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Psychological Studies on Effects of Chemosurgery of the Basal Ganglia in Parkinsonism: I. Intellectual Functioning

Psychological Studies on Effects of Chemosurgery of the Basal Ganglia in Parkinsonism: I.... Abstract It is the purpose of this report to present findings on the immediate and longe-range postoperative intellectual functioning of a large series of patients who underwent chemopallidectomy and Chemothalamectomy1-6 for the relief of Parkinsonian symptoms. The findings are based on the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale, Form I. Background The following review of the literature on the intellectual effects of brain injury, disease, and surgery will emphasize, particularly, those utilizing the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale. Allen, in a series of studies on both the brain-injured and the brain-diseased,7-10 concludes that both groups demonstrate “a depressed level of efficiency” in intellectual functioning, faring more poorly on performance items than on verbal ones. Their primary handicap is in the area of motor manipulation. Most resistant to organic inroads were the subtests of information, comprehension, and vocabulary. Other Wechsler studies on the organically impaired report like findings. Goldman et al. References 1. Pearson product-moment correlation on size=0.78 (P=0.01); on category rerating, agreement=79% 2. Cooper, I. S.: Intracerebral Injection of Procaine into the Globus Pallidus in Hyperkinetic Disorders , Science 119:417-418, 1954.Crossref 3. Cooper, I. S.: The Neurosurgical Alleviation of Parkinsonism , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956. 4. Cooper, I. S.; Bravo, G. J.; Riklan, M.; Davidson, N. W., and Gorek, E. A.: Chemopallidectomey and Chemothalamectomy for Parkinsonism , Geriatrics 13:127-147, 1958. 5. Cooper, I. S., and Bravo, G. J.: Implications of a 5-Year Study of 700 Basal Ganglia Operations , Neurology 8:701-707, 1958.Crossref 6. Bravo, G. J., and Cooper, I. S.: Chemopallidectomy: Two Recent Technical Additions , J. Am. Geriatrics Soc. 5:651-655, 1957. 7. Riklan, M., and Diller, L.: Follow-Up Studies in Chemopallidectomy for Paralysis Agitans , J.A.M.A. 167:13-17, 1958.Crossref 8. Allen, R. M.: The Test Performance of the Brain Injured , J. Clin. Psychol. 3:225-230, 1948.Crossref 9. Allen, R. M.: The Test Performance of the Brain Diseased , J. Clin. Psychol. 4:281-284, 1948.Crossref 10. Allen, R. M.: A Comparison of the Test Performances of the Brain-Injured and the Brain-Diseased , Am. J. Psychiat. 106:195-198, 1949. 11. Allen, R. M., and Krato, J. C.: The Test Performance of the Encephalopathic , J. Ment. Sc. 95:369-372, 1949. 12. Goldman, R.; Greenblatt, M., and Coon, G. P.: Use of the Bellevue-Wechsler Scale in Clinical Psychiatry, with Particular Reference to Cases with Brain Damage , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 104:144-179, 1946. 13. Aita, J. A.; Armitage, S. G.; Reitan, R. M., and Rabinovitz, A.: Use of Certain Psychological Tests in the Evaluation of Brain Injury , J. Gen. Psychol. 37:25-44, 1947. 14. Morrow, R. S., and Mark, J. S.: Correlation of Intelligence and Neurological Findings on 22 Patients Autopsied for Brain Damage , J. Consult. Psychol. 19:283-289, 1955. 15. McFie, J., and Piercy, M. F.: Intellectual Impairment with Localized Cerebral Lesions , Brain 75:292-311, 1952. 16. Ross, A. O.: Brain Injury and Intellectual Performance , J. Consult. Psychol. 22:151-152, 1958. 17. Rylander, G.: Mental Changes After Excision of Cerebral Tissue: A Clinical Study of 16 Cases of Resections in the Parietal , Temporal and Occipital Lobes, Acta psychiat. et neurol. ( (Supp.) ) 25:1-81, 1950. 18. Freeman, W., and Watts, J. W.: Psychosurgery , Ed. 2, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1950. 19. McCullough, M. W.: Wechsler-Bellevue Changes Following Prefrontal Lobotomy , J. Clin. Psychol. 6:270-273, 1950. 20. Sheer, D. W.: Psychometric Studies , in Lewis, N.; Landis, C., and King, H. E.: Studies in Topectomy: Report of New York State Brain Research Project , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1956, pp. 56-74 21. Tow, P. MacD.: Personality Changes Following Frontal Leucotomy: A Clinical and Experimental Study of Functions of Frontal Lobes in Man , London, Oxford University Press, 1955. 22. Scherer, I. W.; Klett, J. C., and Winne, J. F.: Psychological Changes over a 5-Year Period Following Bilateral Prefrontal Lobotomy , J. Consult. Psychol. 21:291-295, 1957. 23. Spiegel, E. A.; Wycis, H. T.; Orchinik, C. W., and Freed, H.: The Thalamus and Temporal Orientation , Science 121:771-772, 1955. 24. Spiegel, E. A.; Wycis, H. T.; Orchinik, C. W., and Freed, H.: Thalamic Chronotaxis , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 73:469-470, 1955. 25. Spiegel, E. A.; Wycis, H. T.; Conger, R. G., and Fischer, H. K.: Effects of Lesions of Human Thalamus in Region of Dorsomedial Nuclei , Fed. Proc. 9:119, 1950. 26. Spiegel, G. A.; Physiologic and Psychologic Results of Thalamotomy , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 64:306-307, 1950. 27. Anderson, A. L.: The Effect of Laterality Localization of Focal Brain Lesions on the Wechsler-Bellevue Subtests , J. Clin. Psychol. 7:149-153, 1951. 28. Bauer, R. W., and Wepman, J. M.: Lateralization of Cerebral Functions , J. Speech & Hearing Disorders 20:171-177, 1955. 29. Bauer, R. W., and Becka, D. R.: Intellect After Cerebro-Vascular Accident , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 120:379-384, 1954. 30. Reitan, M.: Intellectual Functions in Aphasic and Non-Aphasic Brain Injured Subjects , Neurology 3:202-212, 1953. 31. Reitan, R.: Intelligence and Language Functions in Dysphasic Patients , Dis. Nerv. System 15:131-137, 1954. 32. Reitan, R. M.: Certain Differential Effects of Left and Right Cerebral Lesions in Human Adults , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 48:474-477, 1955. 33. Heilbrun, A. B., Jr.: Psychological Test Performance as a Function of Lateral Localization of Cerebral Lesion , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 49:10-14, 1956. 34. Nielsen, J. M.: Agnosia, Apraxia, Aphasia, New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., (Medical Book Department of Harper & Bros.), 1956, pp. 239-241. 35. Weisenburg, T., and McBride, K.: Aphasia: A Clinical and Psychological Study , New York, Commonwealth Fund, 1935. 36. Wepman, J. M.: Recovery from Aphasia , New York, the Ronald Press Company, 1951. 37. Kennedy, F., and Wolf, A.: The Relationship of Intellect to Speech Defect in Aphasic Patients, with Illustrative Cases , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 84:125, 293, 1936. 38. Roberts, L.: Functional Plasticity in Cortical Speech Areas and the Integration of Speech, in the Brain and Human Behavior , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 36:449-469, 1958. 39. Roberts, L.: Localization of Speech in the Cerebral Cortex , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 76:43-50, 1951. 40. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 4, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958. 41. Jastak, J.: Psychometric Personality Traits , Delaware M.J. 21:165-176, 1949. 42. Jastak, J.: Problems of Psychometric Scatter Analysis , Psychol. Bull. 46:177-197, 1949. 43. Jastak, J.: Ranking Bellevue Subtest Scores for Diagnostic Purposes , J. Consult. Psychol. 17:403-410, 1953. 44. Bravo, G. J., and Cooper, I. S.: Roentgenographic, Anatomic and Physiologic Correlations Used in Chemosurgery of the Globus Pallidus and Thalamus of Humans , in Symposium on Basal Ganglia Surgery for Involuntary Movement Disorders , New York, May 15, 1958. 45. Hamister, R. C.: Test-Retest Reliability of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test , J. Consult. Psychol. 13:39-43, 1949. 46. Derner, G. F.; Aborn, M., and Canter, A. H.: The Reliability of the Wechsler-Bellevue Subtests and Scales , J. Consult. Psychol. 14:172-179, 1950. 47. Steisel, I. M. Retest Changes in Wechsler-Bellevue Scores as a Function of the Time Interval Between Examinations , J. Genet. Psychol. 79:199-203, 1951. 48. Bruell, J. H., and Albee, G. W.: Higher Intellectual Functions in a Patient with Hemispherectomy, paper presented at American Psychiatric Association Convention, Chicago, 1957. 49. Magoun, H. W.: The Ascending Reticular Activating System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. (1950) 30:480-492, 1952. 50. Magoun, H. W.: An Ascending Reticular Activating System in the Brain Stem , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 67:145-154, 1952. 51. Lindsley, D. B.: Emotion , in Handbook of Experimental Psychology , edited by S. S. Stevens, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1951. 52. Magoun, H. W.: The Waking Brain: The Role of the Reticular System in Wakefulness and Behavior , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1958. 53. Lashley, K. S.: Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence: A Qualitative Study of Injuries to the Brain , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1929. 54. Lashley, K. S.: Cerebral Organization and Behavior, in the Brain and Human Behavior , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 36:1-18, 1958. 55. Chapman, L. F.; Thetford, W. N.; Berlin, L.; Guthrie, T. C., and Wolff, H. G.: Highest Integrative Functions in Man During Stress, in Brain and Human Behavior , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 36:491-534, 1958. 56. Bravo, G. J., and Cooper, I. S.: A Clinical and Radiological Correlation of the Lesions Produced by Chemopallidectomy and Thalamectomy , J. Neurol. Neurosurg. & Psychiat. 22:1-10, 1959. 57. Diller, L.; Riklan, M., and Cooper, I. S.: Preoperative Response to Stress as a Criterion of the Response to Neurosurgery in Parkinson’s Disease, St. Barnabas Symposium on Surgical Therapy of Extrapyramidal Disorders , J. Am. Geriatrics Soc. 4:1171-1319, 1956. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Psychological Studies on Effects of Chemosurgery of the Basal Ganglia in Parkinsonism: I. Intellectual Functioning

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1960 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0375-8532
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10.1001/archpsyc.1960.03590070024004
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Abstract

Abstract It is the purpose of this report to present findings on the immediate and longe-range postoperative intellectual functioning of a large series of patients who underwent chemopallidectomy and Chemothalamectomy1-6 for the relief of Parkinsonian symptoms. The findings are based on the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale, Form I. Background The following review of the literature on the intellectual effects of brain injury, disease, and surgery will emphasize, particularly, those utilizing the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale. Allen, in a series of studies on both the brain-injured and the brain-diseased,7-10 concludes that both groups demonstrate “a depressed level of efficiency” in intellectual functioning, faring more poorly on performance items than on verbal ones. Their primary handicap is in the area of motor manipulation. Most resistant to organic inroads were the subtests of information, comprehension, and vocabulary. Other Wechsler studies on the organically impaired report like findings. Goldman et al. References 1. Pearson product-moment correlation on size=0.78 (P=0.01); on category rerating, agreement=79% 2. Cooper, I. S.: Intracerebral Injection of Procaine into the Globus Pallidus in Hyperkinetic Disorders , Science 119:417-418, 1954.Crossref 3. Cooper, I. S.: The Neurosurgical Alleviation of Parkinsonism , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956. 4. Cooper, I. S.; Bravo, G. J.; Riklan, M.; Davidson, N. W., and Gorek, E. A.: Chemopallidectomey and Chemothalamectomy for Parkinsonism , Geriatrics 13:127-147, 1958. 5. Cooper, I. S., and Bravo, G. J.: Implications of a 5-Year Study of 700 Basal Ganglia Operations , Neurology 8:701-707, 1958.Crossref 6. Bravo, G. J., and Cooper, I. S.: Chemopallidectomy: Two Recent Technical Additions , J. Am. Geriatrics Soc. 5:651-655, 1957. 7. Riklan, M., and Diller, L.: Follow-Up Studies in Chemopallidectomy for Paralysis Agitans , J.A.M.A. 167:13-17, 1958.Crossref 8. Allen, R. M.: The Test Performance of the Brain Injured , J. Clin. Psychol. 3:225-230, 1948.Crossref 9. Allen, R. M.: The Test Performance of the Brain Diseased , J. Clin. Psychol. 4:281-284, 1948.Crossref 10. Allen, R. M.: A Comparison of the Test Performances of the Brain-Injured and the Brain-Diseased , Am. J. Psychiat. 106:195-198, 1949. 11. Allen, R. M., and Krato, J. C.: The Test Performance of the Encephalopathic , J. Ment. Sc. 95:369-372, 1949. 12. Goldman, R.; Greenblatt, M., and Coon, G. P.: Use of the Bellevue-Wechsler Scale in Clinical Psychiatry, with Particular Reference to Cases with Brain Damage , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 104:144-179, 1946. 13. Aita, J. A.; Armitage, S. G.; Reitan, R. M., and Rabinovitz, A.: Use of Certain Psychological Tests in the Evaluation of Brain Injury , J. Gen. Psychol. 37:25-44, 1947. 14. Morrow, R. S., and Mark, J. S.: Correlation of Intelligence and Neurological Findings on 22 Patients Autopsied for Brain Damage , J. Consult. Psychol. 19:283-289, 1955. 15. McFie, J., and Piercy, M. F.: Intellectual Impairment with Localized Cerebral Lesions , Brain 75:292-311, 1952. 16. Ross, A. O.: Brain Injury and Intellectual Performance , J. Consult. Psychol. 22:151-152, 1958. 17. Rylander, G.: Mental Changes After Excision of Cerebral Tissue: A Clinical Study of 16 Cases of Resections in the Parietal , Temporal and Occipital Lobes, Acta psychiat. et neurol. ( (Supp.) ) 25:1-81, 1950. 18. Freeman, W., and Watts, J. W.: Psychosurgery , Ed. 2, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1950. 19. McCullough, M. W.: Wechsler-Bellevue Changes Following Prefrontal Lobotomy , J. Clin. Psychol. 6:270-273, 1950. 20. Sheer, D. W.: Psychometric Studies , in Lewis, N.; Landis, C., and King, H. E.: Studies in Topectomy: Report of New York State Brain Research Project , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1956, pp. 56-74 21. Tow, P. MacD.: Personality Changes Following Frontal Leucotomy: A Clinical and Experimental Study of Functions of Frontal Lobes in Man , London, Oxford University Press, 1955. 22. Scherer, I. W.; Klett, J. C., and Winne, J. F.: Psychological Changes over a 5-Year Period Following Bilateral Prefrontal Lobotomy , J. Consult. Psychol. 21:291-295, 1957. 23. Spiegel, E. A.; Wycis, H. T.; Orchinik, C. W., and Freed, H.: The Thalamus and Temporal Orientation , Science 121:771-772, 1955. 24. Spiegel, E. A.; Wycis, H. T.; Orchinik, C. W., and Freed, H.: Thalamic Chronotaxis , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 73:469-470, 1955. 25. Spiegel, E. A.; Wycis, H. T.; Conger, R. G., and Fischer, H. K.: Effects of Lesions of Human Thalamus in Region of Dorsomedial Nuclei , Fed. Proc. 9:119, 1950. 26. Spiegel, G. A.; Physiologic and Psychologic Results of Thalamotomy , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 64:306-307, 1950. 27. Anderson, A. L.: The Effect of Laterality Localization of Focal Brain Lesions on the Wechsler-Bellevue Subtests , J. Clin. Psychol. 7:149-153, 1951. 28. Bauer, R. W., and Wepman, J. M.: Lateralization of Cerebral Functions , J. Speech & Hearing Disorders 20:171-177, 1955. 29. Bauer, R. W., and Becka, D. R.: Intellect After Cerebro-Vascular Accident , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 120:379-384, 1954. 30. Reitan, M.: Intellectual Functions in Aphasic and Non-Aphasic Brain Injured Subjects , Neurology 3:202-212, 1953. 31. Reitan, R.: Intelligence and Language Functions in Dysphasic Patients , Dis. Nerv. System 15:131-137, 1954. 32. Reitan, R. M.: Certain Differential Effects of Left and Right Cerebral Lesions in Human Adults , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 48:474-477, 1955. 33. Heilbrun, A. B., Jr.: Psychological Test Performance as a Function of Lateral Localization of Cerebral Lesion , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 49:10-14, 1956. 34. Nielsen, J. M.: Agnosia, Apraxia, Aphasia, New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., (Medical Book Department of Harper & Bros.), 1956, pp. 239-241. 35. Weisenburg, T., and McBride, K.: Aphasia: A Clinical and Psychological Study , New York, Commonwealth Fund, 1935. 36. Wepman, J. M.: Recovery from Aphasia , New York, the Ronald Press Company, 1951. 37. Kennedy, F., and Wolf, A.: The Relationship of Intellect to Speech Defect in Aphasic Patients, with Illustrative Cases , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 84:125, 293, 1936. 38. Roberts, L.: Functional Plasticity in Cortical Speech Areas and the Integration of Speech, in the Brain and Human Behavior , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 36:449-469, 1958. 39. Roberts, L.: Localization of Speech in the Cerebral Cortex , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 76:43-50, 1951. 40. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 4, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958. 41. Jastak, J.: Psychometric Personality Traits , Delaware M.J. 21:165-176, 1949. 42. Jastak, J.: Problems of Psychometric Scatter Analysis , Psychol. Bull. 46:177-197, 1949. 43. Jastak, J.: Ranking Bellevue Subtest Scores for Diagnostic Purposes , J. Consult. Psychol. 17:403-410, 1953. 44. Bravo, G. J., and Cooper, I. S.: Roentgenographic, Anatomic and Physiologic Correlations Used in Chemosurgery of the Globus Pallidus and Thalamus of Humans , in Symposium on Basal Ganglia Surgery for Involuntary Movement Disorders , New York, May 15, 1958. 45. Hamister, R. C.: Test-Retest Reliability of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test , J. Consult. Psychol. 13:39-43, 1949. 46. Derner, G. F.; Aborn, M., and Canter, A. H.: The Reliability of the Wechsler-Bellevue Subtests and Scales , J. Consult. Psychol. 14:172-179, 1950. 47. Steisel, I. M. Retest Changes in Wechsler-Bellevue Scores as a Function of the Time Interval Between Examinations , J. Genet. Psychol. 79:199-203, 1951. 48. Bruell, J. H., and Albee, G. W.: Higher Intellectual Functions in a Patient with Hemispherectomy, paper presented at American Psychiatric Association Convention, Chicago, 1957. 49. Magoun, H. W.: The Ascending Reticular Activating System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. (1950) 30:480-492, 1952. 50. Magoun, H. W.: An Ascending Reticular Activating System in the Brain Stem , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 67:145-154, 1952. 51. Lindsley, D. B.: Emotion , in Handbook of Experimental Psychology , edited by S. S. Stevens, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1951. 52. Magoun, H. W.: The Waking Brain: The Role of the Reticular System in Wakefulness and Behavior , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1958. 53. Lashley, K. S.: Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence: A Qualitative Study of Injuries to the Brain , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1929. 54. Lashley, K. S.: Cerebral Organization and Behavior, in the Brain and Human Behavior , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 36:1-18, 1958. 55. Chapman, L. F.; Thetford, W. N.; Berlin, L.; Guthrie, T. C., and Wolff, H. G.: Highest Integrative Functions in Man During Stress, in Brain and Human Behavior , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 36:491-534, 1958. 56. Bravo, G. J., and Cooper, I. S.: A Clinical and Radiological Correlation of the Lesions Produced by Chemopallidectomy and Thalamectomy , J. Neurol. Neurosurg. & Psychiat. 22:1-10, 1959. 57. Diller, L.; Riklan, M., and Cooper, I. S.: Preoperative Response to Stress as a Criterion of the Response to Neurosurgery in Parkinson’s Disease, St. Barnabas Symposium on Surgical Therapy of Extrapyramidal Disorders , J. Am. Geriatrics Soc. 4:1171-1319, 1956.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1960

References