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PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CHOLESTEROL IN EXPERIMENTAL EPILEPSY

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CHOLESTEROL IN EXPERIMENTAL EPILEPSY Abstract Attention has turned in recent years to an explanation of the cause of epilepsy in terms of biochemical and physiologic dysfunction.1 An excellent review of the research along these lines is provided in the monograph on epilepsy by Lennox and Cobb.2 The facts that fasting and a high fat, low carbohydrate diet are known to benefit patients with epilepsy3 and that these procedures bring about changes in the concentration of blood lipids4 have led to an investigation of the vital lipids in epilepsy. Cholesterol, especially, has been studied. De Crinis5 and Targowla, Badonnel and Berman6 reported hypercholesteremia in patients with 491 epilepsy. Albertoni and Borgatti7 also found hypercholesteremia in dogs during and after the induction of convulsions by the use of 20 per cent camphor in oil and direct electrical stimulation of the rolandic area. They concluded that the rise in cholesterol is References 1. Kussmaul, A., and Tenner, A.: On the Nature and Origin of Epileptiform Convulsions Caused by Profuse Bleeding, and Also of Those of True Epilepsy , translated by E. Bronner, London, New Sydenham Society, 1859. 2. Gowers, W. R.: Epilepsy and Other Convulsive Diseases: Their Causes, Symptoms and Treatment , London, J. & A. Churchill, 1881. 3. Wilson, S. A. K.; Muskens, L. J. J.; Holmes, G., and Brain, W. R.: The Epilepsies , Brit. M. J. 2:259-262, 1929. 4. Lennox, W. G., and Cobb, S.: Epilepsy from the Standpoint of Physiology and Treatment , Medicine 7:105-290, 1928Crossref 5. Epilepsy , Harvard Medicine Monograph, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1928, vol. 14. 6. Guelpa, G., and Marie, A.: La lutte contre l'épilepsie par la désintoxication et par la rééducation alimentaire , Rev. de thérap. méd.-chir. 78:8-13, 1911. 7. Geyelin, H. R.: Fasting as a Method for Treating Epilepsy , M. Rec. 99:1037-1039, 1921. 8. Peterman, M. G.: The Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy , M. Clin. North America 8:1351-1352, 1925. 9. Lennox, W. G.: Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy , New England J. Med. 199:74-75, 1928.Crossref 10. Lennox, W. G., and Cobb, S.: Studies in Epilepsy: Clinical Effect of Fasting , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 20:771-779 ( (Oct.) ) 1928. 11. Shope, R. E.: Sugar and Cholesterol in Blood Serum as Related to Fasting , J. Biol. Chem. 75:101-113, 1927. 12. Bloor, W. R.: Diet and Blood Lipids , J. Biol. Chem. 95: 633-644, 1932. 13. de Crinis, M.: Die Beteiligung der humoralen Lebensvorgänge des menschlichen Organismus am epileptischen Anfall , in Foerster, O., and Wilmanns, K.: Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Neurologie und Psychiatrie , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1920, no. 22. 14. Targowla, R.; Badonnel, M., and Berman, A.: Sur la choléstérinémie dans les maladies mentales , Encéphale 18:138-140, 1923. 15. Albertoni, P., and Borgatti, G.: La colesterina del sangue e l'accesso epilettico , Policlinico (sez. med.) 38:293-298, 1931. 16. Pighini, G.: Ueber den Cholesteringehalt der Lumbalflüssigkeit einiger Geisteskranker , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 61:508-516, 1909. 17. Goebel, F.: Cholestérine du liquide cephalorachidien et du sang dans les maladies psichiques , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 90:1191-1193, 1924. 18. Pezzali, G.: Ricerche sul contenuto del sangue in azoto (residuo), cloruri, colesterina, grassi, glucosi, indacano e calcio nell'epilessia , Riforma med. 39:433-437, 1923. 19. Popea, A., and Vicol, A.: Les variations de la cholestérinémie durant l'accès épileptique , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 93:749-750, 1925. 20. Gray, H., and McGee, L. C.: Cholesterol Content of Blood in Epilepsy and in Feeblemindedness , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:357-369 ( (Aug.) ) 1932. 21. Osnato, M.; Killian, J. A.; Garcia, T., and Mattice, M. R.: Comparative Chemical Studies of Blood and Spinal Fluid in Epilepsy , Brain 50:581-600, 1927. 22. Duncan, A. G.: Serum Cholesterol in Mental Disorders , J. Ment. Sc. 76: 284-291, 1930. 23. Rosen, I.; Krasnow, F., and Notkin, J.: Cholesterol and Lecithin Content of Blood in Cryptogenic Epilepsy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 29:155-157 ( (Jan.) ) 1933. 24. Robinson, S. H. G.; Brain, W. R., and Kay, H. D.: Association of Low Blood Cholesterol with Occurrence of Fits in Epileptics , Lancet 2:325-326, 1927. 25. Gosden, M.; Fox, J. T., and Brain, W. R.: Cholesterol of Blood Plasma in Epilepsy , Lancet 2:12-16, 1929.Crossref 26. Goodall, E.: Blood Cholesterol During Menstrual and Epileptic Cycles , Lancet 1:384-386, 1929.Crossref 27. McLean, J. H.: Blood Cholesterol in Epilepsy in Relation to Treatment by Dehydration and Ketogenesis , J. Ment. Sc. 80:82-86, 1934. 28. Bornstein, A.: Ueber die Lecithinämie der Geisteskranken , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 6:605-608, 1911.Crossref 29. Feigl, J.: Ueber das Vorkommen und die Verteilung von Fetten und Lipoiden im Blute bei Geisteskrankheiten: Chemische Beiträge zur Kenntnis spezifischer Lipämien , Biochem. Ztschr. 88:53-84, 1918. 30. McQuarrie, I.; Bloor, W. R.; Husted, C., and Patterson, H. A.: Lipids of Blood Plasma in Epilepsy: Statistical Study of Single Determinations in One Hundred Epileptic and Thirty-Two "Normal" Subjects , J. Clin. Investigation 12:247-254, 1933.Crossref 31. McQuarrie, I.; Husted, C., and Bloor, W. R.: Lipids of Blood Plasma in Epilepsy: Variations of Lipids in Relation to Occurrence of Seizures , J. Clin. Investigation 12:255-265, 1933.Crossref 32. Cowie, D. M., and Magee, M. C.: Studies on Lipoids and Lipoid Diseases: Lipoid Content of Tissues in Cases of Status Epilepticus, Toxic Encephalopathy and Chronic Leptomeningitis , Am. J. Dis. Child. 49:884-893 ( (April) ) 1935.Crossref 33. Leathers, J. B.: Role of Fats in Vital Phenomenon , Lancet 1:803-807, 853-856, 957-962 and 1019-1022, 1925.Crossref 34. Brinkman, R., and van Dam, E.: Studien zur Biochemie der Phosphatide und Sterine: I. , Biochem. Ztschr. 108:35, 52 and 61, 1920. 35. Brinkman, R.: Résistance osmotique et phosphatides du sang: Nouvelles méthodes quantitatives , Arch. néerl. de physiol. 6:451-515, 1922. 36. Bodansky, M., and Dressler, O. G.: Distribution of Water and Cholesterol in Blood in Experimental Anaemia , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 17:157-160, 1927. 37. Starkenstein, E., and Hendrych, F.: Zur Physiologie und Pharmakologie der Sterine: Die allgemeine Bedeutung des Cholesterins für Permeabilität und Resorption , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 182:664-687, 1936.Crossref 38. Bloor, W. R.: The Distribution of the Lipoids (Fat) in Human Blood , J. Biol. Chem. 25:577-579, 1916 39. Blood Phosphates in the Lipemia Produced by Acute Experimental Anemia in Rabbits , Bloor J. Biol. Chem. 46:171-187, 1920. 40. Brink-man, R.: Experimental Anemia by Lecithine Injections , Nederl. tijdschr. v. geneesk. (pt. 1) 66:2462, 1922. 41. Myers, V. C.: Chemical Changes in Blood and Their Clinical Significance , Physiol. Rev. 4:274-328, 1924. 42. Muller, G. L.: Relation of Cholesterol, Lecithin Phosphorus and Fatty Acids to Remission of Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 179:316-337, 1930.Crossref 43. Shaw, B. H., and Sharpe, J. S.: Significance of Cholesterol in Cellular Oxidation and Its Bearing on Mental Disorder , J. Ment. Sc. 77:53-66, 1931. 44. Cashin, M. F., and Moravek, V.: Physiological Action of Cholesterol , Am. J. Physiol. 82:294-298, 1927. 45. McQuarrie, Husted and Bloor.22b 46. Degkwitz, R.: Cholesterin und Lecithin im Wasser und Säure-Basenhaushalt , Klin. Wchnschr. 9:2336-2344, 1930.Crossref 47. Dahmlos, J., and Sole, A.: Permeabilitätsstudien: Cholesterin und Lecithin im Wasser- und Säure-Basenhaushalt , Biochem. Ztschr. 227:401-428, 1930. 48. Chamberlain, E. N.: Significance of Cholesterol in Physiology and Pathology: Consideration of Selected Problems , Brit. M. J. 2:896-898, 1929.Crossref 49. Koch, W.: Lecithins: Function in the Cell , Decennial Publications of the University of Chicago, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1903, vol. 10, pp. 91-102. 50. Calvin, J. K., and Goldberg, A. H.: Cholesterol and Edema: Their Relationship in a Group of Children Presenting the Nephrotic Syndrome , Am. J. Dis. Child. 41:1066-1080 ( (May) ) 1931.Crossref 51. Cipriani, C., and Moracchini, R.: Studi sul ricambio colesterinico nella nefrosi lipoidea , Riforma med. 42:796-799 ( (Aug. 23) ) 1926. 52. Maxwell, J.: Blood Cholesterol in Nephritis , Quart. J. Med. 21:297-324, 1928.Crossref 53. Shaw and Sharpe.26f 54. Bugnard, L.: Variations de la cholestérine, de la viscosité et du pH du sang après la splénectomie , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 101:546-548, 1929. 55. Sorkin, E., and Batuschanskaja, M.: Alimentare Cholesterinämie und Blutzucker bei Diabetes , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 74:138-147, 1930.Crossref 56. McQuarrie, Husted and Bloor.22b 57. Muller.26e 58. Cashin and Moravek.27a 59. Degkwitz.28a 60. Calvin and Goldberg.28e 61. Lillie, R. S.: Transmission of Physiological Influence in Protoplasmic Systems, Especially Nerve , Physiol. Rev. 2:1-37, 1922. 62. Muller.26e 63. Shaw and Sharpe.26f 64. Calvin and Goldberg.28e 65. Gordon, M. B., and Cohn, D. J.: Cholesterol and Lipoid Phosphorus in Infancy and in Childhood: Normal Incidence in Cord Blood and During Infancy and Early Childhood , Am. J. Dis. Child. 35:193-200 ( (Feb.) ) 1928.Crossref 66. Butter, A. J. M.: Age Incidence in Epilepsy , Brit. M. J. 2:714-715, 1936. 67. Currie, A. N.: Cholesterol of Blood in Malignant Disease , Brit. J. Exper. Path. 5:293-299, 1924. 68. Hopkins, H.: Time of Appearance of Epileptic Seizures in Relation to Age, Duration and Type of Syndrome , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 77:153-162, 1933 69. Chemical Studies in Epileptic Syndrome: Whole Blood Cholesterol , Hopkins J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 77:601-616, 1933 70. Chemical Studies in Epileptic Syndrome: Nocturnal and Diurnal Rhythm , Am. J. Psychiat. 92:75-88, 1935. 71. Okey, R., and Boyden, R. E.: Studies of Metabolism of Woman: Variations in Lipid Content of Blood in Relation to Menstrual Cycle , J. Biol. Chem. 72:261-281, 1927. 72. Maddox, K.: Note on Diagnosis of Blood Cholesterol Changes in Major Convulsive Epilepsy , M. J. Australia 1:531-534, 1931. 73. Goodall.18 74. Denis, W.: Cholesterol in Human Blood Under Pathological Conditions , J. Biol. Chem. 29:93-110, 1917. 75. Bloor, W. R., and Knudson, A.: Cholesterol and Cholesterol Esters in Human Blood , J. Biol. Chem. 29:7-13, 1917. 76. Baumann, E. J., and Holly, O. M.: Cholesterol and Phosphatide Metabolism in Pregnancy , Am. J. Physiol. 75:618-632, 1926. 77. Rosen, I., and Krasnow, F.: Comparative Studies on Blood Cholesterol in Women , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 14: 321-329, 1927. 78. Goldbloom, A., and Gottlieb, R.: Cholesterol Content of Blood of Infants and Children , Canad. M. A. J. 17:1333-1336, 1927. 79. Peters, J. P., and Van Slyke, D. D.: Quantitative Clinical Chemistry: Interpretations , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1931, vol. 1. 80. Kipp, H. A.: Variation in the Cholesterol Content of the Serum in Pneumonia , J. Biol. Chem. 44:215-237, 1920. 81. Murphy, J. P. H.: Comparative Study of Epilepsy and Schizophrenia , M. J. & Rec. 128:77 and 110, 1928. 82. Alford, L. B.: Epilepsy and Dementia Praecox Considered as Types of Abiotrophy , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 68:594-601, 1928. 83. Volland: Ueber die Häufigkeit des Carcinoms bei Epilepsie , Ztschr. f. Krebsforsch. 28:15-27, 1928. 84. Hodskins, M. B., and Guthrie, R. H.: Cancer Complicating and Modifying the Course of Epilepsy: Review of Fifty-Five Cases , Am. J. Psychiat. 12:877-892, 1933. 85. Barborka, C. J.: Epilepsy in Adults: Results of Treatment by Ketogenic Diet in One Hundred Cases , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:904-914 ( (May) ) 1930. 86. Sorkin and Batuschanskaja.29b 87. Denis.36a 88. Bloor and Knudson.36b 89. Robinson, Brain and Kay.16 90. Gosden, Fox and Brain.17 91. Goodall.18 92. McLean.19 93. Bornstein.20 94. Feigl.21 95. McQuarrie, Bloor, Husted and Patterson.22a 96. McQuarrie, Husted and Bloor.22b 97. Cowie and Magee.23 98. Peterman.3c 99. Lennox.3d 100. Gray and McGee.12 101. McLean.19 102. McQuarrie, Husted and Bloor.22b 103. Barborka.41a 104. McLean.19 105. Shaw and Sharpe.26f 106. Degkwitz.28a 107. McQuarrie, Husted and Bloor.22b 108. Cashin and Moravek.27a 109. Choroschko, W. K.: Versuch einer biochemischen therapeutischen Einwirkung bei Epilepsie (Einverleibung von Nervengewebe, Blutgerinnung): Vorläufige Mitteilung , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 98:545-551, 1925. 110. Nóvoa Santos, R.: Tratamiento de la epilepsia mediante inyecciones de emulsión de substancia cerebral en una solución de luminal sódico , Arch. de neurobiol. 7:213-217, 1927 111. Arch. de med., cir. y especialid. 27:393, 1927. 112. Lombardi, A.: L'opoterapia cerebrale nella cura dei malarici epilettici , Rev. sud.-am. de endocrinol. 2:388-392, 1928. 113. Stawrowskaja, M. N.: Ueber die Ergebnisse der Behandlung der Epilepsie mit Gehirnemulsion , Monatschr. f. Psychiat. u. Neurol. 74:221-233, 1929. 114. Kimball, O. P., and Gudakunst, D. W.: Study of Epilepsy in Detroit: Preliminary Report (on Treatment with Lipoids of Brain Tissue) , J. Michigan M. Soc. 35:641-644, 1936. 115. Scarff, R.: Production of Experimental Atheroma with Cholesterol , J. Path. & Bact. 30:647-665, 1927. 116. Rosenthal, S. R.: Studies in Atherosclerosis: Chemical, Experimental and Morphologic; Roles of Cholesterol Metabolism, Blood Pressure and Structure of Aorta; Fat Angle of Aorta (F. A. A.), and Infiltration-Expression Theory of Lipoid Deposit , Arch. Path. 18:473 ( (Oct.) ) 117. 660 (Nov.) 1934. 118. Page, I. H., and Bernhard, W. G.: Cholesterol-Induced Atherosclerosis: Its Prevention in Rabbits by Feeding of Organic Iodine Compound, ibid. 19:530-536 (April) 1935. 119. Duff, G. L.: Experimental Cholesterol Arteriosclerosis and Its Relationship to Human Arteriosclerosis, ibid. 20:81 (July) 120. 259 (Aug.) 1935. 121. Downs, W. G., Jr.: Lecithin in Experimental Arteriosclerosis: Preliminary Study , Am. Med. 41:460, 1935. 122. Chamberlain, E. N.: Cholesterol Content of Normal Tissues and Effect of Intravenous Injections of Cholesterol Thereon , J. Physiol. 66:249-261, 1928. 123. Cholesterol was obtained from the Wilson Laboratories, Chicago. 124. Feinberg, I.: Weitere Mittheilungen zur physiologischen Cocainwirkung , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 24:166-168, 1887. 125. Morita, S.: Untersuchungen an grosshirnlösen Kaninchen: I. Das Verhalten der Blutzuckerkonzentration , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 78:188-207, 1915. 126. Grode, J.: Ueber die Wirking längerer Cocaindarreichung bei Tieren , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 67:172-190, 1911-1912.Crossref 127. Dr. E. P. Lucia, assistant professor of biometry, department of hygiene, of the University of California, gave criticism and advice in connection with the statistical analysis of these results. 128. Yule, G. U., and Kendall, M. G.: An Introduction to Study of Statistics , ed. 11, London, Charles Griffin & Company, Ltd., 1937. 129. Himwich, H. E.; Bowman, K. M.; Fazekas, J. F., and Orenstein, L. L.: Effect of Metrazol Convulsions on Brain Metabolism , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 37:359-361, 1937. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CHOLESTEROL IN EXPERIMENTAL EPILEPSY

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Copyright © 1939 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-6754
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10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270210129006
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Abstract

Abstract Attention has turned in recent years to an explanation of the cause of epilepsy in terms of biochemical and physiologic dysfunction.1 An excellent review of the research along these lines is provided in the monograph on epilepsy by Lennox and Cobb.2 The facts that fasting and a high fat, low carbohydrate diet are known to benefit patients with epilepsy3 and that these procedures bring about changes in the concentration of blood lipids4 have led to an investigation of the vital lipids in epilepsy. Cholesterol, especially, has been studied. De Crinis5 and Targowla, Badonnel and Berman6 reported hypercholesteremia in patients with 491 epilepsy. Albertoni and Borgatti7 also found hypercholesteremia in dogs during and after the induction of convulsions by the use of 20 per cent camphor in oil and direct electrical stimulation of the rolandic area. They concluded that the rise in cholesterol is References 1. Kussmaul, A., and Tenner, A.: On the Nature and Origin of Epileptiform Convulsions Caused by Profuse Bleeding, and Also of Those of True Epilepsy , translated by E. Bronner, London, New Sydenham Society, 1859. 2. Gowers, W. R.: Epilepsy and Other Convulsive Diseases: Their Causes, Symptoms and Treatment , London, J. & A. Churchill, 1881. 3. Wilson, S. A. K.; Muskens, L. J. J.; Holmes, G., and Brain, W. R.: The Epilepsies , Brit. M. J. 2:259-262, 1929. 4. Lennox, W. G., and Cobb, S.: Epilepsy from the Standpoint of Physiology and Treatment , Medicine 7:105-290, 1928Crossref 5. Epilepsy , Harvard Medicine Monograph, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1928, vol. 14. 6. Guelpa, G., and Marie, A.: La lutte contre l'épilepsie par la désintoxication et par la rééducation alimentaire , Rev. de thérap. méd.-chir. 78:8-13, 1911. 7. Geyelin, H. R.: Fasting as a Method for Treating Epilepsy , M. Rec. 99:1037-1039, 1921. 8. Peterman, M. G.: The Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy , M. Clin. North America 8:1351-1352, 1925. 9. Lennox, W. G.: Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Epilepsy , New England J. Med. 199:74-75, 1928.Crossref 10. Lennox, W. G., and Cobb, S.: Studies in Epilepsy: Clinical Effect of Fasting , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 20:771-779 ( (Oct.) ) 1928. 11. Shope, R. E.: Sugar and Cholesterol in Blood Serum as Related to Fasting , J. Biol. Chem. 75:101-113, 1927. 12. Bloor, W. R.: Diet and Blood Lipids , J. Biol. Chem. 95: 633-644, 1932. 13. de Crinis, M.: Die Beteiligung der humoralen Lebensvorgänge des menschlichen Organismus am epileptischen Anfall , in Foerster, O., and Wilmanns, K.: Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Neurologie und Psychiatrie , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1920, no. 22. 14. Targowla, R.; Badonnel, M., and Berman, A.: Sur la choléstérinémie dans les maladies mentales , Encéphale 18:138-140, 1923. 15. Albertoni, P., and Borgatti, G.: La colesterina del sangue e l'accesso epilettico , Policlinico (sez. med.) 38:293-298, 1931. 16. Pighini, G.: Ueber den Cholesteringehalt der Lumbalflüssigkeit einiger Geisteskranker , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 61:508-516, 1909. 17. Goebel, F.: Cholestérine du liquide cephalorachidien et du sang dans les maladies psichiques , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 90:1191-1193, 1924. 18. Pezzali, G.: Ricerche sul contenuto del sangue in azoto (residuo), cloruri, colesterina, grassi, glucosi, indacano e calcio nell'epilessia , Riforma med. 39:433-437, 1923. 19. Popea, A., and Vicol, A.: Les variations de la cholestérinémie durant l'accès épileptique , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 93:749-750, 1925. 20. Gray, H., and McGee, L. C.: Cholesterol Content of Blood in Epilepsy and in Feeblemindedness , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:357-369 ( (Aug.) ) 1932. 21. Osnato, M.; Killian, J. A.; Garcia, T., and Mattice, M. R.: Comparative Chemical Studies of Blood and Spinal Fluid in Epilepsy , Brain 50:581-600, 1927. 22. Duncan, A. G.: Serum Cholesterol in Mental Disorders , J. Ment. Sc. 76: 284-291, 1930. 23. Rosen, I.; Krasnow, F., and Notkin, J.: Cholesterol and Lecithin Content of Blood in Cryptogenic Epilepsy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 29:155-157 ( (Jan.) ) 1933. 24. Robinson, S. H. G.; Brain, W. R., and Kay, H. D.: Association of Low Blood Cholesterol with Occurrence of Fits in Epileptics , Lancet 2:325-326, 1927. 25. Gosden, M.; Fox, J. T., and Brain, W. R.: Cholesterol of Blood Plasma in Epilepsy , Lancet 2:12-16, 1929.Crossref 26. Goodall, E.: Blood Cholesterol During Menstrual and Epileptic Cycles , Lancet 1:384-386, 1929.Crossref 27. McLean, J. H.: Blood Cholesterol in Epilepsy in Relation to Treatment by Dehydration and Ketogenesis , J. Ment. Sc. 80:82-86, 1934. 28. Bornstein, A.: Ueber die Lecithinämie der Geisteskranken , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 6:605-608, 1911.Crossref 29. Feigl, J.: Ueber das Vorkommen und die Verteilung von Fetten und Lipoiden im Blute bei Geisteskrankheiten: Chemische Beiträge zur Kenntnis spezifischer Lipämien , Biochem. Ztschr. 88:53-84, 1918. 30. McQuarrie, I.; Bloor, W. R.; Husted, C., and Patterson, H. A.: Lipids of Blood Plasma in Epilepsy: Statistical Study of Single Determinations in One Hundred Epileptic and Thirty-Two "Normal" Subjects , J. Clin. Investigation 12:247-254, 1933.Crossref 31. McQuarrie, I.; Husted, C., and Bloor, W. R.: Lipids of Blood Plasma in Epilepsy: Variations of Lipids in Relation to Occurrence of Seizures , J. Clin. Investigation 12:255-265, 1933.Crossref 32. Cowie, D. M., and Magee, M. C.: Studies on Lipoids and Lipoid Diseases: Lipoid Content of Tissues in Cases of Status Epilepticus, Toxic Encephalopathy and Chronic Leptomeningitis , Am. J. Dis. Child. 49:884-893 ( (April) ) 1935.Crossref 33. Leathers, J. B.: Role of Fats in Vital Phenomenon , Lancet 1:803-807, 853-856, 957-962 and 1019-1022, 1925.Crossref 34. Brinkman, R., and van Dam, E.: Studien zur Biochemie der Phosphatide und Sterine: I. , Biochem. Ztschr. 108:35, 52 and 61, 1920. 35. Brinkman, R.: Résistance osmotique et phosphatides du sang: Nouvelles méthodes quantitatives , Arch. néerl. de physiol. 6:451-515, 1922. 36. Bodansky, M., and Dressler, O. G.: Distribution of Water and Cholesterol in Blood in Experimental Anaemia , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 17:157-160, 1927. 37. Starkenstein, E., and Hendrych, F.: Zur Physiologie und Pharmakologie der Sterine: Die allgemeine Bedeutung des Cholesterins für Permeabilität und Resorption , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 182:664-687, 1936.Crossref 38. Bloor, W. R.: The Distribution of the Lipoids (Fat) in Human Blood , J. Biol. Chem. 25:577-579, 1916 39. Blood Phosphates in the Lipemia Produced by Acute Experimental Anemia in Rabbits , Bloor J. Biol. Chem. 46:171-187, 1920. 40. Brink-man, R.: Experimental Anemia by Lecithine Injections , Nederl. tijdschr. v. geneesk. (pt. 1) 66:2462, 1922. 41. Myers, V. C.: Chemical Changes in Blood and Their Clinical Significance , Physiol. Rev. 4:274-328, 1924. 42. Muller, G. L.: Relation of Cholesterol, Lecithin Phosphorus and Fatty Acids to Remission of Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 179:316-337, 1930.Crossref 43. Shaw, B. H., and Sharpe, J. S.: Significance of Cholesterol in Cellular Oxidation and Its Bearing on Mental Disorder , J. Ment. Sc. 77:53-66, 1931. 44. Cashin, M. F., and Moravek, V.: Physiological Action of Cholesterol , Am. J. Physiol. 82:294-298, 1927. 45. McQuarrie, Husted and Bloor.22b 46. Degkwitz, R.: Cholesterin und Lecithin im Wasser und Säure-Basenhaushalt , Klin. Wchnschr. 9:2336-2344, 1930.Crossref 47. Dahmlos, J., and Sole, A.: Permeabilitätsstudien: Cholesterin und Lecithin im Wasser- und Säure-Basenhaushalt , Biochem. Ztschr. 227:401-428, 1930. 48. Chamberlain, E. N.: Significance of Cholesterol in Physiology and Pathology: Consideration of Selected Problems , Brit. M. J. 2:896-898, 1929.Crossref 49. Koch, W.: Lecithins: Function in the Cell , Decennial Publications of the University of Chicago, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1903, vol. 10, pp. 91-102. 50. Calvin, J. K., and Goldberg, A. H.: Cholesterol and Edema: Their Relationship in a Group of Children Presenting the Nephrotic Syndrome , Am. J. Dis. Child. 41:1066-1080 ( (May) ) 1931.Crossref 51. Cipriani, C., and Moracchini, R.: Studi sul ricambio colesterinico nella nefrosi lipoidea , Riforma med. 42:796-799 ( (Aug. 23) ) 1926. 52. Maxwell, J.: Blood Cholesterol in Nephritis , Quart. J. Med. 21:297-324, 1928.Crossref 53. Shaw and Sharpe.26f 54. Bugnard, L.: Variations de la cholestérine, de la viscosité et du pH du sang après la splénectomie , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 101:546-548, 1929. 55. Sorkin, E., and Batuschanskaja, M.: Alimentare Cholesterinämie und Blutzucker bei Diabetes , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 74:138-147, 1930.Crossref 56. McQuarrie, Husted and Bloor.22b 57. Muller.26e 58. 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Pharmakol. 67:172-190, 1911-1912.Crossref 127. Dr. E. P. Lucia, assistant professor of biometry, department of hygiene, of the University of California, gave criticism and advice in connection with the statistical analysis of these results. 128. Yule, G. U., and Kendall, M. G.: An Introduction to Study of Statistics , ed. 11, London, Charles Griffin & Company, Ltd., 1937. 129. Himwich, H. E.; Bowman, K. M.; Fazekas, J. F., and Orenstein, L. L.: Effect of Metrazol Convulsions on Brain Metabolism , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 37:359-361, 1937.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1939

References