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Reduced Growth Hormone Responses to Amphetamine in Endogenous Depressive Patients: Studies in Normal, Reactive and Endogenous Depressive, Schizophrenic, and Chronic Alcoholic Subjects

Reduced Growth Hormone Responses to Amphetamine in Endogenous Depressive Patients: Studies in... Abstract • Several pharmacological stimulation tests of the pituitaryhypothalamic system have been used to investigate psychiatric disorders. This study introduces amphetamine sulfate as a stimulus for human growth hormone (HGH) release in various psychiatric patients. Peak HGH release after a single intravenous administration of amphetamine sulfate, 0.1 mg/kg, was significantly lower in nine "endogenous" depressives (P =.01) and significantly higher in seven "reactive" depressives (P <.05) as compared to normal subjects, whereas peak HGH release in eight schizophrenics and six chronic alcoholics did not differ significantly from that in normal subjects. Considering the pharmacological properties of amphetamine and the present concepts of neural regulation of HGH, our findings are compatible with a current hypothesis that altered brain monoaminergic activities represent one biological correlate of depressive disorders. References 1. Sachar EJ, Coppen A: Biological aspects of affective psychoses , in Gaull G (ed): Biology of Brain Dysfunction . New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1975, pp 215-245. 2. Stevens JR: An anatomy of schizophrenia? Arch Gen Psychiatry 29:177-189, 1973.Crossref 3. Martin JB: Neural regulation of growth hormone secretion . N Engl J Med 288:1384-1393, 1973.Crossref 4. Besser GM, Butler PWP, Landon J, et al: Influence of amphetamines on plasma corticosteroid and growth hormone levels in man . Br Med J 4:528-530, 1969.Crossref 5. Langer G, Heinze G, Reim B, et al: Growth hormone response to Damphetamine in normal controls and in depressive patients . Neurosci Letters 1:185-189, 1975.Crossref 6. Sachar EJ, Altman N, Gruen PH, et al: Human growth hormone response to levodopa: Relation to menopause, depression, and plasma dopa concentration . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:502-503, 1975.Crossref 7. Sachar EJ, Finkelstein J, Hellman L: Growth hormone responses in depressive illness: I. Response to insulin tolerance test . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:263-269, 1971.Crossref 8. Mueller PS, Heninger GR, McDonald PK: Studies on glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in affective disorders , in Williams TA, Katz MM, Shield JA (eds): Recent Advances in the Psychobiology of the Depressive Illnesses , publication 70-9053. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1972, pp 235-245. 9. Carroll BJ: Studies with hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal stimulation tests in depression , in Davies B, Carroll BJ, Mowbray RM (eds); Depressive Illness: Some Research Studies . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1972, pp 149-201. 10. Gruen PH, Sachar EJ, Altman N, et al: Growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia in postmenopausal depressed women . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:31-33, 1975.Crossref 11. Takahashi S, Kondo H, Yoshimura M, et al: Growth hormone responses to administration of L-5-hydroxytryptophan in manic-depressive psychoses, in Hatotani N (ed): Psychoneuroendocrinology: Workshop Conference of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, Mieken, 1973. Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1974, pp 32-38. 12. Mendels J, Frazer A, Carroll B: Growth hormone response in depression . Am J Psychiatry 131:1154-1155, 1974. 13. Schilkrut R, Chandra O, Osswald M, et al: Growth hormone release during sleep and with thermal stimulation in depressed patients . Neuropsychobiology 1:70-79, 1975.Crossref 14. Takahashi K, Takahashi S, Honda Y, et al: Secretion of human growth hormone during insulin coma and electroschock therapies . Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jap 21:87-91, 1967. 15. Brambilla F, Gaustalla A, Guerrini A, et al: Growth hormone secretion in schizophrenia, in Hatotani N (ed): Psychoneuroendocrinology: Workshop Conference of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, Mieken, 1973. Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1974, pp 13-25. 16. Blackard WG, Heidingsfelder SA: Adrenergic receptor control mechanism for growth hormone secretion . J Clin Invest 47:1407-1414, 1968.Crossref 17. Lal S, Tolis G, Martin J, et al: Effect of clonidine on growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and thyroidstimulating hormone in the serum of normal men . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41:827-832, 1975.Crossref 18. Lal S, de la Vega CE, Sourkes TL, et al: Effect of apomorphine on human growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels in human serum . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37:719-724, 1973.Crossref 19. Bivens CH, Lebovitz HE, Feldman JM: Inhibition of hypoglycemia induced growth hormone secretion by the serotonin antagonist cyproheptadine and methysergide . N Engl J Med 289:236-239, 1973.Crossref 20. Anton-Tay F, Wurtman RJ: Brain monoamines and endocrine functions , in Ganong WF, Martin L (eds): Frontiers of Neuroendocrinology New York, Oxford University Press, 1971, pp 45-66. 21. Randrup A, Munkvad J: Role of catecholamines in the amphetamine excitatory response . Nature 211:540-542, 1966.Crossref 22. Fuxe K, Ungerstedt: Histochemical, biochemical and functional studies on central monoamine neurons after acute and chronic administration , in Costa E, Garattini S (eds): Amphetamine and Related Compounds . New York, Raven Press, 1970, pp 257-288. 23. Glowinsky J, Axelrod J, Iverson L: Regional studies of catecholamines in the rat brain: IV. Effects of drugs on the disposition and metabolism of H3-norepinephrine and H3-dopamine . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 153:30-34, 1966. 24. Chiueh CC, Moore KE: D-amphetamine-induced release of "newly synthesized" and "stored" dopamine from the caudate nucleus in vivo . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 192:642-653, 1975. 25. Kalisker A, Waymire JC, Rutledge CO: Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine and reserpine on amphetamine-induced release of norepinephrine in rat cerebral cortex . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 193:64-72, 1975. 26. Glowinsky J, Axelrod J: Effects of drugs on the uptake, release and metabolism of H3-norepinephrine in the rat brain . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 149:43-48, 1965. 27. Vazquez AJ, Krip G: Evidence for an inhibitory role for acetylcholine, catecholamines and serotonin on the cerebral cortex , in Sabelli HC (ed): Chemical Modulation of Brain Function . New York, Raven Press, 1973, pp 137-159. 28. Deffenu G, Bartolini A, Pepeu G: Effects of amphetamine on cholinergic systems of the cerebral cortex of the cat , in Costa E, Garattini S (eds): Amphetamines and Related Compounds . New York, Raven Press, 1970, pp 357-368. 29. Schildkraut JJ: Neuropharmacology of affective disorders . Ann Rev Pharmacol 13:427-454, 1973.Crossref 30. Matussek N: Reflections on recent contributions to biochemistry and pharmacotherapy of affective disorders , in Arieti S (ed): New Dimensions in Psychiatry: A World Review . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1975, pp 100-111. 31. Snyder S: Amphetamine psychosis: A "model" schizophrenia mediated by catecholamines . Am J Psychiatry 130:61-67, 1973. 32. Matthysee S: Dopamine and the pharmacology of schizophrenia: The state of the evidence . J Psychiatr Res 11:107-113, 1974.Crossref 33. Hamilton MA: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23:56-62, 1960.Crossref 34. Von Zerssen J, Koeller DM, Rey ER: Die Befindlichkeitsskala (B.S.)ein einfaches Instrument zur Objektivierung im Rahmen von Laengsschnittuntersuchungen . Arzneim Forschung 20:915-918, 1970. 35. Catt K, Tregear GW: Solid phase radioimmunoassay in antibody coated tubes . Science 158:1570-1572, 1967.Crossref 36. Frantz AG, Rabkin MT: Effects of estrogen and sex difference on secretion of human growth hormone . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 25:1470-1480, 1965.Crossref 37. Sachar EJ, Roffwarg HP, Gruen PH, et al: Neuroendocrine studies of depressive illness . Pharmakopsych 9:11-17, 1976.Crossref 38. Dudl RJ, Ensinck JW, Palmer HP, et al: Effect of age on growth hormone secretion in man . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37:11-16, 1973.Crossref 39. Shagass C, Naiman J, Mihalik J: An objective test which differentiates between neurotic and psychotic depressions . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 75:461-467, 1956.Crossref 40. Giberti F, Rossi R: Proposal of a psychopharmacological test ("stimulation threshold") for differentiating neurotic from psychotic depressions . Psychopharmacologia 3:128-131, 1962.Crossref 41. Perez-Reyes M: Differences in the capacity of the sympathetic and endocrine systems of depressed patients to react to a physiological stress , in Williams T, Katz M, Shield J (eds): Recent Advances in the Psychobiology and the Depressive Illness , US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, publication 70-9053. 1972, pp 147-170. 42. Maas JW: Biogenic amines and depression: Biochemical and pharmacological separation of two types of depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:1357-1361, 1975.Crossref 43. Sachar EJ, Gruen PH, Altman N, et al: Use of neuroendocrine techniques in psychopharmacological research , in Sachar EJ (ed): Hormones, Behavior and Psychopathology . New York, Raven Press, 1976, pp 161-175. 44. Garver DL, Pandey GN, Dekirmenjian H, et al: Growth hormone and catecholamines in affective disease . Am J Psychiatry 132:1149-1154, 1975. 45. Maas JW, Fawcett JA, Dekirmenjian H: Catecholamine metabolism, depressive illness, and drug response . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:252-262, 1972.Crossref 46. Fawcett J, Maas JW, Dekirmenjian H: Depression and MHPG excretion: Response to dextroamphetamine and tricyclic antidepressants . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:246-251, 1972.Crossref 47. Deleon-Jones F, Maas JW, Dekirmenjian H, et al: Diagnostic subgroups of affective disorders and their urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites . Am J Psychiatry 132:1141-1148, 1975. 48. Beckmann H, Goodwin FK: Antidepressant response to tricyclic and urinary MHPG in unipolar patients: Clinical response to imipramine or amitriptyline . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:17-21, 1975.Crossref 49. Rees L, Butler PW, Goshing C, et al: Adrenergic blockade and the corticosteroid and growth hormone responses to methylamphetamine . Nature 228:565-566, 1970.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Reduced Growth Hormone Responses to Amphetamine in Endogenous Depressive Patients: Studies in Normal, Reactive and Endogenous Depressive, Schizophrenic, and Chronic Alcoholic Subjects

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1976 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770120075007
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Abstract

Abstract • Several pharmacological stimulation tests of the pituitaryhypothalamic system have been used to investigate psychiatric disorders. This study introduces amphetamine sulfate as a stimulus for human growth hormone (HGH) release in various psychiatric patients. Peak HGH release after a single intravenous administration of amphetamine sulfate, 0.1 mg/kg, was significantly lower in nine "endogenous" depressives (P =.01) and significantly higher in seven "reactive" depressives (P <.05) as compared to normal subjects, whereas peak HGH release in eight schizophrenics and six chronic alcoholics did not differ significantly from that in normal subjects. Considering the pharmacological properties of amphetamine and the present concepts of neural regulation of HGH, our findings are compatible with a current hypothesis that altered brain monoaminergic activities represent one biological correlate of depressive disorders. References 1. Sachar EJ, Coppen A: Biological aspects of affective psychoses , in Gaull G (ed): Biology of Brain Dysfunction . New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1975, pp 215-245. 2. Stevens JR: An anatomy of schizophrenia? Arch Gen Psychiatry 29:177-189, 1973.Crossref 3. Martin JB: Neural regulation of growth hormone secretion . N Engl J Med 288:1384-1393, 1973.Crossref 4. Besser GM, Butler PWP, Landon J, et al: Influence of amphetamines on plasma corticosteroid and growth hormone levels in man . Br Med J 4:528-530, 1969.Crossref 5. Langer G, Heinze G, Reim B, et al: Growth hormone response to Damphetamine in normal controls and in depressive patients . Neurosci Letters 1:185-189, 1975.Crossref 6. Sachar EJ, Altman N, Gruen PH, et al: Human growth hormone response to levodopa: Relation to menopause, depression, and plasma dopa concentration . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:502-503, 1975.Crossref 7. Sachar EJ, Finkelstein J, Hellman L: Growth hormone responses in depressive illness: I. Response to insulin tolerance test . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:263-269, 1971.Crossref 8. Mueller PS, Heninger GR, McDonald PK: Studies on glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in affective disorders , in Williams TA, Katz MM, Shield JA (eds): Recent Advances in the Psychobiology of the Depressive Illnesses , publication 70-9053. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1972, pp 235-245. 9. Carroll BJ: Studies with hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal stimulation tests in depression , in Davies B, Carroll BJ, Mowbray RM (eds); Depressive Illness: Some Research Studies . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1972, pp 149-201. 10. Gruen PH, Sachar EJ, Altman N, et al: Growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia in postmenopausal depressed women . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:31-33, 1975.Crossref 11. Takahashi S, Kondo H, Yoshimura M, et al: Growth hormone responses to administration of L-5-hydroxytryptophan in manic-depressive psychoses, in Hatotani N (ed): Psychoneuroendocrinology: Workshop Conference of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, Mieken, 1973. Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1974, pp 32-38. 12. Mendels J, Frazer A, Carroll B: Growth hormone response in depression . Am J Psychiatry 131:1154-1155, 1974. 13. Schilkrut R, Chandra O, Osswald M, et al: Growth hormone release during sleep and with thermal stimulation in depressed patients . Neuropsychobiology 1:70-79, 1975.Crossref 14. Takahashi K, Takahashi S, Honda Y, et al: Secretion of human growth hormone during insulin coma and electroschock therapies . Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jap 21:87-91, 1967. 15. Brambilla F, Gaustalla A, Guerrini A, et al: Growth hormone secretion in schizophrenia, in Hatotani N (ed): Psychoneuroendocrinology: Workshop Conference of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, Mieken, 1973. Basel, Switzerland, S Karger, 1974, pp 13-25. 16. Blackard WG, Heidingsfelder SA: Adrenergic receptor control mechanism for growth hormone secretion . J Clin Invest 47:1407-1414, 1968.Crossref 17. Lal S, Tolis G, Martin J, et al: Effect of clonidine on growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and thyroidstimulating hormone in the serum of normal men . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41:827-832, 1975.Crossref 18. Lal S, de la Vega CE, Sourkes TL, et al: Effect of apomorphine on human growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels in human serum . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37:719-724, 1973.Crossref 19. Bivens CH, Lebovitz HE, Feldman JM: Inhibition of hypoglycemia induced growth hormone secretion by the serotonin antagonist cyproheptadine and methysergide . N Engl J Med 289:236-239, 1973.Crossref 20. Anton-Tay F, Wurtman RJ: Brain monoamines and endocrine functions , in Ganong WF, Martin L (eds): Frontiers of Neuroendocrinology New York, Oxford University Press, 1971, pp 45-66. 21. Randrup A, Munkvad J: Role of catecholamines in the amphetamine excitatory response . Nature 211:540-542, 1966.Crossref 22. Fuxe K, Ungerstedt: Histochemical, biochemical and functional studies on central monoamine neurons after acute and chronic administration , in Costa E, Garattini S (eds): Amphetamine and Related Compounds . New York, Raven Press, 1970, pp 257-288. 23. Glowinsky J, Axelrod J, Iverson L: Regional studies of catecholamines in the rat brain: IV. Effects of drugs on the disposition and metabolism of H3-norepinephrine and H3-dopamine . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 153:30-34, 1966. 24. Chiueh CC, Moore KE: D-amphetamine-induced release of "newly synthesized" and "stored" dopamine from the caudate nucleus in vivo . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 192:642-653, 1975. 25. Kalisker A, Waymire JC, Rutledge CO: Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine and reserpine on amphetamine-induced release of norepinephrine in rat cerebral cortex . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 193:64-72, 1975. 26. Glowinsky J, Axelrod J: Effects of drugs on the uptake, release and metabolism of H3-norepinephrine in the rat brain . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 149:43-48, 1965. 27. Vazquez AJ, Krip G: Evidence for an inhibitory role for acetylcholine, catecholamines and serotonin on the cerebral cortex , in Sabelli HC (ed): Chemical Modulation of Brain Function . New York, Raven Press, 1973, pp 137-159. 28. Deffenu G, Bartolini A, Pepeu G: Effects of amphetamine on cholinergic systems of the cerebral cortex of the cat , in Costa E, Garattini S (eds): Amphetamines and Related Compounds . New York, Raven Press, 1970, pp 357-368. 29. Schildkraut JJ: Neuropharmacology of affective disorders . Ann Rev Pharmacol 13:427-454, 1973.Crossref 30. Matussek N: Reflections on recent contributions to biochemistry and pharmacotherapy of affective disorders , in Arieti S (ed): New Dimensions in Psychiatry: A World Review . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1975, pp 100-111. 31. Snyder S: Amphetamine psychosis: A "model" schizophrenia mediated by catecholamines . Am J Psychiatry 130:61-67, 1973. 32. Matthysee S: Dopamine and the pharmacology of schizophrenia: The state of the evidence . J Psychiatr Res 11:107-113, 1974.Crossref 33. Hamilton MA: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23:56-62, 1960.Crossref 34. Von Zerssen J, Koeller DM, Rey ER: Die Befindlichkeitsskala (B.S.)ein einfaches Instrument zur Objektivierung im Rahmen von Laengsschnittuntersuchungen . Arzneim Forschung 20:915-918, 1970. 35. Catt K, Tregear GW: Solid phase radioimmunoassay in antibody coated tubes . Science 158:1570-1572, 1967.Crossref 36. Frantz AG, Rabkin MT: Effects of estrogen and sex difference on secretion of human growth hormone . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 25:1470-1480, 1965.Crossref 37. Sachar EJ, Roffwarg HP, Gruen PH, et al: Neuroendocrine studies of depressive illness . Pharmakopsych 9:11-17, 1976.Crossref 38. Dudl RJ, Ensinck JW, Palmer HP, et al: Effect of age on growth hormone secretion in man . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37:11-16, 1973.Crossref 39. Shagass C, Naiman J, Mihalik J: An objective test which differentiates between neurotic and psychotic depressions . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 75:461-467, 1956.Crossref 40. Giberti F, Rossi R: Proposal of a psychopharmacological test ("stimulation threshold") for differentiating neurotic from psychotic depressions . Psychopharmacologia 3:128-131, 1962.Crossref 41. Perez-Reyes M: Differences in the capacity of the sympathetic and endocrine systems of depressed patients to react to a physiological stress , in Williams T, Katz M, Shield J (eds): Recent Advances in the Psychobiology and the Depressive Illness , US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, publication 70-9053. 1972, pp 147-170. 42. Maas JW: Biogenic amines and depression: Biochemical and pharmacological separation of two types of depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:1357-1361, 1975.Crossref 43. Sachar EJ, Gruen PH, Altman N, et al: Use of neuroendocrine techniques in psychopharmacological research , in Sachar EJ (ed): Hormones, Behavior and Psychopathology . New York, Raven Press, 1976, pp 161-175. 44. Garver DL, Pandey GN, Dekirmenjian H, et al: Growth hormone and catecholamines in affective disease . Am J Psychiatry 132:1149-1154, 1975. 45. Maas JW, Fawcett JA, Dekirmenjian H: Catecholamine metabolism, depressive illness, and drug response . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:252-262, 1972.Crossref 46. Fawcett J, Maas JW, Dekirmenjian H: Depression and MHPG excretion: Response to dextroamphetamine and tricyclic antidepressants . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:246-251, 1972.Crossref 47. Deleon-Jones F, Maas JW, Dekirmenjian H, et al: Diagnostic subgroups of affective disorders and their urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites . Am J Psychiatry 132:1141-1148, 1975. 48. Beckmann H, Goodwin FK: Antidepressant response to tricyclic and urinary MHPG in unipolar patients: Clinical response to imipramine or amitriptyline . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:17-21, 1975.Crossref 49. Rees L, Butler PW, Goshing C, et al: Adrenergic blockade and the corticosteroid and growth hormone responses to methylamphetamine . Nature 228:565-566, 1970.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1976

References