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ROLE OF ALLERGY IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE COMMON COLD

ROLE OF ALLERGY IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE COMMON COLD Abstract ALTHOUGH the virus is generally accepted as the causative organism of the common cold, much obscurity exists concerning the role of contributory factors, such as exposure to cold, fatigue and debility. These elements of one's environment have been much discussed in the literature, so that only a brief résumé will be necessary here. The purpose of this paper, however, is to suggest another factor, allergy, which will be discussed in relation to factors already known. THE CASE OF EXPOSURE TO COLD Since time immemorial, chilling has been considered a factor in the pathogenesis of the common cold. The Germans express this thought in the term Erkältung. Certain investigators1 had noted changes in the nasal mucosa of persons exposed to heat and cold, but none of these investigators produced laboratory evidence of these changes until Mudd and his associates2 published their work. They then showed that cutaneous chilling causes References 1. Hill, L., and Muecke, F. F.: Colds in the Head and the Influence of Warm Confined Atmospheres on the Mucous Membranes of the Nose and Throat , Lancet 1:1291, 1943. 2. Schade, H.: Untersuchungen in der Erkältungsfrage , München. med. Wchnschr. 66:1021, 1919 3. 67:449, 1920. 4. Mudd, S.; Grant, S. B., and Goldman, A.: Reactions of the Nasal Cavity and Postnasal Space to Chilling of the Body Surface: I. Vasomotor Reactions , J. Exper. Med. 34:11, 1921.Crossref 5. Ralston, H. J., and Kerr, W. J.: Vascular Responses of the Nasal Mucosa to Thermal Stimuli, with Some Observations on Skin Temperature , Am. J. Physiol. 144:305, 1945. 6. Spiesman, I. G.: An Experimental and Clinical Study of the Common Cold , Ann. Otol., Rhin. & Laryng. 50:204, 1941. 7. Spiesman, I. G., and Arnold, L.: Host Susceptibility to Common Colds , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 4:438, 1937. 8. Ralston and Kerr.3 9. Kruse, W.: Die Erreger von Husten und Schnupfen , München. med. Wchnschr. 61:1547, 1914. 10. Powell, H. M., and Clowes, G. H. A.: Cultivation of the Virus of Common Cold and Its Inoculation in Human Subjects , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 29:332, 1931. 11. Dochez, A. R.; Shibley, G. S., and Mills, K. C.: Studies in Common Cold: IV. Experimental Transmission of Common Cold to Anthropoid Apes and Human Beings by Means of a Filtrable Agent , J. Exper. Med. 52:701, 1930. 12. Powell, H. M.; Sparks, A. L., and Clowes, G. H. A.: Further Inoculation-Experiments with the Common Cold Virus , J. Immunol. , 38:309, 1940. 13. Heinbecker, P., and Irvine-Jones, E. L. M.: Susceptibility of Eskimos to the Common Cold and Study of Their Natural Immunity to Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever and Bacterial Filtrates , J. Immunol. 15:395, 1928. 14. Paul, J. H., and Freese, H. L.: Epidemiological and Bacteriological Study of the "Common Cold" in an Isolated Arctic Community (Spitzbergen) , Am. J. Hyg. 17:517, 1933. 15. Burky, E. L., and Smillie, W. G.: Nasopharyngeal Flora in Health and During Respiratory Disease in Isolated Communities in Alabama and Labrador , J. Exper. Med. 50:643, 1929. 16. Hill, L.: The Science of Ventilation and Open Air Treatment , Medical Research Council, Special Report Series, no. 52, London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1919, (pt. 1) , p. 141. 17. Smillie, W. G.: Observations on the Epidemiology of the Common Cold , New England J. Med. 223:631, 1940. 18. Brown, W. B.; Mahoney, F.; Niedringhaus, A., and Locke, A.: Weather and Susceptibility in Relation to the Spread of Common Cold: Effect of Ascorbic Acid, in Massive Dosage, on Duration , J. Immunol. 50:161, 1945. 19. Sargent, F.: Stability of Resistance to the Common Cold , Am. J. Hyg. 45:29, 1947. 20. Duffield, T. J.: The Weather and the Common Cold , Am. J. Pub. Health. 19:1, 1929. 21. Frost, W. H., and Gover, M.: The Incidence and Time Distribution of Common Colds in Several Groups Kept Under Continuous Observation , Pub. Health Rep. 47:1815, 1932. 22. Locke, A.: Lack of Fitness as the Predisposing Factor in Infections of the Type Encountered in Pneumonia and in Common Cold , J. Infect. Dis. 60:106, 1937 23. Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: I. Capacity to Sustain Effective Circulation , J. Immunol. 36:159, 1939 24. IV. The Problem of Common Cold , J. Immunol. 36:365, 1939. 25. Locke, A., and Main, E. R.: Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: II. Ability to Withstand Shock , J. Immunol. 36:173, 1939. 26. Locke, A.: Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: V. Carbon Dioxide Tolerance , J. Immunol. 36:365, 1939. 27. Smiley, D. F.: Cold Susceptibles vs. Normals: Physique and Past Medical History , Am. J. Hyg. 9:473, 1929. 28. Sargent, F., and others: Studies in the Meteorology of Upper Respiratory Infections , Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 19:385, 1938 29. 20:141, 1940. 30. Lurie, M. B.: Heredity, Constitution and Tuberculosis: Experimental Study , Am. Rev. Tuberc. ( (supp.) ) 44:1, 1941. 31. Smiley, D. F.: A Study of the Acute Infections of the Throat and Respiratory System , J. A. M. A. 82:540 ( (Feb. 16) ) 1924Crossref 32. footnote 15. 33. Layton, T. B.: The Common Cold , Practitioner 154:65, 1945. 34. Coca, A. F.: Familial Nonreaginic Food Allergy as a Predisposing Cause of Common Cold , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 26:757, 1941. 35. Hoelzel, F.: Nutritional Edema and Its Relation to the Incidence of Common Colds , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 25:454, 1928. 36. McQuarrie, I.: Protein Metabolism of Children on Diets Extremely Low in Carbohydrates , J. Nutrition 2:31, 1929. 37. Higgins, H. L.: Some Physiological and Clinical Effects of High Fat Feeding , New England J. Med. 203:145, 1930. 38. Brown, W. B.; Graham, I.; Niedringhaus, A., and Locke, A.: Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: VI. Incidence of Common Cold in Persons With and Without Accessory Symptomatology of Nonreaginic Food-Allergy , J. Immunol. 46:101, 1943. 39. Brown, W. B., and Locke, A. P.: Fitness, Food Allergy and Predisposition to Common Cold , J. Missouri M. A. 40:99, 1943. 40. Duke, W. W.: Urticaria Caused Specifically by the Action of Physical Agents (Light, Cold, Heat, Freezing, Burns, Mechanical Irritation and Physical and Mental Exertion) , J. A. M. A. 83:3 ( (July 5) ) 1924 41. Physical Allergy: Preliminary Report , J. A. M. A. 84:736 ( (March 7) ) 1925. 42. Swineford, O., Jr.: Physical Allergy: Its Role as Manifested in the Routine Study of Three Hundred and Twenty-Five Consecutive Allergic Cases , J. Allergy 6:175, 1935. 43. Vaughan, W. T.: Practice of Allergy , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1939. 44. Bray, G. W.: A Case of Physical Allergy , Brit. J. Child. Dis. 32:45, 1935. 45. Duran-Reynals, F.: Tissue Permeability and the Spreading Factor in Infection: Contribution to Host; Parasite Problem , Bact. Rev. 6:197, 1942. 46. Fox, N.; Harned, J. W., and Peluse, S.: Borderline Allergy: Its Relation to Hyperplastic Disease of the Respiratory Tract , Arch. Otolaryng. 31:502 ( (March) ) 1940. 47. Fox. N., and Harned, J. W.: Treatment of Asthmatic Patients in Otolaryngologic Practice , Arch. Otolaryng. 25:393 ( (April) ) 1937.Crossref 48. Troescher-Elam, E.; Ancona, G., and Kerr, W. J.: Histamine-Like Substance Present in Nasal Secretions of Common Cold and Allergic Rhinitis , Am. J. Physiol. 144:711, 1945. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Otolaryngology American Medical Association

ROLE OF ALLERGY IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE COMMON COLD

Archives of Otolaryngology , Volume 49 (6) – Jun 1, 1949

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1949 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9977
DOI
10.1001/archotol.1949.03760120002001
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Abstract

Abstract ALTHOUGH the virus is generally accepted as the causative organism of the common cold, much obscurity exists concerning the role of contributory factors, such as exposure to cold, fatigue and debility. These elements of one's environment have been much discussed in the literature, so that only a brief résumé will be necessary here. The purpose of this paper, however, is to suggest another factor, allergy, which will be discussed in relation to factors already known. THE CASE OF EXPOSURE TO COLD Since time immemorial, chilling has been considered a factor in the pathogenesis of the common cold. The Germans express this thought in the term Erkältung. Certain investigators1 had noted changes in the nasal mucosa of persons exposed to heat and cold, but none of these investigators produced laboratory evidence of these changes until Mudd and his associates2 published their work. They then showed that cutaneous chilling causes References 1. Hill, L., and Muecke, F. F.: Colds in the Head and the Influence of Warm Confined Atmospheres on the Mucous Membranes of the Nose and Throat , Lancet 1:1291, 1943. 2. Schade, H.: Untersuchungen in der Erkältungsfrage , München. med. Wchnschr. 66:1021, 1919 3. 67:449, 1920. 4. Mudd, S.; Grant, S. B., and Goldman, A.: Reactions of the Nasal Cavity and Postnasal Space to Chilling of the Body Surface: I. Vasomotor Reactions , J. Exper. Med. 34:11, 1921.Crossref 5. Ralston, H. J., and Kerr, W. J.: Vascular Responses of the Nasal Mucosa to Thermal Stimuli, with Some Observations on Skin Temperature , Am. J. Physiol. 144:305, 1945. 6. Spiesman, I. G.: An Experimental and Clinical Study of the Common Cold , Ann. Otol., Rhin. & Laryng. 50:204, 1941. 7. Spiesman, I. G., and Arnold, L.: Host Susceptibility to Common Colds , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 4:438, 1937. 8. Ralston and Kerr.3 9. Kruse, W.: Die Erreger von Husten und Schnupfen , München. med. Wchnschr. 61:1547, 1914. 10. Powell, H. M., and Clowes, G. H. A.: Cultivation of the Virus of Common Cold and Its Inoculation in Human Subjects , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 29:332, 1931. 11. Dochez, A. R.; Shibley, G. S., and Mills, K. C.: Studies in Common Cold: IV. Experimental Transmission of Common Cold to Anthropoid Apes and Human Beings by Means of a Filtrable Agent , J. Exper. Med. 52:701, 1930. 12. Powell, H. M.; Sparks, A. L., and Clowes, G. H. A.: Further Inoculation-Experiments with the Common Cold Virus , J. Immunol. , 38:309, 1940. 13. Heinbecker, P., and Irvine-Jones, E. L. M.: Susceptibility of Eskimos to the Common Cold and Study of Their Natural Immunity to Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever and Bacterial Filtrates , J. Immunol. 15:395, 1928. 14. Paul, J. H., and Freese, H. L.: Epidemiological and Bacteriological Study of the "Common Cold" in an Isolated Arctic Community (Spitzbergen) , Am. J. Hyg. 17:517, 1933. 15. Burky, E. L., and Smillie, W. G.: Nasopharyngeal Flora in Health and During Respiratory Disease in Isolated Communities in Alabama and Labrador , J. Exper. Med. 50:643, 1929. 16. Hill, L.: The Science of Ventilation and Open Air Treatment , Medical Research Council, Special Report Series, no. 52, London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1919, (pt. 1) , p. 141. 17. Smillie, W. G.: Observations on the Epidemiology of the Common Cold , New England J. Med. 223:631, 1940. 18. Brown, W. B.; Mahoney, F.; Niedringhaus, A., and Locke, A.: Weather and Susceptibility in Relation to the Spread of Common Cold: Effect of Ascorbic Acid, in Massive Dosage, on Duration , J. Immunol. 50:161, 1945. 19. Sargent, F.: Stability of Resistance to the Common Cold , Am. J. Hyg. 45:29, 1947. 20. Duffield, T. J.: The Weather and the Common Cold , Am. J. Pub. Health. 19:1, 1929. 21. Frost, W. H., and Gover, M.: The Incidence and Time Distribution of Common Colds in Several Groups Kept Under Continuous Observation , Pub. Health Rep. 47:1815, 1932. 22. Locke, A.: Lack of Fitness as the Predisposing Factor in Infections of the Type Encountered in Pneumonia and in Common Cold , J. Infect. Dis. 60:106, 1937 23. Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: I. Capacity to Sustain Effective Circulation , J. Immunol. 36:159, 1939 24. IV. The Problem of Common Cold , J. Immunol. 36:365, 1939. 25. Locke, A., and Main, E. R.: Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: II. Ability to Withstand Shock , J. Immunol. 36:173, 1939. 26. Locke, A.: Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: V. Carbon Dioxide Tolerance , J. Immunol. 36:365, 1939. 27. Smiley, D. F.: Cold Susceptibles vs. Normals: Physique and Past Medical History , Am. J. Hyg. 9:473, 1929. 28. Sargent, F., and others: Studies in the Meteorology of Upper Respiratory Infections , Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 19:385, 1938 29. 20:141, 1940. 30. Lurie, M. B.: Heredity, Constitution and Tuberculosis: Experimental Study , Am. Rev. Tuberc. ( (supp.) ) 44:1, 1941. 31. Smiley, D. F.: A Study of the Acute Infections of the Throat and Respiratory System , J. A. M. A. 82:540 ( (Feb. 16) ) 1924Crossref 32. footnote 15. 33. Layton, T. B.: The Common Cold , Practitioner 154:65, 1945. 34. Coca, A. F.: Familial Nonreaginic Food Allergy as a Predisposing Cause of Common Cold , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 26:757, 1941. 35. Hoelzel, F.: Nutritional Edema and Its Relation to the Incidence of Common Colds , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 25:454, 1928. 36. McQuarrie, I.: Protein Metabolism of Children on Diets Extremely Low in Carbohydrates , J. Nutrition 2:31, 1929. 37. Higgins, H. L.: Some Physiological and Clinical Effects of High Fat Feeding , New England J. Med. 203:145, 1930. 38. Brown, W. B.; Graham, I.; Niedringhaus, A., and Locke, A.: Non-Specific Factors in Resistance: VI. Incidence of Common Cold in Persons With and Without Accessory Symptomatology of Nonreaginic Food-Allergy , J. Immunol. 46:101, 1943. 39. Brown, W. B., and Locke, A. P.: Fitness, Food Allergy and Predisposition to Common Cold , J. Missouri M. A. 40:99, 1943. 40. Duke, W. W.: Urticaria Caused Specifically by the Action of Physical Agents (Light, Cold, Heat, Freezing, Burns, Mechanical Irritation and Physical and Mental Exertion) , J. A. M. A. 83:3 ( (July 5) ) 1924 41. Physical Allergy: Preliminary Report , J. A. M. A. 84:736 ( (March 7) ) 1925. 42. Swineford, O., Jr.: Physical Allergy: Its Role as Manifested in the Routine Study of Three Hundred and Twenty-Five Consecutive Allergic Cases , J. Allergy 6:175, 1935. 43. Vaughan, W. T.: Practice of Allergy , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1939. 44. Bray, G. W.: A Case of Physical Allergy , Brit. J. Child. Dis. 32:45, 1935. 45. Duran-Reynals, F.: Tissue Permeability and the Spreading Factor in Infection: Contribution to Host; Parasite Problem , Bact. Rev. 6:197, 1942. 46. Fox, N.; Harned, J. W., and Peluse, S.: Borderline Allergy: Its Relation to Hyperplastic Disease of the Respiratory Tract , Arch. Otolaryng. 31:502 ( (March) ) 1940. 47. Fox. N., and Harned, J. W.: Treatment of Asthmatic Patients in Otolaryngologic Practice , Arch. Otolaryng. 25:393 ( (April) ) 1937.Crossref 48. Troescher-Elam, E.; Ancona, G., and Kerr, W. J.: Histamine-Like Substance Present in Nasal Secretions of Common Cold and Allergic Rhinitis , Am. J. Physiol. 144:711, 1945.

Journal

Archives of OtolaryngologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1949

References