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Pyogenic Abscess of the Liver

Pyogenic Abscess of the Liver Abstract Abscess of the liver, of pyogenic origin, is associated with a high mortality rate. Multiple abscesses have been fatal, in most instances. With the advent of chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotic drugs, there has been improvement in the mortality rate. Reports of recovery in patients having multiple abscesses have appeared in recent years. Pyogenic abscess of the liver is the result of spread of septic thrombi or bacteria through the tributaries of the portal vein. Appendicitis, with thrombophlebitis of the ileocecal veins, has been considered a major source of liver abscess.1-3 Pyogenic abscess of the liver may, however, follow trauma to the liver, cholangitis of the bile radicles, lymphatic spread from neighboring infections, and hematogenous spread from distant foci of infection, such as furuncles, osteomyelitis, and bronchiectasis. Abscesses of the liver have been reported following suppurative pelvic disease,4 diverticulitis,5 infected thrombosed hemorrhoids,5 suppurative pancreatitis,6,7 and ulcerative References 1. Ochsner, A.; De Bakey, M., and Murray, S.: Pyogenic Abscess of the Liver , Am. J. Surg. 40: 292-319 ( (April) ) 1938.Crossref 2. Keefer, C. S.: Liver Abscess: Review of 85 Cases , New England J. Med. 211:21-24 ( (July 5) ) 1934.Crossref 3. Rothenberg, R. E., and Linder, V.: Single Pyogenic Abscesses of the Liver: Study of 24 Cases , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 59:31-40 ( (July) ) 1934. 4. Colp, R.: The Treatment of Thrombophlebitis of Appendicular Origin , Ann. Surg. 85:257-262 ( (Feb.) ) 1927. 5. Gamm, K. E.: Penicillin Therapy in Pylephlebitis , J.A.M.A. 128:1159-1161 ( (Aug. 18) ) 1945. 6. Ottenberg, R., and Berck, M.: Sulfanilamide Therapy for Suppurative Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscesses , J.A.M.A. 111:1374-1375 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 7. Shallow, T. A.; Eger, S. A., and Wagner, F. B., Jr.: Pyogenic Liver Abscess Associated with Suppurative Pancreatitis , Ann. Surg. 121:853-859 ( (June) ) 1945. 8. Treusch, J. V.: Multiple Liver Abscesses Complicating Non-Specific Ulcerative Colitis , Gastroenterology 20:166-173 ( (Jan.) ) 1952. 9. Lansbury, J., and Bargen, J. A.: The Association of Multiple Hepatic Abscesses and Chronic Ulcerative Colitis , M. Clin. North America 16: 1427-1431 ( (May) ) 1933. 10. Elsom, K. A., and Ferguson, L. K.: An Appraisal of the Medical versus Surgical Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis , Am. J.M. Sc. 202:59-68 ( (July) ) 1941. 11. Wilkie, D. P. D.: etrograde Venous Embolism as a Cause of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer , Edinburgh M. J. 6:391-402 ( (May) ) 1911. 12. Petren, G.: Über Leberabscess als Komplikation zu akuter Appendicitis , Beitr. klin. Chir. 94: 225-267, 1914. 13. Brütt, H.: Zur Chirurgie der Pylephlebitis nach Appendicitis , Zentralbl. Chir. 49:610-614 ( (April) ) 1922. 14. Eliason, E. L.: Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscess , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 42:510-522 ( (April) ) 1926. 15. Otschkin, A. D.: Zur Klinik der Thrombose der Mesenterialvenem und der Pfortader bei Appendicitis , Arch. klin. Chir. 171:758-774, 1932. 16. Hawkes, S. Z.: Thrombophlebitis of the Appendicular Veins Complicating Acute Appendicitis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 66:62-78 ( (June) ) 1938. 17. Soro, Y.: Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscess Due to Appendicitis , J. Internat. Coll. Surgeons 11:464-468 ( (Sept.-Oct.) ) 1948. 18. Hoffman, H. L.; Partington, P. F., and De Sanctis, A. L.: Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscess , Am. J. Surg. 88:411-416 ( (Sept.) ) 1954. 19. Elsberg, C. A.: Solitary Abscess of the Liver: A Contribution to the Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment of this Disease Based upon the Study of 18 Cases , Ann. Surg. 44:217-235 ( (Aug.) ) 1906. 20. Quenu, E., and Mathiew, P.: Les Abscess du foie consecutifs à l'appendicite aiguw , Rev. chir. 44:519, 1911. 21. Moschowitz, A. V.: Suppurative Portal Pylephlebitis , Ann. Surg. 53:549-551 ( (April) ) 1911. 22. Wilms, M.: Ünenunterbindung bei eitriger Pfortaderthrombose nach Appendicitis , Zentralbl. Chir. 36:1041 ( (July 24) ) 1909. 23. Braun, H.: Die Unterbindung der Vena Ileocolica bei Mesenterialer Pyamie nach Appendicitis , Beitr. klin. Chir. 86:314-326, 1913. 24. Beer, E.: Ligation of the Portal Vein in Suppurative Portal Phlebitis , Am. J.M. Sc. 150: 548-555 ( (Oct.) ) 1915.Crossref 25. Burdenko, N.: Zur Frage der Unterbindung der Vena Portae , Deutsche Ztschr. Chir. 124:95-112 ( (Sept.) ) 1913.Crossref 26. Neuhof, H.: Experimental Ligation of the Portal Vein: Its Application to the Treatment of Suppurative Pylephlebitis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 16:481-488 ( (May) ) 1913. 27. Larson, L. M., and Rosenow, J. H.: Solitary Pyogenic Abscess of the Liver: Review of Literature and Report of a Case , Minnesota Med. 33: 588-592 ( (June) ) 1930. 28. Kleinsasser, L. J.: Solitary Pyogenic Abscess of the Left Lobe of the Liver , Ann. Surg. 132: 1158-1163 ( (Dec.) ) 1950. 29. Murray, S. D., and Donelson, M., Jr.: Pylethrombophlebitis and Hepatitis Following Appendectomy: Report of a Case with Recovery , U.S. Naval M. Bull. 45:1163-1168 ( (Dec.) ) 1945. 30. D 'Abreau, F.: Suppurative Pylephlebitis with Recovery , Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 39:309, 1946. 31. Flynn, J. E.: Pyogenic Liver Abscess: Review of the Literature and Report of a Case Successfully Treated with Operation and Penicillin , New England J. Med. 234:403-407 ( (March 21) ) 1946. 32. Kisner, W. H.: Solitary Liver Abscess , Am. J. Surg. 73:510-518 ( (April) ) 1947. 33. Wishart, J. H., and Peterson, L. J.: Streptomycin Therapy in Pylethrombophlebitis , J.A.M.A. 133:539-541 ( (Feb. 22) ) 1947. 34. Wilensky, A. O.: Pylephlebitis Under Penicillin and Sulfadiazene Therapy , New York J. Med. 45:2082-2083 ( (Oct. 1) ) 1945. 35. Hancock, J. D.: Pylephlebitis , South. M.J. 34:647-648 ( (June) ) 1941. 36. Allen, W. G., and Murdock, L. A.: Pylephlebitis , Tri-State M.J. 9:1876-1888 ( (July) ) 1937. 37. Berman, J. K., and Egbert, H. L.: Appendicitis with Multiple Abscesses of the Liver and Other Complications with Recovery , J. Indiana M.A. 34:365-370 ( (July) ) 1941. 38. Morley, H. S.: Multiple Streptococcal Abscesses of the Liver: Recovery with Penicillin , Lancet 1:949 ( (June 19) ) 1948. 39. Michel, M. L., Jr., and Wirth, W. R.: Multiple Pyogenic Abscesses of the Liver: Cure by Penicillin in Case Due to Anaerobic Streptococci , J.A.M.A. 133:395-396 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1947. 40. Milliken, N. T., and Stryker, H. B., Jr.: Suppurative Pylephlebitis and Multiple Liver Abscesses Following Acute Appendicitis , New England J. Med. 244:52-54 ( (Jan. 11) ) 1951. 41. Mills, J. H.: Multiple Liver Abscesses , Northwest Med. 51:315 ( (April) ) 1952. 42. de L'Arbre, G.: Multiple Liver Abscesses: Report of a Case Successfully Treated and Followed with Cholangiograms , Ann. Surg. 137:135-137 ( (Jan.) ) 1953.Crossref 43. Johnson, G., Jr., and Glenn, F.: Multiple Liver Abscesses Following Biliary Tract Surgery , Ann. Surg. 140:227-233 ( (Aug.) ) 1954.Crossref 44. Fuss, E. M., and Fuhrman, M.: Multiple Gaseous Liver Abscesses Due to Anaerobic Streptococcus Viridans with Recovery , New York J. Med. 50:1142-1144 ( (May) ) 1950.Crossref 45. Kinney, T. D., and Ferrebee, J. W.: Hepatic Abscess: Factors Determining Its Localization , Arch. Path. 45:41-47 ( (Jan.) ) 1948. 46. McIndoe, A. H., and Counseller, V. S.: The Bilaterality of the Liver , Arch. Surg. 15: 589-612 ( (Oct.) ) 1927.Crossref 47. Bartlett, F. K.; Corper, H. J., and Long, E. R.: The Independence of the Lobes of the Liver , Am. J. Physiol. 151:360-501 ( (Aug.) ) 1915. 48. Hahn, P. F.; Donald, W. D., and Grier, R. C., Jr.: Physiological Bilaterality of Portal Circulation: Streamline Flow of Blood into the Liver as Shown by Radio-Iostope , Am. J. Physiol. 143:105-109 ( (Jan.) ) 1945. 49. Hirschowitz, B. I.: Pyogenic Liver Abscess: A Review with a Case Report of a Solitary Abscess Caused by Salmonella Enteritidis , Gastroenterology 21:291-299 ( (June) ) 1952. 50. McDonald, J. R.; Henthorne, J. C., and Thompson, L.: Role of Anaerobic Streptococci in Human Infections , Arch. Path. 23:230-240 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 51. St. John, F. B.; Pulaski, E., and Ferrer, J. M.: Primary Abscess of the Liver Due to Anerobic Non-Hemolytic Streptococcus , Ann. Surg. 116:217-222 ( (Aug.) ) 1942.Crossref 52. McFadzean, A. J. S.; Chang, K. P. S., and Wong, C. C.: Solitary Pyogenic Abscess of Liver Treated by Closed Aspiration and Antibiotics , Brit. J. Surg. 41:141-152 ( (Sept.) ) 1953.Crossref 53. Manson-Bahr, P.: The Dysenteric Disorders , Ed. 2, London, Cassell & Company, Ltd., 1943, p. 233. 54. Wyndham, N.: Liver Abscess with Special Reference to Systemic Infections , M.J. Australia 1:252-254 ( (March 10) ) 1945. 55. Strang, C.: Staphylococcal Portal Septicemia , Brit. Med. J. 2:912 ( (Oct. 22) ) 1949.Crossref 56. Pancoast, H. K.: The Roentgen Diagnosis of Liver Abscess With or Without Subdiaphragmatic Abscess , Am. J. Roentgenol. 16: 303-320 ( (Oct.) ) 1926. 57. Miles, J. M.: The Roentgen Diagnosis of Abscess of the Concave Surface of the Liver , Am. J. Roentgenol. 35:65-69 ( (Jan.) ) 1936. 58. Azar, A. J.: Large Spontaneous Abscess of the Liver with Rupture into the Pericardium , Illinois M.J. 61:428 ( (May) ) 1952. 59. Zodicoff, R.: Multiple Liver Abscesses with Rupture into the Pericardium , Am. Heart J. 33: 275-384 ( (March) ) 1947. 60. McKnight, R. B.: Rupture of Hepatic Abscess into the Abdominal Cavity and Inferior Vena Cava , J.A.M.A. 90:1929-1930 ( (June 16) ) 1928.Crossref 61. Webber, R. J., and Coe, J. I.: Rupture of Pyogenic Hepatic Abscess into the Hepatic Vein: Report of Case , Surgery 27:907-910 ( (June) ) 1950. 62. Niewig, G. A.: Abscess of the Liver with Rupture into the Right Psoas Muscle Secondary to Gangrenous Appendix , U.S. Veterans Bureau M. Bull. 5:58-60 ( (Jan.-Dec.) ) 1929. 63. Huard, P.; Renucci, N., and Huynh, Doi: Le Abscess du foie non amibiens , Bull. Soc. méd. et chir. l'Indochine 13:849-873, 1935. 64. Clairmont, P., and Meyer, M.: Erfahrungen ueber die Behandlung der Appendicitis , Acta chir. scandinav. 60:55-134, 1926. 65. Dixon, C. F., and Murphy, G.: Primary Idiopathic Abscess of the Liver , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 54:20-25 ( (Jan.) ) 1932. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1960 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0004-0010
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1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1960.01300060080016
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Abstract

Abstract Abscess of the liver, of pyogenic origin, is associated with a high mortality rate. Multiple abscesses have been fatal, in most instances. With the advent of chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotic drugs, there has been improvement in the mortality rate. Reports of recovery in patients having multiple abscesses have appeared in recent years. Pyogenic abscess of the liver is the result of spread of septic thrombi or bacteria through the tributaries of the portal vein. Appendicitis, with thrombophlebitis of the ileocecal veins, has been considered a major source of liver abscess.1-3 Pyogenic abscess of the liver may, however, follow trauma to the liver, cholangitis of the bile radicles, lymphatic spread from neighboring infections, and hematogenous spread from distant foci of infection, such as furuncles, osteomyelitis, and bronchiectasis. Abscesses of the liver have been reported following suppurative pelvic disease,4 diverticulitis,5 infected thrombosed hemorrhoids,5 suppurative pancreatitis,6,7 and ulcerative References 1. Ochsner, A.; De Bakey, M., and Murray, S.: Pyogenic Abscess of the Liver , Am. J. Surg. 40: 292-319 ( (April) ) 1938.Crossref 2. Keefer, C. S.: Liver Abscess: Review of 85 Cases , New England J. Med. 211:21-24 ( (July 5) ) 1934.Crossref 3. Rothenberg, R. E., and Linder, V.: Single Pyogenic Abscesses of the Liver: Study of 24 Cases , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 59:31-40 ( (July) ) 1934. 4. Colp, R.: The Treatment of Thrombophlebitis of Appendicular Origin , Ann. Surg. 85:257-262 ( (Feb.) ) 1927. 5. Gamm, K. E.: Penicillin Therapy in Pylephlebitis , J.A.M.A. 128:1159-1161 ( (Aug. 18) ) 1945. 6. Ottenberg, R., and Berck, M.: Sulfanilamide Therapy for Suppurative Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscesses , J.A.M.A. 111:1374-1375 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 7. Shallow, T. A.; Eger, S. A., and Wagner, F. B., Jr.: Pyogenic Liver Abscess Associated with Suppurative Pancreatitis , Ann. Surg. 121:853-859 ( (June) ) 1945. 8. Treusch, J. V.: Multiple Liver Abscesses Complicating Non-Specific Ulcerative Colitis , Gastroenterology 20:166-173 ( (Jan.) ) 1952. 9. Lansbury, J., and Bargen, J. A.: The Association of Multiple Hepatic Abscesses and Chronic Ulcerative Colitis , M. Clin. North America 16: 1427-1431 ( (May) ) 1933. 10. Elsom, K. A., and Ferguson, L. K.: An Appraisal of the Medical versus Surgical Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis , Am. J.M. Sc. 202:59-68 ( (July) ) 1941. 11. Wilkie, D. P. D.: etrograde Venous Embolism as a Cause of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer , Edinburgh M. J. 6:391-402 ( (May) ) 1911. 12. Petren, G.: Über Leberabscess als Komplikation zu akuter Appendicitis , Beitr. klin. Chir. 94: 225-267, 1914. 13. Brütt, H.: Zur Chirurgie der Pylephlebitis nach Appendicitis , Zentralbl. Chir. 49:610-614 ( (April) ) 1922. 14. Eliason, E. L.: Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscess , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 42:510-522 ( (April) ) 1926. 15. Otschkin, A. D.: Zur Klinik der Thrombose der Mesenterialvenem und der Pfortader bei Appendicitis , Arch. klin. Chir. 171:758-774, 1932. 16. Hawkes, S. Z.: Thrombophlebitis of the Appendicular Veins Complicating Acute Appendicitis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 66:62-78 ( (June) ) 1938. 17. Soro, Y.: Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscess Due to Appendicitis , J. Internat. Coll. Surgeons 11:464-468 ( (Sept.-Oct.) ) 1948. 18. Hoffman, H. L.; Partington, P. F., and De Sanctis, A. L.: Pylephlebitis and Liver Abscess , Am. J. Surg. 88:411-416 ( (Sept.) ) 1954. 19. Elsberg, C. A.: Solitary Abscess of the Liver: A Contribution to the Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment of this Disease Based upon the Study of 18 Cases , Ann. Surg. 44:217-235 ( (Aug.) ) 1906. 20. Quenu, E., and Mathiew, P.: Les Abscess du foie consecutifs à l'appendicite aiguw , Rev. chir. 44:519, 1911. 21. Moschowitz, A. V.: Suppurative Portal Pylephlebitis , Ann. Surg. 53:549-551 ( (April) ) 1911. 22. Wilms, M.: Ünenunterbindung bei eitriger Pfortaderthrombose nach Appendicitis , Zentralbl. Chir. 36:1041 ( (July 24) ) 1909. 23. Braun, H.: Die Unterbindung der Vena Ileocolica bei Mesenterialer Pyamie nach Appendicitis , Beitr. klin. Chir. 86:314-326, 1913. 24. Beer, E.: Ligation of the Portal Vein in Suppurative Portal Phlebitis , Am. J.M. Sc. 150: 548-555 ( (Oct.) ) 1915.Crossref 25. Burdenko, N.: Zur Frage der Unterbindung der Vena Portae , Deutsche Ztschr. Chir. 124:95-112 ( (Sept.) ) 1913.Crossref 26. Neuhof, H.: Experimental Ligation of the Portal Vein: Its Application to the Treatment of Suppurative Pylephlebitis , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 16:481-488 ( (May) ) 1913. 27. Larson, L. M., and Rosenow, J. H.: Solitary Pyogenic Abscess of the Liver: Review of Literature and Report of a Case , Minnesota Med. 33: 588-592 ( (June) ) 1930. 28. Kleinsasser, L. J.: Solitary Pyogenic Abscess of the Left Lobe of the Liver , Ann. Surg. 132: 1158-1163 ( (Dec.) ) 1950. 29. Murray, S. D., and Donelson, M., Jr.: Pylethrombophlebitis and Hepatitis Following Appendectomy: Report of a Case with Recovery , U.S. Naval M. Bull. 45:1163-1168 ( (Dec.) ) 1945. 30. D 'Abreau, F.: Suppurative Pylephlebitis with Recovery , Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 39:309, 1946. 31. Flynn, J. E.: Pyogenic Liver Abscess: Review of the Literature and Report of a Case Successfully Treated with Operation and Penicillin , New England J. Med. 234:403-407 ( (March 21) ) 1946. 32. Kisner, W. H.: Solitary Liver Abscess , Am. J. Surg. 73:510-518 ( (April) ) 1947. 33. Wishart, J. H., and Peterson, L. J.: Streptomycin Therapy in Pylethrombophlebitis , J.A.M.A. 133:539-541 ( (Feb. 22) ) 1947. 34. Wilensky, A. O.: Pylephlebitis Under Penicillin and Sulfadiazene Therapy , New York J. Med. 45:2082-2083 ( (Oct. 1) ) 1945. 35. Hancock, J. D.: Pylephlebitis , South. M.J. 34:647-648 ( (June) ) 1941. 36. Allen, W. G., and Murdock, L. A.: Pylephlebitis , Tri-State M.J. 9:1876-1888 ( (July) ) 1937. 37. Berman, J. K., and Egbert, H. L.: Appendicitis with Multiple Abscesses of the Liver and Other Complications with Recovery , J. Indiana M.A. 34:365-370 ( (July) ) 1941. 38. Morley, H. S.: Multiple Streptococcal Abscesses of the Liver: Recovery with Penicillin , Lancet 1:949 ( (June 19) ) 1948. 39. Michel, M. L., Jr., and Wirth, W. R.: Multiple Pyogenic Abscesses of the Liver: Cure by Penicillin in Case Due to Anaerobic Streptococci , J.A.M.A. 133:395-396 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1947. 40. Milliken, N. T., and Stryker, H. B., Jr.: Suppurative Pylephlebitis and Multiple Liver Abscesses Following Acute Appendicitis , New England J. Med. 244:52-54 ( (Jan. 11) ) 1951. 41. Mills, J. H.: Multiple Liver Abscesses , Northwest Med. 51:315 ( (April) ) 1952. 42. de L'Arbre, G.: Multiple Liver Abscesses: Report of a Case Successfully Treated and Followed with Cholangiograms , Ann. Surg. 137:135-137 ( (Jan.) ) 1953.Crossref 43. Johnson, G., Jr., and Glenn, F.: Multiple Liver Abscesses Following Biliary Tract Surgery , Ann. Surg. 140:227-233 ( (Aug.) ) 1954.Crossref 44. Fuss, E. M., and Fuhrman, M.: Multiple Gaseous Liver Abscesses Due to Anaerobic Streptococcus Viridans with Recovery , New York J. Med. 50:1142-1144 ( (May) ) 1950.Crossref 45. Kinney, T. D., and Ferrebee, J. W.: Hepatic Abscess: Factors Determining Its Localization , Arch. Path. 45:41-47 ( (Jan.) ) 1948. 46. McIndoe, A. H., and Counseller, V. S.: The Bilaterality of the Liver , Arch. Surg. 15: 589-612 ( (Oct.) ) 1927.Crossref 47. Bartlett, F. K.; Corper, H. J., and Long, E. R.: The Independence of the Lobes of the Liver , Am. J. Physiol. 151:360-501 ( (Aug.) ) 1915. 48. Hahn, P. F.; Donald, W. D., and Grier, R. C., Jr.: Physiological Bilaterality of Portal Circulation: Streamline Flow of Blood into the Liver as Shown by Radio-Iostope , Am. J. Physiol. 143:105-109 ( (Jan.) ) 1945. 49. Hirschowitz, B. I.: Pyogenic Liver Abscess: A Review with a Case Report of a Solitary Abscess Caused by Salmonella Enteritidis , Gastroenterology 21:291-299 ( (June) ) 1952. 50. McDonald, J. R.; Henthorne, J. C., and Thompson, L.: Role of Anaerobic Streptococci in Human Infections , Arch. Path. 23:230-240 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 51. St. John, F. B.; Pulaski, E., and Ferrer, J. M.: Primary Abscess of the Liver Due to Anerobic Non-Hemolytic Streptococcus , Ann. Surg. 116:217-222 ( (Aug.) ) 1942.Crossref 52. McFadzean, A. J. S.; Chang, K. P. S., and Wong, C. C.: Solitary Pyogenic Abscess of Liver Treated by Closed Aspiration and Antibiotics , Brit. J. Surg. 41:141-152 ( (Sept.) ) 1953.Crossref 53. Manson-Bahr, P.: The Dysenteric Disorders , Ed. 2, London, Cassell & Company, Ltd., 1943, p. 233. 54. Wyndham, N.: Liver Abscess with Special Reference to Systemic Infections , M.J. Australia 1:252-254 ( (March 10) ) 1945. 55. Strang, C.: Staphylococcal Portal Septicemia , Brit. Med. J. 2:912 ( (Oct. 22) ) 1949.Crossref 56. Pancoast, H. K.: The Roentgen Diagnosis of Liver Abscess With or Without Subdiaphragmatic Abscess , Am. J. Roentgenol. 16: 303-320 ( (Oct.) ) 1926. 57. Miles, J. M.: The Roentgen Diagnosis of Abscess of the Concave Surface of the Liver , Am. J. Roentgenol. 35:65-69 ( (Jan.) ) 1936. 58. Azar, A. J.: Large Spontaneous Abscess of the Liver with Rupture into the Pericardium , Illinois M.J. 61:428 ( (May) ) 1952. 59. Zodicoff, R.: Multiple Liver Abscesses with Rupture into the Pericardium , Am. Heart J. 33: 275-384 ( (March) ) 1947. 60. McKnight, R. B.: Rupture of Hepatic Abscess into the Abdominal Cavity and Inferior Vena Cava , J.A.M.A. 90:1929-1930 ( (June 16) ) 1928.Crossref 61. Webber, R. J., and Coe, J. I.: Rupture of Pyogenic Hepatic Abscess into the Hepatic Vein: Report of Case , Surgery 27:907-910 ( (June) ) 1950. 62. Niewig, G. A.: Abscess of the Liver with Rupture into the Right Psoas Muscle Secondary to Gangrenous Appendix , U.S. Veterans Bureau M. Bull. 5:58-60 ( (Jan.-Dec.) ) 1929. 63. Huard, P.; Renucci, N., and Huynh, Doi: Le Abscess du foie non amibiens , Bull. Soc. méd. et chir. l'Indochine 13:849-873, 1935. 64. Clairmont, P., and Meyer, M.: Erfahrungen ueber die Behandlung der Appendicitis , Acta chir. scandinav. 60:55-134, 1926. 65. Dixon, C. F., and Murphy, G.: Primary Idiopathic Abscess of the Liver , Surg. Gynec. & Obst. 54:20-25 ( (Jan.) ) 1932.

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1960

References