychiatric Association , Washington, D. C., 1955, pp. 29-31. 3. Gildea, E. F.: Special Features of Personality Which Are Common to Certain Psychosomatic Disorders , Psychosom. Med. 11:273, 1949.Crossref 4. Hamilton, M.: Psychosomatics, with Foreword by D. R. MacCalman , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1955. 5. Harris, I. D.: Mood, Anger and Somatic Dysfunction , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 113:152, 1951. 6. Lacey, J. I.; Bateman, D. E., and VanLehn, R.: Autonomic Response and Specificity: An Experimental Study , Psychosom. Med. 15:8, 1953. 7. Landis, C.; Zubin, J., and Mettler, F. A.: The Functions of the Human Frontal Lobe , J. Psychol. 30:123, 1950. 8. May, R.: The Meaning of Anxiety , New York, The Ronald Press Company, 1950. 9. Miller, H., and Baruch, D. W.: A Study of Hostility in Allergic Children , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 20:506, 1950. 10. Miller, H., and Baruch, D. W.: Psychological Dynamics in Allergic Patients as Shown in Group and Individual Psychotherapy , J. Consult. Psychol. 12:111, 1948. 11. Miller, H., and Baruch, D.: Psychosomatic Studies of Children with Allergic Manifestations— Maternal Rejection: A Study of 63 Cases , Psychosom. Med. 10:275, 1948. 12. Niswander, G. D.; Cummings, W. E.; Oakey, K. B., and Holt, E. K.: Results of Lobotomy Operations , Dis. Nerv. System 18:294, 1957. 13. Reiner, E. R., and Sands, S. L.: Lobotomy and Psychopathology , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 65:48, 1951. 14. Spingarn, J. A.: Brain Injury and Morphine Withdrawal , Psychol. Bull. 54:65, 1957. 15. Weider, A., Editor: Contributions Toward Medical Psychology: Theory and Psychodiagnostic Methods , New York, The Ronald Press Company, 1953, Vol. I. 16. Weiss, E., and English, O. S.: Psychosomatic Medicine: Clinical Application of Psychopathology to General Medical Problems , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1947, pp. 419-437. 17. Hamilton,4 p. 50. 18. Hamilton,4 pp. 207-208. 19. May,8 p. 52.
A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Feb 1, 1959
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