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Rheologic Studies on Middle Ear Effusions and Their Mucus Glycoproteins

Rheologic Studies on Middle Ear Effusions and Their Mucus Glycoproteins Abstract • The properties of pooled thick and thin middle ear effusions, from children with otitis media with effusion, were studied by viscometry. Mucus glycoproteins were responsible for effusion viscosity. Their percentage by weight in thick and thin effusions was 25% and 8.2%, respectively. N-acetylcysteine and 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol caused a 39% viscosity drop in a 5-mg/mL glycoprotein solution, whereas S-carboxymethylcysteine had no effect. Treatment of thick effusions with 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol initially caused a viscosity decrease followed by a gradual increase. Higher reducing agent concentrations (0.5 mol/L) caused a more rapid decrease followed by a rapid increase, presumably by causing nonspecific aggregation of reduced protein molecules. These results suggest that the concentration of and the time that a mucolytic is in the middle ear would be of prime importance in achieving the desired decrease in viscosity. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989;115:462-468) References 1. Sadé J: Pathology and pathogenesis of secretory otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1966;84:297-305.Crossref 2. Paradise JL: Otitis media in infants and children . Pediatrics 1980;65:917-943. 3. Harrison K, Watson TJ: Long-term follow up of chronic exudative otitis media (glue ear) . Proc R Soc Med 1969;62:455-460. 4. Hall DMB, Hill F: When does secretory otitis media affect language development . Arch Dis Child 1986;61:42-47.Crossref 5. Reichman J, Healey CH: Learning disabilities and conductive hearing loss involving otitis media . J Learn Disabil 1983;16:272-278.Crossref 6. McCall AL, Potsic WP, Shih CK, et al: Physicochemical properties of human middle ear effusions (mucus) and their relation to ciliary transport . Laryngoscope 1978;88:729-738. 7. Brown DT, Litt M, Marsh RR, et al: Mucociliary transport of human ear secretions in otitis media with effusion . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1985;93:18-21. 8. Goodhill V, Holcomb AL: The relation of auditory response to the viscosity of tympanic fluids . Acta Otolaryngol 1958;49:38-46.Crossref 9. Marsh RR, Baranak CC, Potsic WP: Hearing loss and viscoelasticity of middle ear fluid . Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1985;9:115-120.Crossref 10. Wiederhold ML, Zajtchuk JT, Vap JG, et al: Hearing loss in relation to physical properties of middle ear effusions . Ann Otol 1980;89( (suppl 68) ):185-189. 11. Meyer FA: Comparison of structural glycoproteins from mucus of different sources . Biochim Biophys Acta 1977;493:272-282.Crossref 12. FitzGerald JE, Green GGR, Pearson JP: Characterization of middle ear mucus glycoprotein in chronic secretory otitis media . Biochem Soc Trans 1986;14:737-738. 13. Brown DT, Litt M, Potsic W: A study of mucus glycoproteins in secretory otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1985;111:688-695.Crossref 14. Pearson JP, Allen A, Parry S: A 70000 molecular weight protein isolated from purified pig gastric mucus glycoprotein by reduction of disulphide bridges and its implication in the polymeric structure . Biochem J 1981;197:155-162. 15. Carlstedt I, Sheehan JK: Macromolecular properties and polymeric structure of mucus glycoprotein , in Silberburg A (ed): Mucus and Mucosa . London, Pitman, 1984, vol 109, pp 157-172. 16. Gibbons RA: Mucus of the mammalian genital tract . Br Med Bull 1978;34:34-38. 17. Carlstedt I, Lindgen H, Sheehan JK: The macromolecular structure of human cervicalmucus glycoproteins . Biochem J 1983;213:427-435. 18. Roberts GP: The role of disulphide bonds in maintaining the gel structure of bronchial mucus . Arch Biochem Phys 1976;173:528-537.Crossref 19. Creeth JM, Bhaskar KR, Horton JR, et al: The separation and characterization of bronchial glycoproteins by density gradient methods . Biochem J 1977;167:557-569. 20. Pearson JP, Kaura R, Taylor W, et al: The composition and polymeric structure of mucus glycoprotein from human gallbladder bile . Biochim Biophys Acta 1982;706:221-228.Crossref 21. Pearson JP, Ward R, Allen A, et al: Mucus degradation by pepsin: Comparison of mucolytic activity of human pepsin 1 and pepsin 3 . Gut 1986;27:243-248.Crossref 22. Pearson JP, Mason RM: The stability of bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycans during isolation and storage . Biochim Biophys Acta 1977;498:176-188.Crossref 23. Mantle M, Allen A: A colorimetric assay for glycoproteins based on the periodic acid–Schiff stain . Biochem Soc Trans 1978;6:607-609. 24. Mantle M, Allen A: Isolation and characterization of the native glycoprotein from pig small-intestinal mucus . Biochem J 1981;195:267-275. 25. Pearson JP, FitzGerald JE, Green GGR, et al: Mucolytic agents for glue ear . Lancet 1985; 2:674-675.Crossref 26. Vered J, Eliezer N, Sadé J: Biochemical characterization of middle ear effusions . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1972;81:394-401. 27. Juhn SK, Hugg JG, Paparella MM: Biochemical analysis of middle ear effusions . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1971;80:347-353. 28. Martin R, Litt M, Marriott C: The effect of mucolytic agents on the rheologic and transport properties of canine tracheal mucus . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;121:495-500. 29. Smyth GDL, Patterson CC, Hall S: Tympanostomy tubes: Do they significantly benefit the patient . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1982;90:783-786. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery American Medical Association

Rheologic Studies on Middle Ear Effusions and Their Mucus Glycoproteins

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1989 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0886-4470
eISSN
1538-361X
DOI
10.1001/archotol.1989.01860280060018
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The properties of pooled thick and thin middle ear effusions, from children with otitis media with effusion, were studied by viscometry. Mucus glycoproteins were responsible for effusion viscosity. Their percentage by weight in thick and thin effusions was 25% and 8.2%, respectively. N-acetylcysteine and 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol caused a 39% viscosity drop in a 5-mg/mL glycoprotein solution, whereas S-carboxymethylcysteine had no effect. Treatment of thick effusions with 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol initially caused a viscosity decrease followed by a gradual increase. Higher reducing agent concentrations (0.5 mol/L) caused a more rapid decrease followed by a rapid increase, presumably by causing nonspecific aggregation of reduced protein molecules. These results suggest that the concentration of and the time that a mucolytic is in the middle ear would be of prime importance in achieving the desired decrease in viscosity. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989;115:462-468) References 1. Sadé J: Pathology and pathogenesis of secretory otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1966;84:297-305.Crossref 2. Paradise JL: Otitis media in infants and children . Pediatrics 1980;65:917-943. 3. Harrison K, Watson TJ: Long-term follow up of chronic exudative otitis media (glue ear) . Proc R Soc Med 1969;62:455-460. 4. Hall DMB, Hill F: When does secretory otitis media affect language development . Arch Dis Child 1986;61:42-47.Crossref 5. Reichman J, Healey CH: Learning disabilities and conductive hearing loss involving otitis media . J Learn Disabil 1983;16:272-278.Crossref 6. McCall AL, Potsic WP, Shih CK, et al: Physicochemical properties of human middle ear effusions (mucus) and their relation to ciliary transport . Laryngoscope 1978;88:729-738. 7. Brown DT, Litt M, Marsh RR, et al: Mucociliary transport of human ear secretions in otitis media with effusion . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1985;93:18-21. 8. Goodhill V, Holcomb AL: The relation of auditory response to the viscosity of tympanic fluids . Acta Otolaryngol 1958;49:38-46.Crossref 9. Marsh RR, Baranak CC, Potsic WP: Hearing loss and viscoelasticity of middle ear fluid . Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1985;9:115-120.Crossref 10. Wiederhold ML, Zajtchuk JT, Vap JG, et al: Hearing loss in relation to physical properties of middle ear effusions . Ann Otol 1980;89( (suppl 68) ):185-189. 11. Meyer FA: Comparison of structural glycoproteins from mucus of different sources . Biochim Biophys Acta 1977;493:272-282.Crossref 12. FitzGerald JE, Green GGR, Pearson JP: Characterization of middle ear mucus glycoprotein in chronic secretory otitis media . Biochem Soc Trans 1986;14:737-738. 13. Brown DT, Litt M, Potsic W: A study of mucus glycoproteins in secretory otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1985;111:688-695.Crossref 14. Pearson JP, Allen A, Parry S: A 70000 molecular weight protein isolated from purified pig gastric mucus glycoprotein by reduction of disulphide bridges and its implication in the polymeric structure . Biochem J 1981;197:155-162. 15. Carlstedt I, Sheehan JK: Macromolecular properties and polymeric structure of mucus glycoprotein , in Silberburg A (ed): Mucus and Mucosa . London, Pitman, 1984, vol 109, pp 157-172. 16. Gibbons RA: Mucus of the mammalian genital tract . Br Med Bull 1978;34:34-38. 17. Carlstedt I, Lindgen H, Sheehan JK: The macromolecular structure of human cervicalmucus glycoproteins . Biochem J 1983;213:427-435. 18. Roberts GP: The role of disulphide bonds in maintaining the gel structure of bronchial mucus . Arch Biochem Phys 1976;173:528-537.Crossref 19. Creeth JM, Bhaskar KR, Horton JR, et al: The separation and characterization of bronchial glycoproteins by density gradient methods . Biochem J 1977;167:557-569. 20. Pearson JP, Kaura R, Taylor W, et al: The composition and polymeric structure of mucus glycoprotein from human gallbladder bile . Biochim Biophys Acta 1982;706:221-228.Crossref 21. Pearson JP, Ward R, Allen A, et al: Mucus degradation by pepsin: Comparison of mucolytic activity of human pepsin 1 and pepsin 3 . Gut 1986;27:243-248.Crossref 22. Pearson JP, Mason RM: The stability of bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycans during isolation and storage . Biochim Biophys Acta 1977;498:176-188.Crossref 23. Mantle M, Allen A: A colorimetric assay for glycoproteins based on the periodic acid–Schiff stain . Biochem Soc Trans 1978;6:607-609. 24. Mantle M, Allen A: Isolation and characterization of the native glycoprotein from pig small-intestinal mucus . Biochem J 1981;195:267-275. 25. Pearson JP, FitzGerald JE, Green GGR, et al: Mucolytic agents for glue ear . Lancet 1985; 2:674-675.Crossref 26. Vered J, Eliezer N, Sadé J: Biochemical characterization of middle ear effusions . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1972;81:394-401. 27. Juhn SK, Hugg JG, Paparella MM: Biochemical analysis of middle ear effusions . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1971;80:347-353. 28. Martin R, Litt M, Marriott C: The effect of mucolytic agents on the rheologic and transport properties of canine tracheal mucus . Am Rev Respir Dis 1980;121:495-500. 29. Smyth GDL, Patterson CC, Hall S: Tympanostomy tubes: Do they significantly benefit the patient . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1982;90:783-786.

Journal

Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1989

References