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Psychological Issues in Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility

Psychological Issues in Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility Abstract IT IS ESTIMATED that approximately 180 000 American women developed breast cancer in 1993, and 46 000 of these women died of this disease.1 Recent work in molecular genetics has led to the identification of genes that confer susceptibility to breast cancer, including a major breast—ovarian cancer susceptibility gene on chromosome 17.2-5 As many as one in 300 women may carry germline mutations on one or more breast cancer susceptibility genes.6 These advances bring promise of clinical genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. In a few settings, this information already is being applied to identify gene carriers and noncarriers within families with hereditary breast cancer.7,8 As yet, however, there are no guidelines for communicating genetic information about breast cancer susceptibility or for providing recommendations and follow-up care for identified gene carriers. This is a serious concern, as previous research suggests that cancer risk notification can have References 1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures—1993 . New York, NY: American Cancer Society; 1993. 2. Hall JM, Lee MK, Morrow J, et al. Linkage of early-onset familial breast cancer to chromosome 17q21 . Science . 1990;250:1684-1689.Crossref 3. Malkin D, Li FP, Strong LC, et al. Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms . Science . 1990;250:1233-1238.Crossref 4. Skolnick MH, Cannon-Albright LA, Goldgar DE, et al. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds . Science . 1990;250:1715-1720.Crossref 5. Skolnick MH, Cannon-Albright LA. Genetic predisposition to breast cancer . Cancer . 1992;70 ( (suppl) ):1747-1754.Crossref 6. Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD. Genetic analysis of breast cancer in the cancer and steroid hormone study . Am J Hum Genet . 1991;48:232-242. 7. Lynch HT, Watson P, Conway TA, et al. DNA screening for breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility based on linked markers: a family study . Arch Intern Med . 1993;53:1979-1987.Crossref 8. Biesecker BB, Boehnke M, Calzone K, et al. Genetic conseling for families with inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer . JAMA . 1993;269:1970-1974.Crossref 9. Lerman C, Rimer B, Engstrom P. Cancer risk notification: psychosocial and ethical implications . J Clin Oncol . 1991;9:1275-1282. 10. Lerman C, Trock B, Rimer B, Jepson C, Boyce A, Engstrom PF. Psychological and behavioral implications of abnormal mammograms . Ann Intern Med . 1991;114:657-661.Crossref 11. Lerman C, Miller S, Scarborough R, Hanjani P, Nolte S, Smith D. Adverse consequences of positive cytologic screening . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1991;165:658-662.Crossref 12. Lerman C, Daly M, Sands C, et al. Psychological distress interferes with breast cancer screening in high risk women . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1993; 85:1074-1080.Crossref 13. Lerman C, Trock B, Rimer BK. Psychological side effects of breast cancer screening . Health Psychol . 1991;10:259-267.Crossref 14. Croyle R, Lerman C. Psychological impact of genetic testing . In: Croyle R, ed. Psychosocial Effects of Screening for Disease Prevention and Detection . Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. In press. 15. Lerman C, Rimer B, Engstrom P. Reducing avoidable cancer mortality through prevention and early detection regimens . Cancer Res . 1989;49:4955-4962. 16. Lerman C, Rimer B, Trock B, Balshem A, Engstrom P. Factors associated with repeat adherence to breast cancer screening . Prev Med . 1990; 19:279-290.Crossref 17. Lerman C, Hanjani P, Caputo C, et al. Telephone counseling improves adherence to colposcopy among lower-income minority women . J Clin Oncol . 1992;10:330-333. 18. Lerman C, Ross E, Boyce A, et al. The impact of mailing psychoeducational materials to women with abnormal mammograms . Am J Public Health . 1992;82:729-730.Crossref 19. Anderson DE. A genetic study of human breast cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1972;48:1029-1034. 20. Claus EB, Risch NJ, Thompson WD. Age at onset as an indicator of familial risk of breast cancer . Am J Epidemiol . 1990;131:961-972. 21. Lynch HT, Albano WA, Heieck JJ, et al. Genetics, biomarkers, and control of breast cancer: a review . Cancer Genet Cytogenet . 1984;13:43-92.Crossref 22. Easton DF, Bishop DT, Ford D, Crockford GP, Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Genetic linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer: results from 214 families . Am J Hum Genet . 1993;52:678-701. 23. King MC, Rowell S, Love SM. Inherited breast and ovarian cancer: what are the risks? what are the choices? JAMA . 1993;269:1975-1980.Crossref 24. Hall JM, Friedman L, Guenther C, et al. Closing in on a breast cancer gene on chromosome 17q . Am J Hum Genet. 1992;50:1235-1242. 25. Goldgar DE, Cannon-Albright LA, Oliphant A, et al. Chromosome 17q linkage studies of 18 Utah breast cancer kindreds . Am J Hum Genet . 1993; 52:743-748. 26. Margaritte P, Bonaiti-Pellie C, King M-C, Clerget-Darpoux F. Linkage of familial breast cancer to chromosome 17q21 may not be restricted to early-onset disease . Am J Hum Genet . 1992;50:1231-1234. 27. Narod SA, Feunteun J, Lynch HT, et al. Familial breast-ovarian cancer locus on chromosome 17q12-q23 . Lancet . 1991;338:82-83.Crossref 28. Feunteun J, Marod SA, Lynch HT, et al. A breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility gene maps to chromosome 17q21 . Am J Hum Genet . 1993;52:736-742. 29. Newman B, Austin MA, Lee M, King M-C. Inheritance of human breast cancer: evidence for autosomal dominant transmission in high-risk families . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1988;85: 3044-3048.Crossref 30. Li FP, Fraumeni JF Jr. Predictive testing for inherited mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes . J Clin Oncol . 1992;10:1203-1204. 31. Moolgavkar SH, Day NE, Stevens RG. Two step model for carcinogenesis: epidemiology of breast cancer in females . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1980;65: 59-69. 32. Seidman H, Stellman SD, Mushinkski MH. A different perspective on breast cancer risk factors: some implications of the nonattributable risk . CA Cancer J Clin . 1982;32:301-313.Crossref 33. Lerman C, Bookman M. Counseling and management of women at high risk for breast cancer . Primary Care Cancer . In press. 34. Stefanek ME. Counseling women at high risk for breast cancer . Oncology . 1990;4:27-38. 35. Quaid KA. Presymptomatic testing for Huntington disease: recommendations for counseling . J Genet Counsel . 1992;1:277-302.Crossref 36. Lynch HT, Conway T, Watson P, Schreiman J, Fitzgibbons RJ Jr. Extremely early onset hereditary breast cancer (HB): surveillance/management implications . Nebr Med J . (April) 1988:97-100. 37. Houlston RS, Lemoine L, McCarter S, et al. Screening and genetic counseling for relatives of patients with breast cancer in a family cancer clinic . J Med Genet . 1992;29:691-694.Crossref 38. Creasman WT, DiSaia PJ. Screening in ovarian cancer . Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165:7-10.Crossref 39. Li FP, Garber JE, Friend SH, et al. Recommendations on predictive testing for germ line p53 mutations among cancer-prone individuals . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1992;84:1156-1160.Crossref 40. Stamatoyannopoulus G. Problems of screening and counseling in the hemoglobinopathies . In: Motulsky AG, Lenz W, eds. Birth Defects: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, Vienna, 1973 . Geneva, Switzerland: Excerpta Medica; 1973:268-276. 41. Siminoff LA, Abeloff MD. Doctor-patient communication about breast cancer adjuvant therapy . J Clin Oncol . 1989;7:1192-1200. 42. Wine J. Test anxiety and direction of attention . Psychol Bull . 1971;76:92-104.Crossref 43. Wiggins S, Whyte P, Huggins M, et al. The psychological consequences of predictive testing for Huntington's disease . N Engl J Med . 1999;327: 1401-1405.Crossref 44. Kash KM, Holland JC, Halper MS, Miller DG. Psychological distress and surveillance behaviors of women with a family history of breast cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1992;84:27-30.Crossref 45. Nance MA, Leroy BS, Orr HT, Parker T, Rich SS, Heston LL. Protocol for genetic testing in Huntington disease: three years of experience in Minnesota . Am J Med Genet . 1991;40:518-522.Crossref 46. Bloch M, Fahy M, Fox S, Hayden MR. Predictive testing for Huntington disease, II: demographic characteristics, life-style patterns, attitudes, and psychosocial assessments of the first fifty-one test candidates . Am J Med Genet . 1989;32:217-224.Crossref 47. Fox S, Block M, Fahy M, Hayden MR. Predictive testing for Huntington disease, I: description of a pilot project in British Columbia . Am J Med Genet . 1989;32:211-216.Crossref 48. Chapman MA. Canadian experience with predictive testing for Huntington disease: lessons for genetic testing centers and policy makers . Am J Med Genet . 1992;42:491-498.Crossref 49. Huggins M, Bloch M, Kanani S, et al. Ethical and legal dilemmas arising during predictive testing for adult-onset disease: the experience of Huntington disease . Am J Hum Genet . 1990;47:4-12. 50. Roberts MM, Alexander FE, Anderson TJ, et al. Edinburgh trial of screening for breast cancer: mortality at seven years . Lancet . 1990;335:241-246.Crossref 51. Shapiro S. The status of breast cancer screening: a quarter of a century of research . World J Surg . 1989;13:9-18.Crossref 52. Morrisson A, Brisson J, Khalid N. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1988;80:1540-1547.Crossref 53. Miller AB, Baines CJ, To T, Wall C. Canadian National Breast Screening Study, 2: breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50 to 59 years . Can Med Assoc J . 1992;147: 1477-1488. 54. Hermann G, Janus C, Schwarts IS, et al. Occult malignant breast lesions in 114 patients: relationship to age and the presence of microcalcifications . Radiology . 1988;169:321-324.Crossref 55. Strax P. Control of breast cancer through mass screening: from research to action . Cancer . 1989; 63:1881-1887.Crossref 56. Swift M, Morrell D, Massey RB, Chase CL. Incidence of cancer in 161 families affected by ataxiatelangiectasia . N Engl J Med . 1991;325:1831-1836.Crossref 57. Sluijter FJH, Koten JW, Otter WD. Hereditary breast cancer and possible risk of mammography . Breast Cancer Res Treat . 1989;13:277.Crossref 58. Vogel VG, Graves DS, Vernon SW, Lord JA, Winn RJ, Peters GN. Mammographic screening of women with increased risk of breast cancer . Cancer . 1990;66:1613-1620.Crossref 59. Kaplan KM, Weinberg GB, Small A, Herndon JL. Breast cancer screening among relatives of women with breast cancer . Am J Public Health . 1991; 81:1174-1179.Crossref 60. Alagna SW, Morokoff PJ, Bevett JM, Reddy DM. Performance of breast self-examination by women at high risk for breast cancer . Women Health . 1987;12( (2) ):29-46.Crossref 61. Rimer B, Trock B, Lerman C, King E, Engstrom PF. Why do some women get regular mammograms? Am J Prev Med . 1991;7( (2) ):69-74. 62. Stefanek ME, Wilcox P, Huelskamp AM. Breast self-examination proficiency and training effects: women at increased risk of breast cancer . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1992;1:591-596. 63. Piver MS, Baker TR, Jishi MF, et al. Familial ovarian cancer: a report of 658 families from the Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry 1981-1991 . Cancer . 1993;71:582-588.Crossref 64. Danforth DN Jr. Prophylactic mastectomy to prevent cancer of the breast in high-risk patients . In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer Prevention . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott Co; 1990:1-12. 65. Pennisi VR, Capozzi A. Subcutaneous mastectomy: an interim report on 1244 patients . Ann Plast Surg . 1984;12:340.Crossref 66. Zeigler LD, Kroll SS. Primary breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy . Am J Clin Oncol . 1991; 140:451-454. 67. Ganz PA, Schag AC, Lee JJ, Polinsky ML, Tan SJ. Breast conservation versus mastectomy: is there a difference in psychological adjustment on quality of life in the year after surgery? Cancer . 1992;69:1729-1738.Crossref 68. Winer EP, Fee-Fulkerson K, Fulkerson C, et al. Silicone controversy: a survey of women with breast cancer and silicone implants . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1993;85:1407-1411.Crossref 69. Tobacman JK, Greene MH, Tucker MA, Costa J, Kase R, Fraumeni JF. Intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after prophylactic oophorectomy in ovarian-cancer-prone families . Lancet . 1982;2:795-797.Crossref 70. Nayfield SF, Karp JE, Ford LG, Dorr FA, Kramer BS. Potential role of tamoxifen in prevention of breast cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1991;83:1450-1459.Crossref 71. Croyle RT, Jemmott JB III. Psychological reactions to risk factortesting . In: Skelton JA, Croyle RT, eds. Mental Representation in Health and Illness . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1991:86-107. 72. Miller SM. When is a little knowledge a dangerous thing? coping with stressful events by monitoring versus blunting . In: Levine S. Ursin H, eds. Coping and Health: Proceedings of a NATO Conference . New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1980: 145-169. 73. Marteau TM. Health-related screening: psychological predictor of uptake and impact . In: Maes S, Leventhal H, Johnston M, eds. International Review of Health Psychology . Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 1993;2:149-174. 74. Lerman C, Daly M. Masney A, Balshem A. Attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility . J Clin Oncol . In press. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Psychological Issues in Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 154 (6) – Mar 28, 1994

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1994 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1994.00420060027003
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Abstract

Abstract IT IS ESTIMATED that approximately 180 000 American women developed breast cancer in 1993, and 46 000 of these women died of this disease.1 Recent work in molecular genetics has led to the identification of genes that confer susceptibility to breast cancer, including a major breast—ovarian cancer susceptibility gene on chromosome 17.2-5 As many as one in 300 women may carry germline mutations on one or more breast cancer susceptibility genes.6 These advances bring promise of clinical genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. In a few settings, this information already is being applied to identify gene carriers and noncarriers within families with hereditary breast cancer.7,8 As yet, however, there are no guidelines for communicating genetic information about breast cancer susceptibility or for providing recommendations and follow-up care for identified gene carriers. This is a serious concern, as previous research suggests that cancer risk notification can have References 1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures—1993 . New York, NY: American Cancer Society; 1993. 2. Hall JM, Lee MK, Morrow J, et al. Linkage of early-onset familial breast cancer to chromosome 17q21 . Science . 1990;250:1684-1689.Crossref 3. Malkin D, Li FP, Strong LC, et al. Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms . Science . 1990;250:1233-1238.Crossref 4. Skolnick MH, Cannon-Albright LA, Goldgar DE, et al. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds . Science . 1990;250:1715-1720.Crossref 5. Skolnick MH, Cannon-Albright LA. Genetic predisposition to breast cancer . Cancer . 1992;70 ( (suppl) ):1747-1754.Crossref 6. Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD. Genetic analysis of breast cancer in the cancer and steroid hormone study . Am J Hum Genet . 1991;48:232-242. 7. Lynch HT, Watson P, Conway TA, et al. DNA screening for breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility based on linked markers: a family study . Arch Intern Med . 1993;53:1979-1987.Crossref 8. Biesecker BB, Boehnke M, Calzone K, et al. Genetic conseling for families with inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer . JAMA . 1993;269:1970-1974.Crossref 9. Lerman C, Rimer B, Engstrom P. Cancer risk notification: psychosocial and ethical implications . J Clin Oncol . 1991;9:1275-1282. 10. Lerman C, Trock B, Rimer B, Jepson C, Boyce A, Engstrom PF. Psychological and behavioral implications of abnormal mammograms . Ann Intern Med . 1991;114:657-661.Crossref 11. Lerman C, Miller S, Scarborough R, Hanjani P, Nolte S, Smith D. Adverse consequences of positive cytologic screening . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1991;165:658-662.Crossref 12. Lerman C, Daly M, Sands C, et al. Psychological distress interferes with breast cancer screening in high risk women . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1993; 85:1074-1080.Crossref 13. Lerman C, Trock B, Rimer BK. Psychological side effects of breast cancer screening . Health Psychol . 1991;10:259-267.Crossref 14. Croyle R, Lerman C. Psychological impact of genetic testing . In: Croyle R, ed. Psychosocial Effects of Screening for Disease Prevention and Detection . Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. In press. 15. Lerman C, Rimer B, Engstrom P. Reducing avoidable cancer mortality through prevention and early detection regimens . Cancer Res . 1989;49:4955-4962. 16. Lerman C, Rimer B, Trock B, Balshem A, Engstrom P. Factors associated with repeat adherence to breast cancer screening . Prev Med . 1990; 19:279-290.Crossref 17. Lerman C, Hanjani P, Caputo C, et al. Telephone counseling improves adherence to colposcopy among lower-income minority women . J Clin Oncol . 1992;10:330-333. 18. Lerman C, Ross E, Boyce A, et al. The impact of mailing psychoeducational materials to women with abnormal mammograms . Am J Public Health . 1992;82:729-730.Crossref 19. Anderson DE. A genetic study of human breast cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1972;48:1029-1034. 20. Claus EB, Risch NJ, Thompson WD. Age at onset as an indicator of familial risk of breast cancer . Am J Epidemiol . 1990;131:961-972. 21. Lynch HT, Albano WA, Heieck JJ, et al. Genetics, biomarkers, and control of breast cancer: a review . Cancer Genet Cytogenet . 1984;13:43-92.Crossref 22. Easton DF, Bishop DT, Ford D, Crockford GP, Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Genetic linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer: results from 214 families . Am J Hum Genet . 1993;52:678-701. 23. King MC, Rowell S, Love SM. Inherited breast and ovarian cancer: what are the risks? what are the choices? JAMA . 1993;269:1975-1980.Crossref 24. Hall JM, Friedman L, Guenther C, et al. Closing in on a breast cancer gene on chromosome 17q . Am J Hum Genet. 1992;50:1235-1242. 25. Goldgar DE, Cannon-Albright LA, Oliphant A, et al. Chromosome 17q linkage studies of 18 Utah breast cancer kindreds . Am J Hum Genet . 1993; 52:743-748. 26. Margaritte P, Bonaiti-Pellie C, King M-C, Clerget-Darpoux F. Linkage of familial breast cancer to chromosome 17q21 may not be restricted to early-onset disease . Am J Hum Genet . 1992;50:1231-1234. 27. Narod SA, Feunteun J, Lynch HT, et al. Familial breast-ovarian cancer locus on chromosome 17q12-q23 . Lancet . 1991;338:82-83.Crossref 28. Feunteun J, Marod SA, Lynch HT, et al. A breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility gene maps to chromosome 17q21 . Am J Hum Genet . 1993;52:736-742. 29. Newman B, Austin MA, Lee M, King M-C. Inheritance of human breast cancer: evidence for autosomal dominant transmission in high-risk families . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1988;85: 3044-3048.Crossref 30. Li FP, Fraumeni JF Jr. Predictive testing for inherited mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes . J Clin Oncol . 1992;10:1203-1204. 31. Moolgavkar SH, Day NE, Stevens RG. Two step model for carcinogenesis: epidemiology of breast cancer in females . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1980;65: 59-69. 32. Seidman H, Stellman SD, Mushinkski MH. A different perspective on breast cancer risk factors: some implications of the nonattributable risk . CA Cancer J Clin . 1982;32:301-313.Crossref 33. Lerman C, Bookman M. Counseling and management of women at high risk for breast cancer . Primary Care Cancer . In press. 34. Stefanek ME. Counseling women at high risk for breast cancer . Oncology . 1990;4:27-38. 35. Quaid KA. Presymptomatic testing for Huntington disease: recommendations for counseling . J Genet Counsel . 1992;1:277-302.Crossref 36. Lynch HT, Conway T, Watson P, Schreiman J, Fitzgibbons RJ Jr. Extremely early onset hereditary breast cancer (HB): surveillance/management implications . Nebr Med J . (April) 1988:97-100. 37. Houlston RS, Lemoine L, McCarter S, et al. Screening and genetic counseling for relatives of patients with breast cancer in a family cancer clinic . J Med Genet . 1992;29:691-694.Crossref 38. Creasman WT, DiSaia PJ. Screening in ovarian cancer . Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165:7-10.Crossref 39. Li FP, Garber JE, Friend SH, et al. Recommendations on predictive testing for germ line p53 mutations among cancer-prone individuals . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1992;84:1156-1160.Crossref 40. Stamatoyannopoulus G. Problems of screening and counseling in the hemoglobinopathies . In: Motulsky AG, Lenz W, eds. Birth Defects: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, Vienna, 1973 . Geneva, Switzerland: Excerpta Medica; 1973:268-276. 41. Siminoff LA, Abeloff MD. Doctor-patient communication about breast cancer adjuvant therapy . J Clin Oncol . 1989;7:1192-1200. 42. Wine J. Test anxiety and direction of attention . Psychol Bull . 1971;76:92-104.Crossref 43. Wiggins S, Whyte P, Huggins M, et al. The psychological consequences of predictive testing for Huntington's disease . N Engl J Med . 1999;327: 1401-1405.Crossref 44. Kash KM, Holland JC, Halper MS, Miller DG. Psychological distress and surveillance behaviors of women with a family history of breast cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1992;84:27-30.Crossref 45. Nance MA, Leroy BS, Orr HT, Parker T, Rich SS, Heston LL. Protocol for genetic testing in Huntington disease: three years of experience in Minnesota . Am J Med Genet . 1991;40:518-522.Crossref 46. Bloch M, Fahy M, Fox S, Hayden MR. Predictive testing for Huntington disease, II: demographic characteristics, life-style patterns, attitudes, and psychosocial assessments of the first fifty-one test candidates . Am J Med Genet . 1989;32:217-224.Crossref 47. Fox S, Block M, Fahy M, Hayden MR. Predictive testing for Huntington disease, I: description of a pilot project in British Columbia . Am J Med Genet . 1989;32:211-216.Crossref 48. Chapman MA. Canadian experience with predictive testing for Huntington disease: lessons for genetic testing centers and policy makers . Am J Med Genet . 1992;42:491-498.Crossref 49. Huggins M, Bloch M, Kanani S, et al. Ethical and legal dilemmas arising during predictive testing for adult-onset disease: the experience of Huntington disease . Am J Hum Genet . 1990;47:4-12. 50. Roberts MM, Alexander FE, Anderson TJ, et al. Edinburgh trial of screening for breast cancer: mortality at seven years . Lancet . 1990;335:241-246.Crossref 51. Shapiro S. The status of breast cancer screening: a quarter of a century of research . World J Surg . 1989;13:9-18.Crossref 52. Morrisson A, Brisson J, Khalid N. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1988;80:1540-1547.Crossref 53. Miller AB, Baines CJ, To T, Wall C. Canadian National Breast Screening Study, 2: breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50 to 59 years . Can Med Assoc J . 1992;147: 1477-1488. 54. Hermann G, Janus C, Schwarts IS, et al. Occult malignant breast lesions in 114 patients: relationship to age and the presence of microcalcifications . Radiology . 1988;169:321-324.Crossref 55. Strax P. Control of breast cancer through mass screening: from research to action . Cancer . 1989; 63:1881-1887.Crossref 56. Swift M, Morrell D, Massey RB, Chase CL. Incidence of cancer in 161 families affected by ataxiatelangiectasia . N Engl J Med . 1991;325:1831-1836.Crossref 57. Sluijter FJH, Koten JW, Otter WD. Hereditary breast cancer and possible risk of mammography . Breast Cancer Res Treat . 1989;13:277.Crossref 58. Vogel VG, Graves DS, Vernon SW, Lord JA, Winn RJ, Peters GN. Mammographic screening of women with increased risk of breast cancer . Cancer . 1990;66:1613-1620.Crossref 59. Kaplan KM, Weinberg GB, Small A, Herndon JL. Breast cancer screening among relatives of women with breast cancer . Am J Public Health . 1991; 81:1174-1179.Crossref 60. Alagna SW, Morokoff PJ, Bevett JM, Reddy DM. Performance of breast self-examination by women at high risk for breast cancer . Women Health . 1987;12( (2) ):29-46.Crossref 61. Rimer B, Trock B, Lerman C, King E, Engstrom PF. Why do some women get regular mammograms? Am J Prev Med . 1991;7( (2) ):69-74. 62. Stefanek ME, Wilcox P, Huelskamp AM. Breast self-examination proficiency and training effects: women at increased risk of breast cancer . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1992;1:591-596. 63. Piver MS, Baker TR, Jishi MF, et al. Familial ovarian cancer: a report of 658 families from the Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry 1981-1991 . Cancer . 1993;71:582-588.Crossref 64. Danforth DN Jr. Prophylactic mastectomy to prevent cancer of the breast in high-risk patients . In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer Prevention . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott Co; 1990:1-12. 65. Pennisi VR, Capozzi A. Subcutaneous mastectomy: an interim report on 1244 patients . Ann Plast Surg . 1984;12:340.Crossref 66. Zeigler LD, Kroll SS. Primary breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy . Am J Clin Oncol . 1991; 140:451-454. 67. Ganz PA, Schag AC, Lee JJ, Polinsky ML, Tan SJ. Breast conservation versus mastectomy: is there a difference in psychological adjustment on quality of life in the year after surgery? Cancer . 1992;69:1729-1738.Crossref 68. Winer EP, Fee-Fulkerson K, Fulkerson C, et al. Silicone controversy: a survey of women with breast cancer and silicone implants . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1993;85:1407-1411.Crossref 69. Tobacman JK, Greene MH, Tucker MA, Costa J, Kase R, Fraumeni JF. Intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after prophylactic oophorectomy in ovarian-cancer-prone families . Lancet . 1982;2:795-797.Crossref 70. Nayfield SF, Karp JE, Ford LG, Dorr FA, Kramer BS. Potential role of tamoxifen in prevention of breast cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1991;83:1450-1459.Crossref 71. Croyle RT, Jemmott JB III. Psychological reactions to risk factortesting . In: Skelton JA, Croyle RT, eds. Mental Representation in Health and Illness . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1991:86-107. 72. Miller SM. When is a little knowledge a dangerous thing? coping with stressful events by monitoring versus blunting . In: Levine S. Ursin H, eds. Coping and Health: Proceedings of a NATO Conference . New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1980: 145-169. 73. Marteau TM. Health-related screening: psychological predictor of uptake and impact . In: Maes S, Leventhal H, Johnston M, eds. International Review of Health Psychology . Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 1993;2:149-174. 74. Lerman C, Daly M. Masney A, Balshem A. Attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility . J Clin Oncol . In press.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 28, 1994

References