Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Rigidity and Spasticity in Man: Electromyographic Analysis with Reference to the Role of the Globus Pallidus.

Rigidity and Spasticity in Man: Electromyographic Analysis with Reference to the Role of the... Abstract The terms rigidity and spasticity are considered to denote different states in clinical neurology. Liddell and Sherrington9 pointed out that the stretch reflex in decerebrate cats consisted of 2 phases, one being the "phasic" component, which appeared only during the period of increasing muscle stretch, and the other the "tonic" or "postural" component, which existed during the continuously sustained stretch. In previous papers, we11,12 have reported that these 2 components can be demonstrated in the so-called hypertonic states of "extrapyramidal" disease and that the tonic component is more markedly and selectively decreased by stereotaxic pallidotomy than the phasic one. This paper is an investigation of the neurophysiological mechanisms which underlie these 2 patterns of stretch reflex, with particular reference to their relationship to the globus pallidus. The concept of a gamma loop, proposed by Granit,3 introduced a plausible physiological explanation of the rigid and spastic states. The References 1. In such cases, the affected muscles sometimes show the clasp-knife phenomenon. However, the phasic stretch reflex mentioned above may not be the same as the clasp-knife phenomenon described by Sherrington in decerebrate cats.14 In such preparations, when the extensor muscle is forcefully stretched, the exaggerated discharges occur initially, increase gradually, and then reduce suddenly, never to appear again, even with further stretching (the clasp-knife phenomenon). When the stretching of a rigidospastic muscle is interrupted before the clasp-knife phenomenon occurs and the joint is maintained in a constant position, the tonic discharges continue with only a slight tendency to adapt, and the phasic stretch reflex appears repeatedly with each additional stretch. For this reason, the clasp-knife phenomenon should be considered different from the "phasic" or "tonic" stretch reflex. 2. Eldred, E.; Granit, R., and Merton, P. A.: Supraspinal Control of the Muscle Spindles and Its Significance , J. Physiol. 122:498-523, 1953. 3. Fujimori, B.; Tokizane, T., and Eldred, E.: Effect Upon Monosynaptic Reflexes of Decamethonium and Succinylcholine: I. Peripheral Mechanisms , J. Neurophysiol. 22:165-176, 1959. 4. Granit, R.: Receptors and Sensory Perception , New Haven, Conn., Yale University Press, 1955. 5. Granit, R.; Henatsch, H. D., and Steg, G.: Tonic and Phasic Ventral Horn Cells Differentiated by Post-Tetanic Potentiation in Cat Extensors , Acta Physiol. Scand. 37:114-126, 1956.Crossref 6. Granit, R.; Holmgren, B., and Merton, P. A.: The 2 Routes for Excitation of Muscle and Their Subservience to the Cerebellum , J. Physiol. 130:213-224, 1955. 7. Henatsch, H. D., and Schulte, F. J.: Reflexerregung und Eigenhemmung tonischer und phasischer Alpha-Motoneurone während chemischer Dauererregung der Muskelspindeln , Pflüger Arch. Ges. Physiol. 268:134-147, 1958.Crossref 8. Inman, V. T.; Ralston, H. J.; Saunders, J. B. de C. M.; Feinstein, B., and Wright, E. W., Jr.: Relation of Human Electromyogram to Muscular Tension , Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 4:187-194, 1952.Crossref 9. Kubota, K., and Oshima, T.: Effects of Gamma Blocking on Muscular Activity and Their Relation to Myasthenic State , Neurologia Medicochir . 1:171-179, 1959. 10. Liddell, E. G. T., and Sherrington, C. S.: Reflexes in Response to Stretch (Myotatic Reflexes) , Proc. Roy. Soc. 96B:212-242, 1924.Crossref 11. Matthews, P. B. C., and Rushworth, G.: The Selective Effect of Procaine on the Stretch Reflex and Tendon Jerk of Soleus Muscle When Applied to Its Nerve , J. Physiol. 135:245-262, 1957. 12. Narabayashi, H.; Okuma, T., and Shikiba, S.: Procaine Oil Blocking of the Globus Pallidus , Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 75:36-48, 1956.Crossref 13. Narabayashi, H.; Shimazu, H.; Fujita, Y.; Shikiba, S.; Nagao, T., and Nagahata, M.: Procaine-Oil-Wax Pallidotomy for Double Athetosis and Spastic States in Infantile Cerebral Palsy , Neurology 10:61-69, 1960.Crossref 14. Rushworth, G.: Spasticity and Rigidity: An Experimental Study and Review , J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 23:99-118, 1960.Crossref 15. Sherrington, C. S.: On Plastic Tonus and Proprioceptive Reflexes , Quart. J. Exp. Physiol. 2:109-156, 1909. 16. Tokizane, T.: Functional Differentiation of Human Skeletal Muscles , Kagaku . 25:229-233, 291-297, 1955. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Rigidity and Spasticity in Man: Electromyographic Analysis with Reference to the Role of the Globus Pallidus.

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/rigidity-and-spasticity-in-man-electromyographic-analysis-with-dMIOYePt2Q
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1962 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1962.00450190012003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The terms rigidity and spasticity are considered to denote different states in clinical neurology. Liddell and Sherrington9 pointed out that the stretch reflex in decerebrate cats consisted of 2 phases, one being the "phasic" component, which appeared only during the period of increasing muscle stretch, and the other the "tonic" or "postural" component, which existed during the continuously sustained stretch. In previous papers, we11,12 have reported that these 2 components can be demonstrated in the so-called hypertonic states of "extrapyramidal" disease and that the tonic component is more markedly and selectively decreased by stereotaxic pallidotomy than the phasic one. This paper is an investigation of the neurophysiological mechanisms which underlie these 2 patterns of stretch reflex, with particular reference to their relationship to the globus pallidus. The concept of a gamma loop, proposed by Granit,3 introduced a plausible physiological explanation of the rigid and spastic states. The References 1. In such cases, the affected muscles sometimes show the clasp-knife phenomenon. However, the phasic stretch reflex mentioned above may not be the same as the clasp-knife phenomenon described by Sherrington in decerebrate cats.14 In such preparations, when the extensor muscle is forcefully stretched, the exaggerated discharges occur initially, increase gradually, and then reduce suddenly, never to appear again, even with further stretching (the clasp-knife phenomenon). When the stretching of a rigidospastic muscle is interrupted before the clasp-knife phenomenon occurs and the joint is maintained in a constant position, the tonic discharges continue with only a slight tendency to adapt, and the phasic stretch reflex appears repeatedly with each additional stretch. For this reason, the clasp-knife phenomenon should be considered different from the "phasic" or "tonic" stretch reflex. 2. Eldred, E.; Granit, R., and Merton, P. A.: Supraspinal Control of the Muscle Spindles and Its Significance , J. Physiol. 122:498-523, 1953. 3. Fujimori, B.; Tokizane, T., and Eldred, E.: Effect Upon Monosynaptic Reflexes of Decamethonium and Succinylcholine: I. Peripheral Mechanisms , J. Neurophysiol. 22:165-176, 1959. 4. Granit, R.: Receptors and Sensory Perception , New Haven, Conn., Yale University Press, 1955. 5. Granit, R.; Henatsch, H. D., and Steg, G.: Tonic and Phasic Ventral Horn Cells Differentiated by Post-Tetanic Potentiation in Cat Extensors , Acta Physiol. Scand. 37:114-126, 1956.Crossref 6. Granit, R.; Holmgren, B., and Merton, P. A.: The 2 Routes for Excitation of Muscle and Their Subservience to the Cerebellum , J. Physiol. 130:213-224, 1955. 7. Henatsch, H. D., and Schulte, F. J.: Reflexerregung und Eigenhemmung tonischer und phasischer Alpha-Motoneurone während chemischer Dauererregung der Muskelspindeln , Pflüger Arch. Ges. Physiol. 268:134-147, 1958.Crossref 8. Inman, V. T.; Ralston, H. J.; Saunders, J. B. de C. M.; Feinstein, B., and Wright, E. W., Jr.: Relation of Human Electromyogram to Muscular Tension , Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 4:187-194, 1952.Crossref 9. Kubota, K., and Oshima, T.: Effects of Gamma Blocking on Muscular Activity and Their Relation to Myasthenic State , Neurologia Medicochir . 1:171-179, 1959. 10. Liddell, E. G. T., and Sherrington, C. S.: Reflexes in Response to Stretch (Myotatic Reflexes) , Proc. Roy. Soc. 96B:212-242, 1924.Crossref 11. Matthews, P. B. C., and Rushworth, G.: The Selective Effect of Procaine on the Stretch Reflex and Tendon Jerk of Soleus Muscle When Applied to Its Nerve , J. Physiol. 135:245-262, 1957. 12. Narabayashi, H.; Okuma, T., and Shikiba, S.: Procaine Oil Blocking of the Globus Pallidus , Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 75:36-48, 1956.Crossref 13. Narabayashi, H.; Shimazu, H.; Fujita, Y.; Shikiba, S.; Nagao, T., and Nagahata, M.: Procaine-Oil-Wax Pallidotomy for Double Athetosis and Spastic States in Infantile Cerebral Palsy , Neurology 10:61-69, 1960.Crossref 14. Rushworth, G.: Spasticity and Rigidity: An Experimental Study and Review , J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 23:99-118, 1960.Crossref 15. Sherrington, C. S.: On Plastic Tonus and Proprioceptive Reflexes , Quart. J. Exp. Physiol. 2:109-156, 1909. 16. Tokizane, T.: Functional Differentiation of Human Skeletal Muscles , Kagaku . 25:229-233, 291-297, 1955.

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1962

References