Abstract • The two essential components of the paratrigeminal syndrome of Raeder are unilateral oculosympathetic paresis and evidence of trigeminal nerve involvement on the same side. Over the years, pervessions and classifications have followed, leading to confusion. Many unilateral vascular headaches associated with ipsilateral oculosympathetic paresis have been cited as examples of Raeder's paratrigeminal syndrome. In this communication, the original description of the syndrome will be reviewed, sources of confusion will be emphasized, and illustrative examples will be presented. References 1. Raeder JG: 'Paratrigeminal' paralysis of oculo-pupillary sympathetic . Brain 1924;47:149-158.Crossref 2. Bedrossian EH: Raeder's syndrome . Arch Ophthalmol 1952;48:620-623.Crossref 3. Boniuk M, Schlezinger NS: Raeder's paratrigeminal syndrome . Am J Ophthalmol 1962;54:1074-1084. 4. Smith JL: Raeder's paratrigeminal syndrome . Am J Ophthalmol 1958;46:149-201. 5. Ford FR, Walsh FB: Raeder's paratrigeminal syndrome: A benign disorder, possibly a complication of migraine . Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1958;103:296-298. 6. Curran RE: Raeder's syndrome . Am J Ophthalmol 1975;80:1099. 7. Fay T: Atypical facial neuralgia, a syndrome of vascular pain . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1932;41:1030-1062. 8. Fisher CM: Headache in cerebrovascular disease , in Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology . Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Co, 1968, vol 5, pp 124-156. 9. Law WR, Nelson ER: Internal carotid aneurysm as a cause of Raeder's paratrigeminal syndrome . Neurology 1968;18:43-46.Crossref 10. Davis RH, Daroff RB, Hoyt WF: Hemicrania, oculosympathetic paresis, and subcranial carotid aneurysm: Raeder's paratrigeminal syndrome (group 2); case report . J Neurosurg 1968;29:94-96.Crossref 11. Cohen DN, Zakov ZN, Salanga VD, et al: Raeder's paratrigeminal syndrome . Am J Ophthalmol 1975;79:1044-1049. 12. Fisher CM, Ojemann RG, Roberson GH: Spontaneous dissection of cervico-cerebral arteries . Can J Neurol Sci 1978;5:9-19. 13. Mokri B, Sundt TM Jr, Houser OW: Spontaneous internal carotid dissection, hemicrania, and Horner's syndrome . Arch Neurol 1979;36:677-680.Crossref 14. West TET, Davies RJ, Kelly RE: Horner's syndrome and headache due to carotid artery disease . Br Med J 1976;1:818-820.Crossref 15. Mokri B, Houser OW, Sundt TM Jr: Idiopathic regressing arteriopathy . Ann Neurol 1977;2:466-472.Crossref 16. List CF, Peet MM: Sweat secretion in man: IV. Sweat secretion of the face and its disturbances . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1938;40:443-470.Crossref 17. Mokri B: Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection and abnormal facial sweating . Arch Neurol 1980;37:468-469.Crossref 18. Vijayan N, Watson C: Pericarotid syndrome . Headache 1978;18:244-254.Crossref
Archives of Neurology – American Medical Association
Published: Jul 1, 1982
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