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Resistant Trichomoniasis in the Female

Resistant Trichomoniasis in the Female Abstract Every physician who treats women is plagued with cases of resistant and recurrent trichomoniasis. The factors responsible for the resistance to therapy and the recurrences after successful treatments are not always clear. Perhaps if we could find the few missing links in the etiology and the life cyle of the Trichomonas, our understanding would be more complete. My colleagues and I believe that trichomoniasis is commoner in women than in men and that the infection is frequently transmitted by sexual intercourse. The disease may be asymptomatic, and both men and women can be carriers. Exacerbations could be precipitated in part by a change in the accompanying bacterial flora. Of the vaginal discharges in women, 50% harbor Trichomonas vaginalis. Recent reports on nonspecific male infections harboring Trichomonas reveal incidences of 12% to 15% (Durel and associates, Allison, Feo, and others). At times, the Trichomonas organisms are difficult to find and can References 1. Allen, E.: Diagnosis and Treatment of Leucorrhea , Journal-Lancet 60:221-224 ( (May) ) 1940. 2. Allen and Baum, H. C.: The Treatment of Vaginitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 45:246-254 ( (Feb.) ) 1943. 3. Allen and Butler, S.: Studies of Origin and Treatment of Recurrent Trichomonas Vaginitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 51:387-394 ( (March) ) 1946. 4. Allison, G. G.: Trichomoniasis in Male: Seventh Venereal Disease? South. M. J. 36:821-823 ( (Dec.) ) 1943. 5. Bernstine, J. B., and Rakoff, A. E.: Vaginal Infections, Infestations, and Discharges , New York, Blakiston Company, 1953. 6. Bland, P. B., and Rakoff, A. E.: Trichomonas Infestation of the Female Urinary Tract , Urol. & Cutan. Rev. 44:698-703 ( (Nov.) ) 1940. 7. Brady, L., and Reid, R. D.: Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis with Lactobacillus , Ann. Surg. 115:840-848 ( (May) ) 1942. 8. Lactobacillus Therapy in Vaginitis due to Trichomonas , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 50:509-513 ( (Nov.) ) 1945. 9. Capek, A.: Die Flagellaten-Urethritis des Mannes: Vorläufige Mitteilung , Med. Klin. 23:1535-1539 ( (Oct. 7) ) 1927. 10. DeLee, J. B.: Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , Illinois M. J. 37:186-187 ( (March) ) 1920. 11. Donné, A.: Recherches microscopiques sur la nature des mucus et la matière des divers écoulements des organes génito-urinaires chez l'homme et chez la femme , Paris, The Author, 1837. 12. Durel, P.: Roiron-Ratner, V.; Siboulet, A., and Sorel, C.: Non-Gonococcal Urethritis , Brit. J. Ven. Dis. 30:69-72 ( (June) ) 1954. 13. Ewert, E. E., and Murray, O. B.: The Gynecologic Aspects of Chronic Urethritis , S. Clin. North America 25:583-588 ( (June) ) 1945. 14. Greenhill, J. P.: The Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , J. A. M. A. 96:1862-1865 ( (May 30) ) 1931. 15. Office Gynecology , ed. 6, Chicago, The Year Book Publishers, 1954, Chap. 7 , pp. 83-91. 16. Hartwell, J. B.: Diagnosis and Treatment of Puriform Vaginal Discharges , Rocky Mountain M. J. 37:497-500 ( (July) ) 1940. 17. Heckel, N. J.: A Study of the Pathological Alterations in the Female Bladder and Urethra Resulting from Infection with Trichomonas Vaginalis , J. Urol. 35:520-523 ( (May) ) 1936. 18. Herbst, R. H., and Merricks, J. W.: Chronic Primary Diseases of the Lower Female Urinary Tract , M. Clinics North America , 25:245-269 ( (Jan.) ) 1941. 19. Hesseltine, H. C.: Trichomonas Vaginalis , J. A. M. A. 154:1148 ( (March 27) ) 1954. 20. Hibbert, G. F., and Falls, F. H.: Further Observations on Role of Streptococcus in So-Called Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 36:219-229 ( (Aug.) ) 1938. 21. Karnaky, K. J.: Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis: Preliminary Report , Texas J. Med. 30:348-351 ( (Sept.) ) 1934. 22. Kean, B. H.: Urethral Trichomoniasis in the Female: A Possible Common Denominator in Recurrent Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis and Recurrent Bacterial Cystitis , Am. J. Obst. Gynecology 70:397-402 ( (Aug.) ) 1955. 23. Lewis, B., and Carrol, G.: A Case of Trichomonas Vaginalis: Infection of the Kidney Pelvis , J. Urol. 19:337-339 ( (March) ) 1928. 24. Lynch, K. M.: Cultivation of Trichomonas from the Human Mouth, Vagina, and Urine , Am. J. Trop. Med. 2:531-538 ( (Nov.) ) 1922. 25. Manwell, E. J.: Urinary Symptoms in Relation to Trichomonas Vaginalis Infestation , New England J. Med. 211:567-569 ( (Sept. 27) ) 1934.Crossref 26. Mascall, N.: Some Reflections on the Trichomonas Vaginalis , Brit. J. Ven. Dis. 30:156-162 ( (Sept.) ) 1954. 27. Rakoff, A. E.: Advances in Treatment of Vaginitis , M. Clin. North America 29:1354-1364 ( (Nov.) ) 1945. 28. Reich, W. J.; Button, H. L., and Nechtow, M. J.: Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 84:891-896 ( (May) ) 1947. 29. Riba, L. W.: Trichomonas Urethritis , J. A. M. A. 96:2100-2102 ( (June 20) ) 1931. 30. Chronic Trichomonas Skeneitis , J. Urol. 62:503-506 ( (Oct.) ) 1949. 31. Trichomonas Vaginalis , J. A. M. A. 154:1148 ( (March 27) ) 1954. 32. —and Harrison, R. M.: Strictures of the Male Urethra and Trichomonas Vaginalis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 71:369-371 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 33. —and Perry, E.: Trichomonas Prostato-Vesiculitis , J. Urol. 22:563-571 ( (Nov.) ) 1929. 34. Rodecurt, M.: Die Trichomoniasis des Harntrakts beim Weibe , Ztschr. Urol. 33:487-492, 1939. 35. Roeser, E. H., and Kretschmer, H. L.: Para and Periurethral Infections of Female Urethra , Illinois M. J. 89:16-19 ( (Jan.) ) 1946. 36. Sar-Louis, A. G.: Trichomonas Vaginalis Urethritis and Its Treatment , Ohio M. J. 38:137 ( (Feb.) ) 1942. 37. Sayer, J. H.: Vulvovaginitis Pruritic Trichomonalis , Northwest Med. 30:278-280 ( (June) ) 1931. 38. Schneider, M.: Treatment of Leukorrhea , M. Clin. North America 24:911-917 ( (May) ) 1940. 39. Shelanski, H. A., and Savitz, S. P.: Bartholinitis and Skeneitis due to Trichomonas Vaginalis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 37:294-297 ( (Feb.) ) 1939. 40. Siegler, S. L.: A New Method of Treatment for Vaginitis and Cervicitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 52:1-13 ( (July) ) 1946. 41. Status of Treatment of Vaginitis Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis, Report of Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry , J. A. M. A. 123:481-483 ( (Oct. 23) ) 1943. 42. Temples, A. K.: Leukorrhea , Bull. Univ. Hosp., Georgia 2:1-7, 1940. 43. Trussell, R. E.: Trichomonas Vaginalis and Trichoniasis , Springfield, Ill., C. C Thomas, 1947. 44. Williams, B.: Infection of Urinary Tract in Female due to Trichomonas Vaginalis , Brit. J. Urol. 18:63-65 ( (June) ) 1946. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives Surgery American Medical Association

Resistant Trichomoniasis in the Female

A.M.A. Archives Surgery , Volume 73 (5) – Nov 1, 1956

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1956 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6908
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1956.01280050101019
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Abstract

Abstract Every physician who treats women is plagued with cases of resistant and recurrent trichomoniasis. The factors responsible for the resistance to therapy and the recurrences after successful treatments are not always clear. Perhaps if we could find the few missing links in the etiology and the life cyle of the Trichomonas, our understanding would be more complete. My colleagues and I believe that trichomoniasis is commoner in women than in men and that the infection is frequently transmitted by sexual intercourse. The disease may be asymptomatic, and both men and women can be carriers. Exacerbations could be precipitated in part by a change in the accompanying bacterial flora. Of the vaginal discharges in women, 50% harbor Trichomonas vaginalis. Recent reports on nonspecific male infections harboring Trichomonas reveal incidences of 12% to 15% (Durel and associates, Allison, Feo, and others). At times, the Trichomonas organisms are difficult to find and can References 1. Allen, E.: Diagnosis and Treatment of Leucorrhea , Journal-Lancet 60:221-224 ( (May) ) 1940. 2. Allen and Baum, H. C.: The Treatment of Vaginitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 45:246-254 ( (Feb.) ) 1943. 3. Allen and Butler, S.: Studies of Origin and Treatment of Recurrent Trichomonas Vaginitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 51:387-394 ( (March) ) 1946. 4. Allison, G. G.: Trichomoniasis in Male: Seventh Venereal Disease? South. M. J. 36:821-823 ( (Dec.) ) 1943. 5. Bernstine, J. B., and Rakoff, A. E.: Vaginal Infections, Infestations, and Discharges , New York, Blakiston Company, 1953. 6. Bland, P. B., and Rakoff, A. E.: Trichomonas Infestation of the Female Urinary Tract , Urol. & Cutan. Rev. 44:698-703 ( (Nov.) ) 1940. 7. Brady, L., and Reid, R. D.: Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis with Lactobacillus , Ann. Surg. 115:840-848 ( (May) ) 1942. 8. Lactobacillus Therapy in Vaginitis due to Trichomonas , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 50:509-513 ( (Nov.) ) 1945. 9. Capek, A.: Die Flagellaten-Urethritis des Mannes: Vorläufige Mitteilung , Med. Klin. 23:1535-1539 ( (Oct. 7) ) 1927. 10. DeLee, J. B.: Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , Illinois M. J. 37:186-187 ( (March) ) 1920. 11. Donné, A.: Recherches microscopiques sur la nature des mucus et la matière des divers écoulements des organes génito-urinaires chez l'homme et chez la femme , Paris, The Author, 1837. 12. Durel, P.: Roiron-Ratner, V.; Siboulet, A., and Sorel, C.: Non-Gonococcal Urethritis , Brit. J. Ven. Dis. 30:69-72 ( (June) ) 1954. 13. Ewert, E. E., and Murray, O. B.: The Gynecologic Aspects of Chronic Urethritis , S. Clin. North America 25:583-588 ( (June) ) 1945. 14. Greenhill, J. P.: The Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , J. A. M. A. 96:1862-1865 ( (May 30) ) 1931. 15. Office Gynecology , ed. 6, Chicago, The Year Book Publishers, 1954, Chap. 7 , pp. 83-91. 16. Hartwell, J. B.: Diagnosis and Treatment of Puriform Vaginal Discharges , Rocky Mountain M. J. 37:497-500 ( (July) ) 1940. 17. Heckel, N. J.: A Study of the Pathological Alterations in the Female Bladder and Urethra Resulting from Infection with Trichomonas Vaginalis , J. Urol. 35:520-523 ( (May) ) 1936. 18. Herbst, R. H., and Merricks, J. W.: Chronic Primary Diseases of the Lower Female Urinary Tract , M. Clinics North America , 25:245-269 ( (Jan.) ) 1941. 19. Hesseltine, H. C.: Trichomonas Vaginalis , J. A. M. A. 154:1148 ( (March 27) ) 1954. 20. Hibbert, G. F., and Falls, F. H.: Further Observations on Role of Streptococcus in So-Called Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 36:219-229 ( (Aug.) ) 1938. 21. Karnaky, K. J.: Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis: Preliminary Report , Texas J. Med. 30:348-351 ( (Sept.) ) 1934. 22. Kean, B. H.: Urethral Trichomoniasis in the Female: A Possible Common Denominator in Recurrent Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis and Recurrent Bacterial Cystitis , Am. J. Obst. Gynecology 70:397-402 ( (Aug.) ) 1955. 23. Lewis, B., and Carrol, G.: A Case of Trichomonas Vaginalis: Infection of the Kidney Pelvis , J. Urol. 19:337-339 ( (March) ) 1928. 24. Lynch, K. M.: Cultivation of Trichomonas from the Human Mouth, Vagina, and Urine , Am. J. Trop. Med. 2:531-538 ( (Nov.) ) 1922. 25. Manwell, E. J.: Urinary Symptoms in Relation to Trichomonas Vaginalis Infestation , New England J. Med. 211:567-569 ( (Sept. 27) ) 1934.Crossref 26. Mascall, N.: Some Reflections on the Trichomonas Vaginalis , Brit. J. Ven. Dis. 30:156-162 ( (Sept.) ) 1954. 27. Rakoff, A. E.: Advances in Treatment of Vaginitis , M. Clin. North America 29:1354-1364 ( (Nov.) ) 1945. 28. Reich, W. J.; Button, H. L., and Nechtow, M. J.: Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginalis Vaginitis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 84:891-896 ( (May) ) 1947. 29. Riba, L. W.: Trichomonas Urethritis , J. A. M. A. 96:2100-2102 ( (June 20) ) 1931. 30. Chronic Trichomonas Skeneitis , J. Urol. 62:503-506 ( (Oct.) ) 1949. 31. Trichomonas Vaginalis , J. A. M. A. 154:1148 ( (March 27) ) 1954. 32. —and Harrison, R. M.: Strictures of the Male Urethra and Trichomonas Vaginalis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 71:369-371 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 33. —and Perry, E.: Trichomonas Prostato-Vesiculitis , J. Urol. 22:563-571 ( (Nov.) ) 1929. 34. Rodecurt, M.: Die Trichomoniasis des Harntrakts beim Weibe , Ztschr. Urol. 33:487-492, 1939. 35. Roeser, E. H., and Kretschmer, H. L.: Para and Periurethral Infections of Female Urethra , Illinois M. J. 89:16-19 ( (Jan.) ) 1946. 36. Sar-Louis, A. G.: Trichomonas Vaginalis Urethritis and Its Treatment , Ohio M. J. 38:137 ( (Feb.) ) 1942. 37. Sayer, J. H.: Vulvovaginitis Pruritic Trichomonalis , Northwest Med. 30:278-280 ( (June) ) 1931. 38. Schneider, M.: Treatment of Leukorrhea , M. Clin. North America 24:911-917 ( (May) ) 1940. 39. Shelanski, H. A., and Savitz, S. P.: Bartholinitis and Skeneitis due to Trichomonas Vaginalis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 37:294-297 ( (Feb.) ) 1939. 40. Siegler, S. L.: A New Method of Treatment for Vaginitis and Cervicitis , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 52:1-13 ( (July) ) 1946. 41. Status of Treatment of Vaginitis Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis, Report of Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry , J. A. M. A. 123:481-483 ( (Oct. 23) ) 1943. 42. Temples, A. K.: Leukorrhea , Bull. Univ. Hosp., Georgia 2:1-7, 1940. 43. Trussell, R. E.: Trichomonas Vaginalis and Trichoniasis , Springfield, Ill., C. C Thomas, 1947. 44. Williams, B.: Infection of Urinary Tract in Female due to Trichomonas Vaginalis , Brit. J. Urol. 18:63-65 ( (June) ) 1946.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1956

References