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Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy of the Face: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy of the Face: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature Abstract • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy of the face is an infrequently reported cause of chronic facial pain. We report the cases of two patients who were diagnosed and treated by sympathetic blockade of the stellate ganglion. Pathophysiologic mechanisms and rationale for treatment are discussed. References 1. Evans JA: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: Report on 57 cases . Ann Intern Med 1947;26:417-426.Crossref 2. Homans J: Minor causalgia: A hyperesthetic neurovascular syndrome . N Engl J Med 1940;222:870-874.Crossref 3. Miller DS, de Takats GL: Posttraumatic dystrophy of the extremities . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1942;75:558-582. 4. Betcher AM, Casten DF: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: Criteria for diagnosis and treatment . Anesthesia 1955;16:994-1003.Crossref 5. Lankford L, Thompson J: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, upper and lower extremity: Diagnosis and management , in Instructional Course Lectures . St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1977, pp 163-178. 6. Rowlingson JC: The sympathetic dystrophies . Int Anesthesiol Clin 1983;21:117-129.Crossref 7. Bonica JJ: Causalgia and other reflex sympathetic dystrophies , in Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG (eds): Advances in Pain Research and Therapy . New York, Raven Press, 1979, vol 3, pp 141-166. 8. Khoury R, Kennedy SF, MacNamara TE: Facial causalgia: Report of case . J Oral Surg 1980;38:782-783. 9. Hanowell ST, Kennedy SF: Phantom tongue pain and causalgia: Case presentation and treatment . Anesth Analg 1979;58:436-438.Crossref 10. Bingham JAW: Causalgia of the face: Two cases successfully treated by sympathectomy . Br Med J 1947;1:804-805.Crossref 11. Bell WE: Orofacial Pains, Classification, Diagnosis, Management , ed 3. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers Inc, 1985, pp 303-307. 12. Elfenbaum A: Causalgia in dentistry: An abandoned pain syndrome . Oral Surg 1954;7:594-600.Crossref 13. Behrman S: Facial neuralgias . Br Dent J 1949;86:197-203. 14. Massler M: Dental causalgia . Quintessence Int 1981;3:341-805. 15. Price DD, McGrath PA, Ralfi R, et al: The validation of visual analogue scale measures for chronic and experimental pain . Pain 1983;17:45-56.Crossref 16. Gross D: Pain and autonomic nervous system , in Bonica JJ (ed): Advances in Neurology . New York, Raven Press, 1974, vol 4, pp 93-103. 17. Devor M: Nerve pathophysiology and mechanisms of pain in causalgia . J Auton Nerv Syst 1983;7:371-384.Crossref 18. Mitchell SW, Morehouse GR, Keen WW: Gunshot Wounds and Other Injuries of Nerves . New York, JB Lippincott, 1864. 19. Doupe T, Cullen CH, Chance GQ: Posttraumatic pain and the causalgic syndrome . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1944;7:33-48.Crossref 20. Nathan PW: On the pathogenesis of causalgia in peripheral nerve injuries . Brain 1947;70:145-170.Crossref 21. Livingston WK: Pain Mechanisms: A Physiologic Interpretation of Causalgia and Its Related States . New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1944. 22. Sunderland S: Pain mechanisms in causalgia . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976;39:471-480.Crossref 23. Melzack R: Phantom limb pain: Implications for treatment of pathclogic pain . Anesthesiology 1971;35:409-419.Crossref 24. Wall PD, Gutnick M: Ongoing activity in peripheral nerves: The physiology and pharmacology of impulses originating from a neuroma . Exp Neurol 1974;43:580-593.Crossref 25. Diamond J: The effect of injecting acetylcholine into normal and regenerating nerves . J Physiol 1959;145:611-629. 26. Devor M, Janig W: Activation of myelinated afferents ending in a neuroma by stimulation of the sympathetic supply in the rat . Neurosci Lett 1981;24:43-47.Crossref 27. Anderson LS, Black RG, Abraham J, et al: Neuronal hyperactivity in experimental trigeminal deafferentation . J Neurosurg 1971;35:444-452.Crossref 28. Westrum LE, Black RG, Abraham J, et al: Changes in the synapses of the spinal trigeminal nucleus after ipsilateral rhizotomy . Brain Res 1968;11:706-709.Crossref 29. Westrum LE, Canfield RC, Black RG: Transganglionic degeneration in the spinal trigeminal nucleus following removal of tooth pulps in adult cats . Brain Res 1976;101:137-140.Crossref 30. Westrum LE: Electron microscopy of deafferentation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus , in Bonica JJ (ed): Advances in Neurology . New York, Raven Press, 1974, vol 4, pp 53-60. 31. Gregg JM: Postraumatic pain: Experimental trigeminal neuropathy . J Oral Surg 1971;29:260-267. 32. Brodal A: Neurological Anatomy in Relation to Clinical Medicine . New York, Oxford University Press Inc, 1981. 33. Pick J: The Automonic Nervous System: Morphological, Comparative, Clinical and Surgical Aspects . New York, JB Lippincott, 1970. 34. Lofstrom B, Lloyd JW, Cousins MJ: Sympathetic neural blockade of upper and lower extremity , in Cousins MJ, Bridenbaugh PO (eds): Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Management of Pain . New York, JB Lippincott, 1980, pp 355-382. 35. Lofstrom B: Stellate ganglion block , in Ericksson E (ed): Illustrated Handbook in Local Anesthesia . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1980, pp 141-143. 36. Schultzberg M, Hokfelt T, Terenius L, et al: Enkephalin immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies in the sympathetic ganglia of the guinea pig and rat . Neuroscience 1979;4:249-270.Crossref 37. DiGuilio AM: Characterization of enkephalin-like material extracted from sympathetic ganglia . Neuropharmacology 1978;17:989-992.Crossref 38. Mays KS, North WC, Schnapp M: Stellate ganglion 'blocks' with morphine in sympathetic type pain . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981;44:189-190.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy of the Face: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1986 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1986.00520070049017
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Abstract

Abstract • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy of the face is an infrequently reported cause of chronic facial pain. We report the cases of two patients who were diagnosed and treated by sympathetic blockade of the stellate ganglion. Pathophysiologic mechanisms and rationale for treatment are discussed. References 1. Evans JA: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: Report on 57 cases . Ann Intern Med 1947;26:417-426.Crossref 2. Homans J: Minor causalgia: A hyperesthetic neurovascular syndrome . N Engl J Med 1940;222:870-874.Crossref 3. Miller DS, de Takats GL: Posttraumatic dystrophy of the extremities . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1942;75:558-582. 4. Betcher AM, Casten DF: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: Criteria for diagnosis and treatment . Anesthesia 1955;16:994-1003.Crossref 5. Lankford L, Thompson J: Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, upper and lower extremity: Diagnosis and management , in Instructional Course Lectures . St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1977, pp 163-178. 6. Rowlingson JC: The sympathetic dystrophies . Int Anesthesiol Clin 1983;21:117-129.Crossref 7. Bonica JJ: Causalgia and other reflex sympathetic dystrophies , in Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG (eds): Advances in Pain Research and Therapy . New York, Raven Press, 1979, vol 3, pp 141-166. 8. Khoury R, Kennedy SF, MacNamara TE: Facial causalgia: Report of case . J Oral Surg 1980;38:782-783. 9. Hanowell ST, Kennedy SF: Phantom tongue pain and causalgia: Case presentation and treatment . Anesth Analg 1979;58:436-438.Crossref 10. Bingham JAW: Causalgia of the face: Two cases successfully treated by sympathectomy . Br Med J 1947;1:804-805.Crossref 11. Bell WE: Orofacial Pains, Classification, Diagnosis, Management , ed 3. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers Inc, 1985, pp 303-307. 12. Elfenbaum A: Causalgia in dentistry: An abandoned pain syndrome . Oral Surg 1954;7:594-600.Crossref 13. Behrman S: Facial neuralgias . Br Dent J 1949;86:197-203. 14. Massler M: Dental causalgia . Quintessence Int 1981;3:341-805. 15. Price DD, McGrath PA, Ralfi R, et al: The validation of visual analogue scale measures for chronic and experimental pain . Pain 1983;17:45-56.Crossref 16. Gross D: Pain and autonomic nervous system , in Bonica JJ (ed): Advances in Neurology . New York, Raven Press, 1974, vol 4, pp 93-103. 17. Devor M: Nerve pathophysiology and mechanisms of pain in causalgia . J Auton Nerv Syst 1983;7:371-384.Crossref 18. Mitchell SW, Morehouse GR, Keen WW: Gunshot Wounds and Other Injuries of Nerves . New York, JB Lippincott, 1864. 19. Doupe T, Cullen CH, Chance GQ: Posttraumatic pain and the causalgic syndrome . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1944;7:33-48.Crossref 20. Nathan PW: On the pathogenesis of causalgia in peripheral nerve injuries . Brain 1947;70:145-170.Crossref 21. Livingston WK: Pain Mechanisms: A Physiologic Interpretation of Causalgia and Its Related States . New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1944. 22. Sunderland S: Pain mechanisms in causalgia . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976;39:471-480.Crossref 23. Melzack R: Phantom limb pain: Implications for treatment of pathclogic pain . Anesthesiology 1971;35:409-419.Crossref 24. Wall PD, Gutnick M: Ongoing activity in peripheral nerves: The physiology and pharmacology of impulses originating from a neuroma . Exp Neurol 1974;43:580-593.Crossref 25. Diamond J: The effect of injecting acetylcholine into normal and regenerating nerves . J Physiol 1959;145:611-629. 26. Devor M, Janig W: Activation of myelinated afferents ending in a neuroma by stimulation of the sympathetic supply in the rat . Neurosci Lett 1981;24:43-47.Crossref 27. Anderson LS, Black RG, Abraham J, et al: Neuronal hyperactivity in experimental trigeminal deafferentation . J Neurosurg 1971;35:444-452.Crossref 28. Westrum LE, Black RG, Abraham J, et al: Changes in the synapses of the spinal trigeminal nucleus after ipsilateral rhizotomy . Brain Res 1968;11:706-709.Crossref 29. Westrum LE, Canfield RC, Black RG: Transganglionic degeneration in the spinal trigeminal nucleus following removal of tooth pulps in adult cats . Brain Res 1976;101:137-140.Crossref 30. Westrum LE: Electron microscopy of deafferentation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus , in Bonica JJ (ed): Advances in Neurology . New York, Raven Press, 1974, vol 4, pp 53-60. 31. Gregg JM: Postraumatic pain: Experimental trigeminal neuropathy . J Oral Surg 1971;29:260-267. 32. Brodal A: Neurological Anatomy in Relation to Clinical Medicine . New York, Oxford University Press Inc, 1981. 33. Pick J: The Automonic Nervous System: Morphological, Comparative, Clinical and Surgical Aspects . New York, JB Lippincott, 1970. 34. Lofstrom B, Lloyd JW, Cousins MJ: Sympathetic neural blockade of upper and lower extremity , in Cousins MJ, Bridenbaugh PO (eds): Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Management of Pain . New York, JB Lippincott, 1980, pp 355-382. 35. Lofstrom B: Stellate ganglion block , in Ericksson E (ed): Illustrated Handbook in Local Anesthesia . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1980, pp 141-143. 36. Schultzberg M, Hokfelt T, Terenius L, et al: Enkephalin immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies in the sympathetic ganglia of the guinea pig and rat . Neuroscience 1979;4:249-270.Crossref 37. DiGuilio AM: Characterization of enkephalin-like material extracted from sympathetic ganglia . Neuropharmacology 1978;17:989-992.Crossref 38. Mays KS, North WC, Schnapp M: Stellate ganglion 'blocks' with morphine in sympathetic type pain . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981;44:189-190.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1986

References