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Psychiatric Disorders in the Biological and Adoptive Families of Adopted Individuals With Affective Disorders

Psychiatric Disorders in the Biological and Adoptive Families of Adopted Individuals With... Abstract • To investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of mood disorders, a study was initiated to examine the frequency of psychiatric disorders in the biological and adoptive relatives of adult adoptees with mood disorders and in matched normal adoptees. Psychiatric evaluations of the relatives were made on the basis of independent blind diagnoses based on mental hospital and other official records. Analysis of the data showed an eightfold increase in unipolar depression among the biological relatives of the index cases and a 15-fold increase in suicide among the biological relatives of the index cases. These data demonstrate a significant genetic contribution to unipolar depression and suicide. They fail to disclose a significant contribution of family-associated transmission in the genesis of the mood disorders. References 1. Nurnberger JI, Gershon ES: Genetics , in Paykel ES (ed): Handbook of Affective Disorders . Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1982, pp 126-145. 2. Burton R: The Anatomy of Melancholy . London, JM Dent & Sons, 1932. Reprinted, New York, Random House, Jackson H (ed), 1977. 3. Rosenthal D: Genetic Theory and Abnormal Behavior . New York, McGraw-Hill International Book Co, 1970. 4. Bertelsen A: A Danish twin study of manic-depressive disorders , in Schou M, Strömgren E (eds): Origin, Prevention, and Treatment of Affective Disorders . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1979, pp 227-239. 5. Bertelsen A, Harvald B, Hauge M: A Danish twin study of manicdepressive disorders . Br J Psychiatry 1977;130:330-351.Crossref 6. Kety SS, Rosenthal D, Wender PH, Schulsinger F: The types and prevalence of mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted schizophrenics . J Psychiatry Res 1968;6:345-362.Crossref 7. Cadoret RJ, O'Gorman TW, Heywood E, Troughton E: Genetic and environmental factors in major depression . J Affective Dis 1985;9:155-164.Crossref 8. Mendlewicz J, Rainer JD: Adoption study supporting genetic transmission in manic-depressive illness . Nature 1977;268:327-329.Crossref 9. Knorring A-L von, Cloninger R, Bohman M, Sigvardsson S: An adoption study of depressive disorders and substance abuse . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:943-950.Crossref 10. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 2. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1968. 11. World Health Organization: Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death , eighth revision. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1969. 12. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 13. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders . New York, Biometrics Research Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1975. 14. Kraepelin E: Manic-Depressive Insanity and Paranoia . Edinburgh, ES Livingstone, 1921. 15. Kety SS, Rosenthal D, Wender PH, Schulsinger F, Jacobsen B: Mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals who have become schizophrenic: A preliminary report based on psychiatric interviews , in Fieve RR, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research in Psychiatry . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, pp 147-165. 16. Svalastoga K: Prestige, Class, and Mobility . Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 1959. 17. Boyd JH, Weissman MM: Epidemiology of affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:1039-1046.Crossref 18. Wender PH, Rosenthal D, Kety SS: Psychiatric assessment of adoptive parents of schizophrenics . J Psychiatry Res 1968;6:235-250.Crossref 19. Wender PH, Rosenthal D, Rainer JD, Greenhill L: Schizophrenics' adopting parents . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:777-784.Crossref 20. Akiskal HS: Dysthymic disorder: Psychopathology of proposed chronic depressive subtypes . Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:11-20. 21. Akiskal HS: Diagnosis and classification of affective disorders: New insights from clinical and laboratory approaches . Psychiatr Dev 1983;2:123-160. 22. Liebowitz MR, Quitkin FM, Stewart JS, McGrath PJ, Harrison W, Rabkin J, Tricamo E, Markowitz JS, Klein DF: Phenelzine vs imipramine in atypical depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:669-677.Crossref 23. Schuckit MA: Genetic and clinical implications of alcoholism and affective disorder . Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:140-147. 24. Schulsinger F, Kety SS, Rosenthal D, Wender PH: A family study of suicide , in Schou M, Strömgren E (eds): Origin, Prevention and Treatment of Affective Disorders . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1979, pp 278-287. 25. Schulsinger F: Psychopathy: Heredity and environment . Int J Ment Health 1972;1:190-206. 26. Åsberg M, Traskman L, Thoren P: 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid: A biochemical suicide predictor? Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1193.Crossref 27. Traskman L, Åsberg M, Bertilsson L, Sjostrand L: Monamine metabolites in CSF and suicidal behavior . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:631.Crossref 28. Van Praag HM, Plutchik R: An empirical study of the 'cathartic effect' of attempted suicide . Psychiatry Res 1985;16:123-130.Crossref 29. Linnoila M, Virkkunen M, Scheinin M, Nuutila A, Rimon R, Goodwin FK: Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from nonimpulsive violent behavior . Life Sci 1983;33:2609-2614.Crossref 30. Brown GL, Ebert MH, Goyer PF, Jimerson DC, Klein WG, Bunney WE, Goodwin FK: Aggression, suicide and serotonin: Relationships to CSF amine metabolites . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:741-746. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Psychiatric Disorders in the Biological and Adoptive Families of Adopted Individuals With Affective Disorders

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1986 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800100013003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • To investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of mood disorders, a study was initiated to examine the frequency of psychiatric disorders in the biological and adoptive relatives of adult adoptees with mood disorders and in matched normal adoptees. Psychiatric evaluations of the relatives were made on the basis of independent blind diagnoses based on mental hospital and other official records. Analysis of the data showed an eightfold increase in unipolar depression among the biological relatives of the index cases and a 15-fold increase in suicide among the biological relatives of the index cases. These data demonstrate a significant genetic contribution to unipolar depression and suicide. They fail to disclose a significant contribution of family-associated transmission in the genesis of the mood disorders. References 1. Nurnberger JI, Gershon ES: Genetics , in Paykel ES (ed): Handbook of Affective Disorders . Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1982, pp 126-145. 2. Burton R: The Anatomy of Melancholy . London, JM Dent & Sons, 1932. Reprinted, New York, Random House, Jackson H (ed), 1977. 3. Rosenthal D: Genetic Theory and Abnormal Behavior . New York, McGraw-Hill International Book Co, 1970. 4. Bertelsen A: A Danish twin study of manic-depressive disorders , in Schou M, Strömgren E (eds): Origin, Prevention, and Treatment of Affective Disorders . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1979, pp 227-239. 5. Bertelsen A, Harvald B, Hauge M: A Danish twin study of manicdepressive disorders . Br J Psychiatry 1977;130:330-351.Crossref 6. Kety SS, Rosenthal D, Wender PH, Schulsinger F: The types and prevalence of mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted schizophrenics . J Psychiatry Res 1968;6:345-362.Crossref 7. Cadoret RJ, O'Gorman TW, Heywood E, Troughton E: Genetic and environmental factors in major depression . J Affective Dis 1985;9:155-164.Crossref 8. Mendlewicz J, Rainer JD: Adoption study supporting genetic transmission in manic-depressive illness . Nature 1977;268:327-329.Crossref 9. Knorring A-L von, Cloninger R, Bohman M, Sigvardsson S: An adoption study of depressive disorders and substance abuse . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:943-950.Crossref 10. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 2. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1968. 11. World Health Organization: Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death , eighth revision. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1969. 12. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 13. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders . New York, Biometrics Research Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1975. 14. Kraepelin E: Manic-Depressive Insanity and Paranoia . Edinburgh, ES Livingstone, 1921. 15. Kety SS, Rosenthal D, Wender PH, Schulsinger F, Jacobsen B: Mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals who have become schizophrenic: A preliminary report based on psychiatric interviews , in Fieve RR, Rosenthal D, Brill H (eds): Genetic Research in Psychiatry . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, pp 147-165. 16. Svalastoga K: Prestige, Class, and Mobility . Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 1959. 17. Boyd JH, Weissman MM: Epidemiology of affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:1039-1046.Crossref 18. Wender PH, Rosenthal D, Kety SS: Psychiatric assessment of adoptive parents of schizophrenics . J Psychiatry Res 1968;6:235-250.Crossref 19. Wender PH, Rosenthal D, Rainer JD, Greenhill L: Schizophrenics' adopting parents . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:777-784.Crossref 20. Akiskal HS: Dysthymic disorder: Psychopathology of proposed chronic depressive subtypes . Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:11-20. 21. Akiskal HS: Diagnosis and classification of affective disorders: New insights from clinical and laboratory approaches . Psychiatr Dev 1983;2:123-160. 22. Liebowitz MR, Quitkin FM, Stewart JS, McGrath PJ, Harrison W, Rabkin J, Tricamo E, Markowitz JS, Klein DF: Phenelzine vs imipramine in atypical depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:669-677.Crossref 23. Schuckit MA: Genetic and clinical implications of alcoholism and affective disorder . Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:140-147. 24. Schulsinger F, Kety SS, Rosenthal D, Wender PH: A family study of suicide , in Schou M, Strömgren E (eds): Origin, Prevention and Treatment of Affective Disorders . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1979, pp 278-287. 25. Schulsinger F: Psychopathy: Heredity and environment . Int J Ment Health 1972;1:190-206. 26. Åsberg M, Traskman L, Thoren P: 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid: A biochemical suicide predictor? Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1193.Crossref 27. Traskman L, Åsberg M, Bertilsson L, Sjostrand L: Monamine metabolites in CSF and suicidal behavior . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:631.Crossref 28. Van Praag HM, Plutchik R: An empirical study of the 'cathartic effect' of attempted suicide . Psychiatry Res 1985;16:123-130.Crossref 29. Linnoila M, Virkkunen M, Scheinin M, Nuutila A, Rimon R, Goodwin FK: Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from nonimpulsive violent behavior . Life Sci 1983;33:2609-2614.Crossref 30. Brown GL, Ebert MH, Goyer PF, Jimerson DC, Klein WG, Bunney WE, Goodwin FK: Aggression, suicide and serotonin: Relationships to CSF amine metabolites . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:741-746.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1986

References