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Risk Factors and Early Extracoronary Atherosclerotic Plaques Detected by Three-Site Ultrasound Imaging in Hypercholesterolemic Men

Risk Factors and Early Extracoronary Atherosclerotic Plaques Detected by Three-Site Ultrasound... Abstract Ultrasonic detection of atherosclerotic plaque of carotid abdominal aortic and femoral arteries and evaluation of risk factors were performed in 208 hypercholesterolemic men without cardiovascular disease. Twenty-six percent of them had no plaque. Plaque at the carotid, aortic, and femoral sites was found in 37%, 48%, and 53% of subjects, respectively. Plaque was associated (1) in carotid arteries with increased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; (2) in the aorta with increased age, pressure, glycemia, and smoking; and (3) in femoral arteries with increased age, systolic pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking. Multiple regression analysis showed correlations between carotid plaque and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; aortic plaque and age, smoking, glycemia, and pressure; femoral plaque and age, smoking, and pressure. This suggests that multiple risk factors influence lesions, and risk profile differs according to atherosis site. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:950-956) References 1. Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T, McNamara PM. Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study . Ann Intern Med. 1971;74:1-12.Crossref 2. Stamler J, Wentworth D, Neaton JD. Is relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? JAMA. 1986;256:334-339.Crossref 3. The Lipid Research Clinics coronary primary prevention trial results: reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease . JAMA. 1984;251:351-364.Crossref 4. Blankenhorn DH, Rooney JA, Curry JP. Noninvasive assessment of atherosclerosis . Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1984;26:295-307.Crossref 5. Salonen R, Seppanen K, Rauramaa R, Salonen JK. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and serum cholesterol in Eastern Finland. Arteriosclerosis. 1988;8:788-792.Crossref 6. Gordon T, Kannel WB. Predisposition to atherosclerosis in the head, heart, and legs: the Framingham Study . JAMA. 1972;221:661-669.Crossref 7. The Expert Panel. Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults . Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:36-69.Crossref 8. Ellefson RD, Carawat WT. Nutrition . In: Tietz NW, ed. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1987:477-479. 9. Stein EA. Nutrition . In: Tietz NW, ed. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1987:471-472. 10. Schaeffer EJ, Levy RI. Pathogenesis and management of lipoprotein disorders . N Engl J Med. 1985;20:1300-1310. 11. Weintraub WS, Klein LW, Seelaus PA, Agarwal JB, Helfant RH. Importance of total life consumption of cigarettes as a risk factor for coronary artery disease . Am J Cardiol. 1985;55:669-672.Crossref 12. Hennerici M, Reifschneider G, Trockel U, Aulich A. Detection of early atherosclerotic lesions by duplex scanning of the carotid artery . J Clin Ultrasound. 1984;12:455-464.Crossref 13. Wetzner SM, Kiser LC, Bezreh JS. Duplex ultrasound imaging: vascular applications . Radiology. 1984;150:507-514.Crossref 14. McGullagh P. Regression models for ordinal data . J R Stat Soc B. 1980;42:109-142. 15. Simon A, Levenson J. Overview on atherosclerotic systolic hypertension . Int J Cardiol. 1987;16:1-18.Crossref 16. Pignoli P, Tremoli E, Poli A, Oreste P, Paoletti R. Intimal plus medial thickness of the arterial wall: a direct measurement with ultrasound imaging . Circulation. 1986;74:1399-1406.Crossref 17. Roberts JC, Moses C, Wilkins RH. Autopsy studies in atherosclerosis, I: distribution and severity in patients dying without morphologic evidence of atherosclerotic catastrophe . Circulation. 1959;20:S11-S19. 18. Ku DN, Giddens DP, Zarins CK, Glagov S. Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation: pulsatile correlation between plaque location and low oscillating wall shear stress . Arteriosclerosis. 1985;5:293-302.Crossref 19. Simon A, Levenson J, Flaud P. Pulsatile flow and oscillating wall shear stress in the brachial artery of normotensive and hypertensive subjects . Cardiovasc Res. 1990;6:150-152. 20. Josse MO, Touboul PJ, Mas JL, Laplane D, Bousser MG. Prevalance of asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis . Neuroepidemiology. 1987;6:150-152.Crossref 21. Merode TV, Hick P, Hocks APG, Reneman RS. Serum HDL/total cholesterol ratio and blood pressure in asymptomatic atherosclerotic lesions of the cervical carotid arteries in men . Stroke. 1985;16:34-38.Crossref 22. Newman WP, Friedman DS, Voors AW, et al. Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis: the Bogalusa Heart Study . N Engl J Med. 1986;314:138-144.Crossref 23. Schwartz CJ, Mitchell JRA. Observations on localization of arterial plaques . Circ Res. 1962;11:63-73. 24. Hollander W. Role of hypertension in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease . Am J Cardiol. 1976;38:786-800.Crossref 25. Maarek B, Simon A, Levenson J, Pithois-Merli I, Bouthier J. Heterogeneity of subclinical damage of large arteries in treated systemic hypertension . Am J Cardiol. 1987;59:414-417.Crossref 26. Blankenhorn DH, Kramsh DK. Reversal of atherosis and sclerosis, the two components of atherosclerosis . Circulation. 1989;79:1-7.Crossref 27. McGill HC. The cardiovascular pathology of smoking . Am Heart J. 1988;115:250-257.Crossref 28. Levenson J, Simon A, Cambien F, Beretti C. Cigarette smoking and hypertension: factors independently associated with blood hyperviscosity and arterial rigidity . Arteriosclerosis. 1987;6:S72-S78. 29. Pomrehn P, Duncan B, Weissfeld L, et al. The association of dyslipoproteinemia with symptoms and signs of peripheral arterial disease: the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study . Circulation. 1986;73:100-109.Crossref 30. O'Rourke MF. Aging and arterial function . In: Arterial Function in Health and Disease . New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1982:185-195. 31. Simon A, Levenson J, Bouthier J, Safar M, Avolio P. Evidence of early degenerative changes in large arteries in human essential hypertension . Hypertension. 1985;7:675-680.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Risk Factors and Early Extracoronary Atherosclerotic Plaques Detected by Three-Site Ultrasound Imaging in Hypercholesterolemic Men

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1991.00400050094018
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Ultrasonic detection of atherosclerotic plaque of carotid abdominal aortic and femoral arteries and evaluation of risk factors were performed in 208 hypercholesterolemic men without cardiovascular disease. Twenty-six percent of them had no plaque. Plaque at the carotid, aortic, and femoral sites was found in 37%, 48%, and 53% of subjects, respectively. Plaque was associated (1) in carotid arteries with increased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; (2) in the aorta with increased age, pressure, glycemia, and smoking; and (3) in femoral arteries with increased age, systolic pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking. Multiple regression analysis showed correlations between carotid plaque and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; aortic plaque and age, smoking, glycemia, and pressure; femoral plaque and age, smoking, and pressure. This suggests that multiple risk factors influence lesions, and risk profile differs according to atherosis site. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:950-956) References 1. Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T, McNamara PM. Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study . Ann Intern Med. 1971;74:1-12.Crossref 2. Stamler J, Wentworth D, Neaton JD. Is relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? JAMA. 1986;256:334-339.Crossref 3. The Lipid Research Clinics coronary primary prevention trial results: reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease . JAMA. 1984;251:351-364.Crossref 4. Blankenhorn DH, Rooney JA, Curry JP. Noninvasive assessment of atherosclerosis . Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1984;26:295-307.Crossref 5. Salonen R, Seppanen K, Rauramaa R, Salonen JK. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and serum cholesterol in Eastern Finland. Arteriosclerosis. 1988;8:788-792.Crossref 6. Gordon T, Kannel WB. Predisposition to atherosclerosis in the head, heart, and legs: the Framingham Study . JAMA. 1972;221:661-669.Crossref 7. The Expert Panel. Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults . Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:36-69.Crossref 8. Ellefson RD, Carawat WT. Nutrition . In: Tietz NW, ed. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1987:477-479. 9. Stein EA. Nutrition . In: Tietz NW, ed. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1987:471-472. 10. Schaeffer EJ, Levy RI. Pathogenesis and management of lipoprotein disorders . N Engl J Med. 1985;20:1300-1310. 11. Weintraub WS, Klein LW, Seelaus PA, Agarwal JB, Helfant RH. Importance of total life consumption of cigarettes as a risk factor for coronary artery disease . Am J Cardiol. 1985;55:669-672.Crossref 12. Hennerici M, Reifschneider G, Trockel U, Aulich A. Detection of early atherosclerotic lesions by duplex scanning of the carotid artery . J Clin Ultrasound. 1984;12:455-464.Crossref 13. Wetzner SM, Kiser LC, Bezreh JS. Duplex ultrasound imaging: vascular applications . Radiology. 1984;150:507-514.Crossref 14. McGullagh P. Regression models for ordinal data . J R Stat Soc B. 1980;42:109-142. 15. Simon A, Levenson J. Overview on atherosclerotic systolic hypertension . Int J Cardiol. 1987;16:1-18.Crossref 16. Pignoli P, Tremoli E, Poli A, Oreste P, Paoletti R. Intimal plus medial thickness of the arterial wall: a direct measurement with ultrasound imaging . Circulation. 1986;74:1399-1406.Crossref 17. Roberts JC, Moses C, Wilkins RH. Autopsy studies in atherosclerosis, I: distribution and severity in patients dying without morphologic evidence of atherosclerotic catastrophe . Circulation. 1959;20:S11-S19. 18. Ku DN, Giddens DP, Zarins CK, Glagov S. Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation: pulsatile correlation between plaque location and low oscillating wall shear stress . Arteriosclerosis. 1985;5:293-302.Crossref 19. Simon A, Levenson J, Flaud P. Pulsatile flow and oscillating wall shear stress in the brachial artery of normotensive and hypertensive subjects . Cardiovasc Res. 1990;6:150-152. 20. Josse MO, Touboul PJ, Mas JL, Laplane D, Bousser MG. Prevalance of asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis . Neuroepidemiology. 1987;6:150-152.Crossref 21. Merode TV, Hick P, Hocks APG, Reneman RS. Serum HDL/total cholesterol ratio and blood pressure in asymptomatic atherosclerotic lesions of the cervical carotid arteries in men . Stroke. 1985;16:34-38.Crossref 22. Newman WP, Friedman DS, Voors AW, et al. Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis: the Bogalusa Heart Study . N Engl J Med. 1986;314:138-144.Crossref 23. Schwartz CJ, Mitchell JRA. Observations on localization of arterial plaques . Circ Res. 1962;11:63-73. 24. Hollander W. Role of hypertension in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease . Am J Cardiol. 1976;38:786-800.Crossref 25. Maarek B, Simon A, Levenson J, Pithois-Merli I, Bouthier J. Heterogeneity of subclinical damage of large arteries in treated systemic hypertension . Am J Cardiol. 1987;59:414-417.Crossref 26. Blankenhorn DH, Kramsh DK. Reversal of atherosis and sclerosis, the two components of atherosclerosis . Circulation. 1989;79:1-7.Crossref 27. McGill HC. The cardiovascular pathology of smoking . Am Heart J. 1988;115:250-257.Crossref 28. Levenson J, Simon A, Cambien F, Beretti C. Cigarette smoking and hypertension: factors independently associated with blood hyperviscosity and arterial rigidity . Arteriosclerosis. 1987;6:S72-S78. 29. Pomrehn P, Duncan B, Weissfeld L, et al. The association of dyslipoproteinemia with symptoms and signs of peripheral arterial disease: the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study . Circulation. 1986;73:100-109.Crossref 30. O'Rourke MF. Aging and arterial function . In: Arterial Function in Health and Disease . New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1982:185-195. 31. Simon A, Levenson J, Bouthier J, Safar M, Avolio P. Evidence of early degenerative changes in large arteries in human essential hypertension . Hypertension. 1985;7:675-680.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1991

References