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Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids in Dermatology

Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids in Dermatology Abstract In 1987, we reviewed the history and development of natural pyrethrins and man-made synthetic pyrethroids.1 The following is a condensation of that report, an update on developments to 1989, and comments on a more recent study of permethrin 5% cream for the treatment of scabies that appears in this issue of the Archives.2 PYRETHRUM AND PYRETHRINS The insecticidal properties of flowers in the genus Chrysanthemum have been known for centuries. The earliest use was carefully guarded and remains unrecorded, but is generally considered to have originated in Persia, now Iran.George A. McLauglin,3 in his eminently readable chapter on the history of pyrethrum, states that the first commercial production of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium began in Dalmatia, now Yugoslavia, in 1840. Pyrethrum is the approved common name for the dried flowers, and the terms pyrethrum powder or pyrethrum extract are used to describe the crude products obtained from them. References 1. Taplin D, Meinking TL. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids for the treatment of scabies and pediculosis . Semin Dermatol. 1987;6:125-135. 2. Schultz MW, Gomez M, Hansen RC, et al. Comparative study of permethrin 5% cream and 1% lindane lotion for the treatment of scabies . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:167-170.Crossref 3. McLaughlin GA. History of pyrethrum . In: Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973:3-15. 4. Moore JB, Levy LW. Pyrethrum sources and uses, I: commercial sources of pyrethrum . In: Nelson RH, ed. Pyrethrum Flowers . 3rd ed. Minneapolis, Minn: McLaughlin Gormley King Co; 1975:1-9. 5. Gnadinger CB, Corl CS. Pyrethrum flowers, I: the quantitative determination of the active principles . J Am Chem Soc. 1929; 51:3054-3064.Crossref 6. Goodhue LD, Sullivan WN. Parasiticidal aerosols suitable for combating flies, roaches, mosquitoes, etc. 1943; US Patent 2,321, 023. 7. Nelson RH. Pyrethrum sources and uses, II: insecticidal uses of pyrethrum . In: Nelson RH, ed. Pyrethrum Flowers . 3rd ed. Minneapolis, Minn: McLaughlin Gormley King Co; 1975:10-27. 8. Farman J. What hope for the ozone layer now? New Scientist . 116:50-54. 9. Stolarski RS. The Antarctic ozone hole . Sci Am. 1988;258:30-36.Crossref 10. Wachs H. Methylenedioxyphenol derivatives. 1949; US Patent 2,485,681. 11. Jones GDG. Pyrethrum production . In: Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973:17-22. 12. Head SW. Composition of pyrethrum extract and analysis of pyrethrins . In: Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973:25-53. 13. Meinking TL, Taplin D, Kalter DC, Eberle MW. Comparative efficacy of treatments for pediculosis capitis infestations . Arch Dermatol. 1986;122:267-271.Crossref 14. Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973. 15. Nelson RH, ed. Pyrethrum Flowers , 3rd ed. Minneapolis, Minn: McLaughlin Gormley King Co; 1975. 16. Crombie L, Elliott M. Chemistry of the natural pyrethrins . Fortschr Chem Org Naturstoffe . 1961;19:120-164. 17. Matsui M, Yamamoto I. Pyrethroids . In: Jacobson M, Crosby DG, eds. Naturally Occurring Insecticides . New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1971:3-70. 18. Casida JE. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides . Environ Health Perspect . 1980;34:189-202.Crossref 19. Staudinger H, Ruzicka L. Insektentotende stoffe . Helv Chem Acta . 1924;7:177-458.Crossref 20. Schechter MS, Green N, LaForge FB. Constituents of pyrethrum flowers, XXIII: cinerolone and the synthesis of related cyclopentenolones . J Am Chem Soc. 1949;71:3165-3173.Crossref 21. Elliott M, Farnham AW, Janes NF, Needham PH, Pulman DA, Stevenson JH. A photostable pyrethroid . Nature . 1973;246:169-170.Crossref 22. Elliott M, ed. Synthetic Pyrethroids . Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 1977. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 42. 23. The Merck Index . 10th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co Inc; 1983:1771, 2823, 5331, 5525, 7039. 24. Nassif M, Kamel O. A field trial with permethrin against body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus in Egypt . Pestic Sci. 1977;8:301-304.Crossref 25. Nassif M, Brooke JP, Hutchinson DBA, Kamel OM, Savage EA. Studies with permethrin against bodylice in Egypt . Pestic Sci. 1980;11:679-684.Crossref 26. Mazas EA, Porto MC, Perez MCS, Farquhar JA, Hutchinson DBA. The efficacy of permethrin lotion in pediculosis capitis . Int J Dermatol. 1985;24:603-605.Crossref 27. Taplin D, Meinking TL, Castillero PM, Sanchez R. Permethrin 1% creme rinse for the treatment of Pediculus humanus var capitis infestation . Pediatr Dermatol. 1986;3:344-348.Crossref 28. Brandenburg K, Deinard AS, DiNapoli J, Englender SJ, Orthoefer J, Wagner D. 1% Permethrin cream rinse vs 1% lindane shampoo in treating pediculosis capitis . AJDC . 1986;140:894-896. 29. Bowerman JG, Gomez MP, Austin RD, Wold DE. Comparative study of permethrin 1% cream rinse and lindane shampoo for the treatment of head lice . Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987;6:252-255.Crossref 30. DiNapoli JB, Austin RD, Englender SH, Gomez MP, Barrett JF. Eradication of head lice with a single treatment . Am J Public Health . 1988;78:979-980.Crossref 31. Kalter DC, Sperber J, Rosen T, Matarasso S. Treatment of pediculosis pubis . Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1315-1319.Crossref 32. Smith DE, Walsh J. Treatment of pubic lice infestation: a comparison of two agents . Cutis . 1980;26:618-619. 33. Newsom JH, Fiore JL, Hackett E. Treatment of infestation with Phthirus pubis: comparative efficacies of synergized pyrethrins and γ-benzene hexachloride . Sex Transm Dis Assoc. 1979;6:203-205.Crossref 34. Taplin D, Meinking TL, Porcelain SL, Castillero PM, Chen JA. Permethrin 5% dermal cream: a new treatment for scabies . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:995-1001.Crossref 35. Hernandez-Perez E. Resistance to antiscabietic drugs . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;8:121-123.Crossref 36. Taplin D, Arrue C, Walker JG, Roth WI. Eradication of scabies with a single treatment schedule . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9:546-550.Crossref 37. Taplin D, Rivera A, Walker JG, Roth WI, Reno D, Meinking T. A comparative trial of three treatment schedules for the eradication of scabies . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9:550-554.Crossref 38. Witkowski JA, Parish LC. Scabies: subungual areas harbor mites . JAMA . 1984;252:1318-1319.Crossref 39. Arlian LG, Estes SA, Vyszenski-Moher DL. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei in the homes and nursing homes of scabietic patients . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19:806-811.Crossref 40. Taplin D, Meinking TL. Scabies, lice and fungal infections . Primary Care . 1989;16:551-568. 41. Pyrethroid insecticides in public and veterinary health . Parasitol Today . 1988;4:S1-S20.Crossref 42. Curtis CF, ed. Appropriate Technology in Control of Disease Vectors . Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc; 1989. 43. Knox JM, Tucker SB. A new cutaneous sensation caused by synthetic pyrethroids . Clin Res. 1982;30:915. 44. Flannigan SA, Tucker SB, Key MM. Prophylaxis of synthetic pyrethroid exposure . J Soc Occup Med. 1984;34:24-26.Crossref 45. Rozendall JA. Self-protection and Vector Control With Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets: A Review of Present Status . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Div of Vector Biology and Control; 1989. Document WHO/VBC/89.965. 46. Lindsay WS, Shenton FC, Snow RW, Greenwood BM. Responses of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to the use of untreated bed nets in The Gambia . Med Vet Entomol. 1989;3:253-262.Crossref 47. Lindsay SW, Snow RW, Broomfield GL, Semega Janneh M, Wirtz RA, Greenwood BM. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria transmission by the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia . Med Vet Entomol. 1989;3:263-271.Crossref 48. Taplin D, Lansdell L, Allen AM, Rodriguez R, Cortez A. Prevalence of streptococcal pyoderma in relation to climate and hygiene . Lancet . 1973;1:501-503.Crossref 49. Allen AM, Taplin D, Twigg L. Cutaneous streptococcal infections in Vietnam . Arch Dermatol. 1971;104:271-280.Crossref 50. Majori G, Sabatinelli G, Coluzzi M. Efficacy of permethrin impregnated curtains for malaria vector control . Med Vet Entomol. 1987;1:185.Crossref 51. Lillie TH, Schreck CE, Rahe AJ. Effectiveness of personal protection against mosquitoes in Alaska . J Med Entomol. 1988; 25:475-478. 52. Sholdt LL, Schreck CE, Qureshi A, Mammino S, Aziz A, Iqbal M. Field bioassays of permethrin-treated uniforms and a new extended duration repellent against mosquitoes in Pakistan . J Am Mosquito Control Assoc. 1988;3:233-236. 53. Schreck CE, Kline DL. Personal protection afforded by controlled-release topical repellents and permethrin-treated clothing against natural populations of Aedes taeniorhynchus . J Am Mosquito Control Assoc. 1989;5:77-80. 54. Sholdt LL, Rogers EJ, Gerberg EJ, Schreck CE. Effectiveness of permethrin-treated military uniform fabric against human body lice . Milit Med. 1989;154:90-93. 55. Sholdt LL, Schreck CE, Mwangelwa MI, Nondo J, Siachinji YJ. Evaluation of permethrin-impregnated clothing and three topical repellent formulations of deet against tsetse flies in Zambia . Med Vet Entomol. 1989;3:153-158.Crossref 56. Schreck CE, Mount GA, Carlson DA. Wear and wash persistence of permethrin used as a clothing treatment for personal protection against the lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae) . J Med Entomol. 1982;19:143-146. 57. Schreck CE, Snoddy EL, Spielman A. Pressurized sprays of permethrin or deet on military clothing for personal protection against Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) . J Med Entomol. 1986;23:396-399. 58. Schreck CE, Haile DG, Kline DL. The effectiveness of permethrin and deet, alone or in combination for protection against Aedes taeniorhynchus . Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984;33:725-730. 59. Alexander JO'D. Arthropods and Human Skin . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1984. 60. Taplin D, Meinking TL. Infestations . In: Schachner LA, Hansen RC, eds. Pediatric Dermatology . New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1988:1465-1515. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids in Dermatology

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 126 (2) – Feb 1, 1990

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1990 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1990.01670260083017
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Abstract

Abstract In 1987, we reviewed the history and development of natural pyrethrins and man-made synthetic pyrethroids.1 The following is a condensation of that report, an update on developments to 1989, and comments on a more recent study of permethrin 5% cream for the treatment of scabies that appears in this issue of the Archives.2 PYRETHRUM AND PYRETHRINS The insecticidal properties of flowers in the genus Chrysanthemum have been known for centuries. The earliest use was carefully guarded and remains unrecorded, but is generally considered to have originated in Persia, now Iran.George A. McLauglin,3 in his eminently readable chapter on the history of pyrethrum, states that the first commercial production of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium began in Dalmatia, now Yugoslavia, in 1840. Pyrethrum is the approved common name for the dried flowers, and the terms pyrethrum powder or pyrethrum extract are used to describe the crude products obtained from them. References 1. Taplin D, Meinking TL. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids for the treatment of scabies and pediculosis . Semin Dermatol. 1987;6:125-135. 2. Schultz MW, Gomez M, Hansen RC, et al. Comparative study of permethrin 5% cream and 1% lindane lotion for the treatment of scabies . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:167-170.Crossref 3. McLaughlin GA. History of pyrethrum . In: Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973:3-15. 4. Moore JB, Levy LW. Pyrethrum sources and uses, I: commercial sources of pyrethrum . In: Nelson RH, ed. Pyrethrum Flowers . 3rd ed. Minneapolis, Minn: McLaughlin Gormley King Co; 1975:1-9. 5. Gnadinger CB, Corl CS. Pyrethrum flowers, I: the quantitative determination of the active principles . J Am Chem Soc. 1929; 51:3054-3064.Crossref 6. Goodhue LD, Sullivan WN. Parasiticidal aerosols suitable for combating flies, roaches, mosquitoes, etc. 1943; US Patent 2,321, 023. 7. Nelson RH. Pyrethrum sources and uses, II: insecticidal uses of pyrethrum . In: Nelson RH, ed. Pyrethrum Flowers . 3rd ed. Minneapolis, Minn: McLaughlin Gormley King Co; 1975:10-27. 8. Farman J. What hope for the ozone layer now? New Scientist . 116:50-54. 9. Stolarski RS. The Antarctic ozone hole . Sci Am. 1988;258:30-36.Crossref 10. Wachs H. Methylenedioxyphenol derivatives. 1949; US Patent 2,485,681. 11. Jones GDG. Pyrethrum production . In: Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973:17-22. 12. Head SW. Composition of pyrethrum extract and analysis of pyrethrins . In: Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973:25-53. 13. Meinking TL, Taplin D, Kalter DC, Eberle MW. Comparative efficacy of treatments for pediculosis capitis infestations . Arch Dermatol. 1986;122:267-271.Crossref 14. Casida JE, ed. Pyrethrum: The Natural Insecticide . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1973. 15. Nelson RH, ed. Pyrethrum Flowers , 3rd ed. Minneapolis, Minn: McLaughlin Gormley King Co; 1975. 16. Crombie L, Elliott M. Chemistry of the natural pyrethrins . Fortschr Chem Org Naturstoffe . 1961;19:120-164. 17. Matsui M, Yamamoto I. Pyrethroids . In: Jacobson M, Crosby DG, eds. Naturally Occurring Insecticides . New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1971:3-70. 18. Casida JE. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides . Environ Health Perspect . 1980;34:189-202.Crossref 19. Staudinger H, Ruzicka L. Insektentotende stoffe . Helv Chem Acta . 1924;7:177-458.Crossref 20. Schechter MS, Green N, LaForge FB. Constituents of pyrethrum flowers, XXIII: cinerolone and the synthesis of related cyclopentenolones . J Am Chem Soc. 1949;71:3165-3173.Crossref 21. Elliott M, Farnham AW, Janes NF, Needham PH, Pulman DA, Stevenson JH. A photostable pyrethroid . Nature . 1973;246:169-170.Crossref 22. Elliott M, ed. Synthetic Pyrethroids . Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 1977. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 42. 23. The Merck Index . 10th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co Inc; 1983:1771, 2823, 5331, 5525, 7039. 24. Nassif M, Kamel O. A field trial with permethrin against body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus in Egypt . Pestic Sci. 1977;8:301-304.Crossref 25. Nassif M, Brooke JP, Hutchinson DBA, Kamel OM, Savage EA. Studies with permethrin against bodylice in Egypt . Pestic Sci. 1980;11:679-684.Crossref 26. Mazas EA, Porto MC, Perez MCS, Farquhar JA, Hutchinson DBA. The efficacy of permethrin lotion in pediculosis capitis . Int J Dermatol. 1985;24:603-605.Crossref 27. Taplin D, Meinking TL, Castillero PM, Sanchez R. Permethrin 1% creme rinse for the treatment of Pediculus humanus var capitis infestation . Pediatr Dermatol. 1986;3:344-348.Crossref 28. Brandenburg K, Deinard AS, DiNapoli J, Englender SJ, Orthoefer J, Wagner D. 1% Permethrin cream rinse vs 1% lindane shampoo in treating pediculosis capitis . AJDC . 1986;140:894-896. 29. Bowerman JG, Gomez MP, Austin RD, Wold DE. Comparative study of permethrin 1% cream rinse and lindane shampoo for the treatment of head lice . Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987;6:252-255.Crossref 30. DiNapoli JB, Austin RD, Englender SH, Gomez MP, Barrett JF. Eradication of head lice with a single treatment . Am J Public Health . 1988;78:979-980.Crossref 31. Kalter DC, Sperber J, Rosen T, Matarasso S. Treatment of pediculosis pubis . Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1315-1319.Crossref 32. Smith DE, Walsh J. Treatment of pubic lice infestation: a comparison of two agents . Cutis . 1980;26:618-619. 33. Newsom JH, Fiore JL, Hackett E. Treatment of infestation with Phthirus pubis: comparative efficacies of synergized pyrethrins and γ-benzene hexachloride . Sex Transm Dis Assoc. 1979;6:203-205.Crossref 34. Taplin D, Meinking TL, Porcelain SL, Castillero PM, Chen JA. Permethrin 5% dermal cream: a new treatment for scabies . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:995-1001.Crossref 35. Hernandez-Perez E. Resistance to antiscabietic drugs . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;8:121-123.Crossref 36. Taplin D, Arrue C, Walker JG, Roth WI. Eradication of scabies with a single treatment schedule . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9:546-550.Crossref 37. Taplin D, Rivera A, Walker JG, Roth WI, Reno D, Meinking T. A comparative trial of three treatment schedules for the eradication of scabies . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9:550-554.Crossref 38. Witkowski JA, Parish LC. Scabies: subungual areas harbor mites . JAMA . 1984;252:1318-1319.Crossref 39. Arlian LG, Estes SA, Vyszenski-Moher DL. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei in the homes and nursing homes of scabietic patients . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19:806-811.Crossref 40. Taplin D, Meinking TL. Scabies, lice and fungal infections . Primary Care . 1989;16:551-568. 41. Pyrethroid insecticides in public and veterinary health . Parasitol Today . 1988;4:S1-S20.Crossref 42. Curtis CF, ed. Appropriate Technology in Control of Disease Vectors . Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc; 1989. 43. Knox JM, Tucker SB. A new cutaneous sensation caused by synthetic pyrethroids . Clin Res. 1982;30:915. 44. Flannigan SA, Tucker SB, Key MM. Prophylaxis of synthetic pyrethroid exposure . J Soc Occup Med. 1984;34:24-26.Crossref 45. Rozendall JA. Self-protection and Vector Control With Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets: A Review of Present Status . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Div of Vector Biology and Control; 1989. Document WHO/VBC/89.965. 46. Lindsay WS, Shenton FC, Snow RW, Greenwood BM. Responses of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to the use of untreated bed nets in The Gambia . Med Vet Entomol. 1989;3:253-262.Crossref 47. Lindsay SW, Snow RW, Broomfield GL, Semega Janneh M, Wirtz RA, Greenwood BM. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria transmission by the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia . Med Vet Entomol. 1989;3:263-271.Crossref 48. Taplin D, Lansdell L, Allen AM, Rodriguez R, Cortez A. Prevalence of streptococcal pyoderma in relation to climate and hygiene . Lancet . 1973;1:501-503.Crossref 49. Allen AM, Taplin D, Twigg L. Cutaneous streptococcal infections in Vietnam . Arch Dermatol. 1971;104:271-280.Crossref 50. Majori G, Sabatinelli G, Coluzzi M. Efficacy of permethrin impregnated curtains for malaria vector control . Med Vet Entomol. 1987;1:185.Crossref 51. Lillie TH, Schreck CE, Rahe AJ. Effectiveness of personal protection against mosquitoes in Alaska . J Med Entomol. 1988; 25:475-478. 52. Sholdt LL, Schreck CE, Qureshi A, Mammino S, Aziz A, Iqbal M. Field bioassays of permethrin-treated uniforms and a new extended duration repellent against mosquitoes in Pakistan . J Am Mosquito Control Assoc. 1988;3:233-236. 53. Schreck CE, Kline DL. Personal protection afforded by controlled-release topical repellents and permethrin-treated clothing against natural populations of Aedes taeniorhynchus . J Am Mosquito Control Assoc. 1989;5:77-80. 54. Sholdt LL, Rogers EJ, Gerberg EJ, Schreck CE. Effectiveness of permethrin-treated military uniform fabric against human body lice . Milit Med. 1989;154:90-93. 55. Sholdt LL, Schreck CE, Mwangelwa MI, Nondo J, Siachinji YJ. Evaluation of permethrin-impregnated clothing and three topical repellent formulations of deet against tsetse flies in Zambia . Med Vet Entomol. 1989;3:153-158.Crossref 56. Schreck CE, Mount GA, Carlson DA. Wear and wash persistence of permethrin used as a clothing treatment for personal protection against the lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae) . J Med Entomol. 1982;19:143-146. 57. Schreck CE, Snoddy EL, Spielman A. Pressurized sprays of permethrin or deet on military clothing for personal protection against Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) . J Med Entomol. 1986;23:396-399. 58. Schreck CE, Haile DG, Kline DL. The effectiveness of permethrin and deet, alone or in combination for protection against Aedes taeniorhynchus . Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984;33:725-730. 59. Alexander JO'D. Arthropods and Human Skin . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1984. 60. Taplin D, Meinking TL. Infestations . In: Schachner LA, Hansen RC, eds. Pediatric Dermatology . New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1988:1465-1515.

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1990

References