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REVIEW OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY FOR 1937

REVIEW OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY FOR 1937 Abstract Many papers are written on psychiatry every year, but few deal with treatment. This year is an exception. Two new therapeutic methods have come into prominence; one has been discussed largely in the public press under the inexcusable name psychosurgery, and the other has caused a flood of literature in the medical press—the insulin shock treatment of schizophrenia. "PSYCHOSURGERY" Moniz, a Portuguese neurologist, well known for his studies on cerebral arteriography, and his colleague Lima1 tried to alter by cerebral surgery the mental symptoms of twenty persons suffering from different psychoses; the condition presented by ten of these would probably be classified in America as severe agitated depression, three were manic and seven were schizophrenic. All those suffering from depression were improved by interruption of tracts in the frontal lobe; the results in the two other groups were dubious. In America Freeman2 has taken up this work and References 1. Moniz, E., and Lima, A.: Premiers essais de psycho-chirurgie: Technique et résultats , Lisboa méd. 13:152-161, 1936. 2. Freeman, W., and Watts, J. W.: Prefrontal Lobotomy in the Treatment of Mental Disorders , South M. J. 30:23-31, 1937.Crossref 3. Jacobsen, C. F., and Nissen, H. W.: Studies of Cerebral Function in Primates: Effects of Frontal Lobe Lesions on Delayed Alternation Habit in Monkeys , J. Comp. Psychol. 23:101-112, 1937.Crossref 4. Cobb, S.: Review of Neurology and Psychiatry for 1935-1936 , Arch. Int. Med. 58:1111-1123 ( (Dec.) ) 1936.Crossref 5. Sullivan, H. S.: Environmental Factors in Etiology and Course Under Treatment of Schizophrenia , M. J. & Rec. 133:19-22, 1931. 6. Burrows, G.: Commentaries on the Causes, Forms, Symptoms, and Treatment, Moral and Medical, of Insanity , London, Thomas & George Underwood, 1828. 7. Dr. Diethelm, of New York, gave me this interesting reference. 8. Meduna, L.: Versuche über die biologische Beeinflussung des Ablaufes der Schizophrenie; Campher und Cardiazolkrämpfe , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 152:235-262, 1935. 9. d'Elseaux, F. C., and Solomon, H. C.: Use of Carbon Dioxide Mixtures in Stupors Occurring in Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 29:213-230 ( (Feb.) ) 1933. 10. Sakel, M.: Schizophreniebehandlung mittels Insulin Hypoglykämie sowie hypoglykämischer Schocks , Wien. med. Wchnschr. 84:1211 ( (Nov. 3) ) 11. 1265 (Nov. 17) 12. 1299 (Nov. 24) 13. 1326 (Dec. 1) 14. 1353 (Dec. 8) 15. 1383 (Dec. 15) 16. 1401 Dec. 22) 1934 17. 85:35 (Jan. 5) 18. 68 (Jan. 12) 19. 94 (Jan. 19) 20. 152 (Feb. 2) 21. 179 (Feb. 9) 1935. 22. Sakel.10 23. Dussik, K. T., nad Sakel, M.: Ergebnisse der Hypoglykämieshockbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 155:351-415, 1936. 24. Wortis, J.: On the Response of Schizophrenic Subjects to Hypoglycemic Insulin Shock , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 84:497-506, 1936. 25. Langfeldt, G.: Die Insulin-Chokbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 38:483-484, 1936. 26. Friedlaender, K.: Insulin-Chokbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 38:520, 1936. 27. Glueck, B.: Hypoglycemic State in the Treatment of Schizophrenia , J. A. M. A. 107:1029-1031 ( (Sept. 26) ) 1936. 28. Berze, J.: Die Insulin-Chok-Behandlung der Schizophrenie , Wien. med. Wchnschr. 83:1365-1369, 1933. 29. Benedek, L.: Insulin-Schock-Wirkung auf die Wahrnehmung , Berlin, S. Karger, 1935. 30. Sakel, M.: Neue Behandlungsmethode der Schizophrenie , Leipzig, Verlag M. Perles, 1935. 31. Wortis, J.: Sakel's Hypoglycemic Insulin Treatment of Psychoses: History and Present Status , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 85:581-595, 1937. 32. Symposium on Therapy Including Hypoglycemia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:89-208, 1937. 33. Sakel, M.: The Methodical Use of Hypoglycemia in the Treatment of Psychoses , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:111-129, 1937. 34. Potzl, O.; Forstig, J. P., and Müller, M.: Seminar on Insulin at Vienna University Psychiatric and Neurologic Clinic, 1937, to be published. 35. Insulin in the Treatment of Schizophrenia , Science (supp.) 85:10 ( (June 25) ) 1937. 36. Ross, J. R.: Report of the Hypoglycemic Treatment in New York State Hospitals , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:131-135, 1937. 37. Katzenelbogen, S.; Harms, H., and Clark, D. A.: Experience with the Hypoglycemic Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:135-152, 1937. 38. Wortis, J.; Bowman, K. M.; Orenstein, L. L., and Rosenbaum, I. J.: Further Experiences at Bellevue Hospital with the Hypoglycemic Insulin Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:153-158, 1937. 39. Young, G. A.; Young, R. H., and Roucek, L.: Experiences with the Hypoglycemic Shock Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:159-170, 1937. 40. Meduna, L.: Die Konvulsionstherapie der Schizophrenie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 37:317-319, 1935. 41. Meduna.8 von Angyal, L., and Gyárfás, K.: Ueber die Cardiazol-Krampfbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Arch. f. Psychiat. 106:1-12, 1936. 42. Janz, H. W. Die diagnostische Verwertbarkeit einiger Methoden zur Provokation epileptischer Anfälle , Arch. f. Psychiat. 106:267-295, 1937.Crossref 43. Camp, W. J. R.: Pharmacology of Metrazol , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 33:81-92, 1928. 44. Flaum, E.: Kritik der Kardiazolwirkung , Klin. Wchnschr. 14:1543-1548, 1935. 45. Himwich, H. E.; Bowman, K. M.; Wortis, J., and Fazekas, J. F.: Brain Metabolism During the Hypoglycemic Treatment of Schizophrenia , Science 86 : 271-272 ( (Sept. 17) ) 137. 46. Kerr, S. E., and Ghantus, M.: Carbohydrate Metabolism of Brain: Effect of Varying Carbohydrate and Insulin Supply on Glycogen, Free Sugar, and Lactic Acid in Mammalian Brain , J. Biol. Chem. 116:9-20, 1936. 47. Gerard, R. W., in Luck, J. M.: Annual Review of Biochemistry , Stanford University, California, Stanford University Press, 1937, vol. 6, p. 435. 48. Hoagland, H.; Cameron, D. E., and Rubin, M. A.: The Electroencephalogram of Schizophrenics During Insulin Treatments , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:183-208, 1937. 49. Müller, M., cited by Glueck.11f 50. Moersch, F. P., and Kernohan, J. W.: Hypoglycemia: Neurologic and Neuropathologic Studies , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , to be published. 51. Vonderahe, A. R.: Personality Change in Hypoglycemia , J. Med. 17:189190, 1936. 52. Salm, H.: Benommenheitszustände in Anschluss an die Insulinshockbehandlung von Schizophrenen , München. med. Wchnschr. 84:1047, 1937. 53. Gildea, E., and Cobb, S.: The Effects of Anemia on the Cerebral Cortex of the Cat , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:876-903 ( (May) ) 1930. 54. Baker, A. B., and Lufkin, N. H.: Cerebral Lesions in Hypoglycemia , Arch. Path. 23:190-201 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 55. Steif, H., and Tokay, L.: Beiträge zur Histopathologie der experimentellen Insulinvergiftung , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 139:434-461, 1932. 56. Schmid, H.: Zur Histopathologie der Sakel'schen Hypoglykämieschockbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 66:960-961, 1936. 57. Cobb, S.: Shock Therapy , New England J. Med. 217:195-196, 1937. 58. Gibbs, F. A.; Lennox, W. G., and Gibbs, E. L.: Electro-Encephalogram in Diagnosis and in Localization of Epileptic Seizures , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 36:1225-1235 ( (Dec.) ) 1936. 59. Gibbs, F. A.; Gibbs, E. L., and Lennox, W. G.: Epilepsy: A Paroxysmal Cerebral Dysrhythmia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. to be published. 60. Jasper, H. H.; Hawke, W. A., and Nichols, I. C.: Localized Brain Potentials in the Convulsive Disorders, to be published. 61. Penfield, W.: Epilepsy and Surgical Therapy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 36:449-484 ( (Sept.) ) 1936. 62. Foerster, O., and Penfield, W.: Der Narbenzug am und im Gehirn bei traumatischer Epilepsie in seiner Bedeutung für das Zustandekommen der Anfälle und für die therapeutische Bekämpfung derselben , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 125:475-572, 1930. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

REVIEW OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY FOR 1937

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 60 (6) – Dec 1, 1937

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1937 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1937.00180060151014
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Abstract

Abstract Many papers are written on psychiatry every year, but few deal with treatment. This year is an exception. Two new therapeutic methods have come into prominence; one has been discussed largely in the public press under the inexcusable name psychosurgery, and the other has caused a flood of literature in the medical press—the insulin shock treatment of schizophrenia. "PSYCHOSURGERY" Moniz, a Portuguese neurologist, well known for his studies on cerebral arteriography, and his colleague Lima1 tried to alter by cerebral surgery the mental symptoms of twenty persons suffering from different psychoses; the condition presented by ten of these would probably be classified in America as severe agitated depression, three were manic and seven were schizophrenic. All those suffering from depression were improved by interruption of tracts in the frontal lobe; the results in the two other groups were dubious. In America Freeman2 has taken up this work and References 1. Moniz, E., and Lima, A.: Premiers essais de psycho-chirurgie: Technique et résultats , Lisboa méd. 13:152-161, 1936. 2. Freeman, W., and Watts, J. W.: Prefrontal Lobotomy in the Treatment of Mental Disorders , South M. J. 30:23-31, 1937.Crossref 3. Jacobsen, C. F., and Nissen, H. W.: Studies of Cerebral Function in Primates: Effects of Frontal Lobe Lesions on Delayed Alternation Habit in Monkeys , J. Comp. Psychol. 23:101-112, 1937.Crossref 4. Cobb, S.: Review of Neurology and Psychiatry for 1935-1936 , Arch. Int. Med. 58:1111-1123 ( (Dec.) ) 1936.Crossref 5. Sullivan, H. S.: Environmental Factors in Etiology and Course Under Treatment of Schizophrenia , M. J. & Rec. 133:19-22, 1931. 6. Burrows, G.: Commentaries on the Causes, Forms, Symptoms, and Treatment, Moral and Medical, of Insanity , London, Thomas & George Underwood, 1828. 7. Dr. Diethelm, of New York, gave me this interesting reference. 8. Meduna, L.: Versuche über die biologische Beeinflussung des Ablaufes der Schizophrenie; Campher und Cardiazolkrämpfe , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 152:235-262, 1935. 9. d'Elseaux, F. C., and Solomon, H. C.: Use of Carbon Dioxide Mixtures in Stupors Occurring in Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 29:213-230 ( (Feb.) ) 1933. 10. Sakel, M.: Schizophreniebehandlung mittels Insulin Hypoglykämie sowie hypoglykämischer Schocks , Wien. med. Wchnschr. 84:1211 ( (Nov. 3) ) 11. 1265 (Nov. 17) 12. 1299 (Nov. 24) 13. 1326 (Dec. 1) 14. 1353 (Dec. 8) 15. 1383 (Dec. 15) 16. 1401 Dec. 22) 1934 17. 85:35 (Jan. 5) 18. 68 (Jan. 12) 19. 94 (Jan. 19) 20. 152 (Feb. 2) 21. 179 (Feb. 9) 1935. 22. Sakel.10 23. Dussik, K. T., nad Sakel, M.: Ergebnisse der Hypoglykämieshockbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 155:351-415, 1936. 24. Wortis, J.: On the Response of Schizophrenic Subjects to Hypoglycemic Insulin Shock , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 84:497-506, 1936. 25. Langfeldt, G.: Die Insulin-Chokbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 38:483-484, 1936. 26. Friedlaender, K.: Insulin-Chokbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 38:520, 1936. 27. Glueck, B.: Hypoglycemic State in the Treatment of Schizophrenia , J. A. M. A. 107:1029-1031 ( (Sept. 26) ) 1936. 28. Berze, J.: Die Insulin-Chok-Behandlung der Schizophrenie , Wien. med. Wchnschr. 83:1365-1369, 1933. 29. Benedek, L.: Insulin-Schock-Wirkung auf die Wahrnehmung , Berlin, S. Karger, 1935. 30. Sakel, M.: Neue Behandlungsmethode der Schizophrenie , Leipzig, Verlag M. Perles, 1935. 31. Wortis, J.: Sakel's Hypoglycemic Insulin Treatment of Psychoses: History and Present Status , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 85:581-595, 1937. 32. Symposium on Therapy Including Hypoglycemia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:89-208, 1937. 33. Sakel, M.: The Methodical Use of Hypoglycemia in the Treatment of Psychoses , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:111-129, 1937. 34. Potzl, O.; Forstig, J. P., and Müller, M.: Seminar on Insulin at Vienna University Psychiatric and Neurologic Clinic, 1937, to be published. 35. Insulin in the Treatment of Schizophrenia , Science (supp.) 85:10 ( (June 25) ) 1937. 36. Ross, J. R.: Report of the Hypoglycemic Treatment in New York State Hospitals , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:131-135, 1937. 37. Katzenelbogen, S.; Harms, H., and Clark, D. A.: Experience with the Hypoglycemic Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:135-152, 1937. 38. Wortis, J.; Bowman, K. M.; Orenstein, L. L., and Rosenbaum, I. J.: Further Experiences at Bellevue Hospital with the Hypoglycemic Insulin Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:153-158, 1937. 39. Young, G. A.; Young, R. H., and Roucek, L.: Experiences with the Hypoglycemic Shock Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:159-170, 1937. 40. Meduna, L.: Die Konvulsionstherapie der Schizophrenie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 37:317-319, 1935. 41. Meduna.8 von Angyal, L., and Gyárfás, K.: Ueber die Cardiazol-Krampfbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Arch. f. Psychiat. 106:1-12, 1936. 42. Janz, H. W. Die diagnostische Verwertbarkeit einiger Methoden zur Provokation epileptischer Anfälle , Arch. f. Psychiat. 106:267-295, 1937.Crossref 43. Camp, W. J. R.: Pharmacology of Metrazol , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 33:81-92, 1928. 44. Flaum, E.: Kritik der Kardiazolwirkung , Klin. Wchnschr. 14:1543-1548, 1935. 45. Himwich, H. E.; Bowman, K. M.; Wortis, J., and Fazekas, J. F.: Brain Metabolism During the Hypoglycemic Treatment of Schizophrenia , Science 86 : 271-272 ( (Sept. 17) ) 137. 46. Kerr, S. E., and Ghantus, M.: Carbohydrate Metabolism of Brain: Effect of Varying Carbohydrate and Insulin Supply on Glycogen, Free Sugar, and Lactic Acid in Mammalian Brain , J. Biol. Chem. 116:9-20, 1936. 47. Gerard, R. W., in Luck, J. M.: Annual Review of Biochemistry , Stanford University, California, Stanford University Press, 1937, vol. 6, p. 435. 48. Hoagland, H.; Cameron, D. E., and Rubin, M. A.: The Electroencephalogram of Schizophrenics During Insulin Treatments , Am. J. Psychiat. 94:183-208, 1937. 49. Müller, M., cited by Glueck.11f 50. Moersch, F. P., and Kernohan, J. W.: Hypoglycemia: Neurologic and Neuropathologic Studies , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , to be published. 51. Vonderahe, A. R.: Personality Change in Hypoglycemia , J. Med. 17:189190, 1936. 52. Salm, H.: Benommenheitszustände in Anschluss an die Insulinshockbehandlung von Schizophrenen , München. med. Wchnschr. 84:1047, 1937. 53. Gildea, E., and Cobb, S.: The Effects of Anemia on the Cerebral Cortex of the Cat , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:876-903 ( (May) ) 1930. 54. Baker, A. B., and Lufkin, N. H.: Cerebral Lesions in Hypoglycemia , Arch. Path. 23:190-201 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 55. Steif, H., and Tokay, L.: Beiträge zur Histopathologie der experimentellen Insulinvergiftung , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 139:434-461, 1932. 56. Schmid, H.: Zur Histopathologie der Sakel'schen Hypoglykämieschockbehandlung der Schizophrenie , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 66:960-961, 1936. 57. Cobb, S.: Shock Therapy , New England J. Med. 217:195-196, 1937. 58. Gibbs, F. A.; Lennox, W. G., and Gibbs, E. L.: Electro-Encephalogram in Diagnosis and in Localization of Epileptic Seizures , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 36:1225-1235 ( (Dec.) ) 1936. 59. Gibbs, F. A.; Gibbs, E. L., and Lennox, W. G.: Epilepsy: A Paroxysmal Cerebral Dysrhythmia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. to be published. 60. Jasper, H. H.; Hawke, W. A., and Nichols, I. C.: Localized Brain Potentials in the Convulsive Disorders, to be published. 61. Penfield, W.: Epilepsy and Surgical Therapy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 36:449-484 ( (Sept.) ) 1936. 62. Foerster, O., and Penfield, W.: Der Narbenzug am und im Gehirn bei traumatischer Epilepsie in seiner Bedeutung für das Zustandekommen der Anfälle und für die therapeutische Bekämpfung derselben , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 125:475-572, 1930.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1937

References

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