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Prostaglandins, Platelets, and Schizophrenia

Prostaglandins, Platelets, and Schizophrenia Abstract • Prostaglandin (PG) E, enhances formation of 3H-adenosine3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (3H-cAMP) in platelets pulse-labeled with 3H-adenine. This response was assessed as an index of receptor sensitivity and of PG function. Prostaglandin E1 lated 3H-cAMP accumulation in platelets from schizophrenics was significantly reduced compared with control subjects. Platelet incorporation of 3H-adenine and basal 3H-cAMP levels did not differ between groups. Psychotropic drugs added in vitro generally did not alter basal or PGE1-stimulated 3H-cAMP accumulation. We discuss the results in terms of the possible role of PGs in the etiopathology of schizophrenia and derivative implications for treatment. References 1. Lee T, Seeman P, Rajput A, et al: Parkinson's disease: Brain dopamine receptors. Abstract 896. Read before the 62nd annual meeting of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Atlantic City, NJ, April 11, 1978. 2. Burt DR, Creese I, Snyder SH: Antischizophrenic drugs: Chronic treatment elevates dopamine receptor binding in brain . Science 196:326-328, 1977.Crossref 3. Creese I, Burt DR, Snyder SH: Dopamine receptor binding enhancement accompanies lesion-induced behavioral supersensitivity . Science 197:596-598, 1977.Crossref 4. Muller P, Seeman P: Brain neurotransmitter receptors after long-term haloperidol: Dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, alpha-noradrenergic and naloxone receptors . Life Sci 21:1751-1758, 1977.Crossref 5. Pert A, Rosenblatt JE, Sivit C, et al: Long-term treatment with lithium prevents the development of dopamine receptor supersensitivity . Science 201:171-173, 1978.Crossref 6. Friedhoff AJ, Bonnet K, Rosengarten H: Reversal of two manifestations of dopamine receptor supersensitivity by administration of L-Dopa . Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 16:411-423, 1977. 7. Carenzi A, Gillin JC, Guidotti A, et al: Dopamine-sensitive adenylyl cylcase in human caudate nucleus . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:1056-1059, 1975.Crossref 8. Ettigi P, Nair NPV, Lal S, et al: Effect of apomorphine on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in schizophrenic patients, with or without oral dyskinesia, withdrawn from chronic neuroleptic therapy . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:870-876, 1976.Crossref 9. Rotrosen J, Angrist BM, Gershon S, et al: Dopamine receptor alteration in schizophrenia: Neuroendocrine evidence . Psychopharmacology 51:1-7, 1976.Crossref 10. Pandey GN, Garver DL, Tamminga C, et al: Postsynaptic supersensitivity in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 134:518-522, 1977. 11. Tamminga CA, Smith RC, Pandey G, et al: A neuroendocrine study of supersensitivity in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:1199-1203, 1977.Crossref 12. Rotrosen J, Angrist B, Paquin J: Neuroendocrine studies with dopamine agonists in schizophrenia . Psychopharmacol Bull 14:14-17, 1978. 13. Mattussek N, Ackenheil M, Hippius H, et al: Effects of clonidine on hGH release in psychiatric patients and controls. Abstract 503. Read before the Sixth World Congress of Psychiatry. Honolulu, Aug 30, 1977. 14. Matthysse S: Antipsychotic drug actions: A clue to the neuropathology of schizophrenia? Fed Proc 32:200-205, 1973. 15. Snyder SH, Banerjee SP, Yamamura HI, et al: Drugs, neurotransmitters and schizophrenia . Science 184:1243-1253, 1974.Crossref 16. Carlsson A: Antipsychotic drugs, neurotransmitters, and schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 135:164-173, 1978. 17. Rotrosen J, Miller A, Mandio D, et al: Reduced PGE,-stimulated 3H-cAMP accumulation in platelets from schizophrenics . Life Sci 23:1989-1996, 1978.Crossref 18. Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1973, vol 1 19. 1974, vol 2 20. 1977, vol 3. 21. New developments in prostaglandin and thromboxane research . Fed Proc 38:64-93, 1979. 22. Smith JB, Macfarlane DE: Platelets , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1974, vol 2, pp 293-343. 23. Sinha AK, Colman RW: Prostaglandin E, inhibits platelet aggregation by a pathway independent of adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate . Science 200:202-203, 1978.Crossref 24. Stahl SM: The human platelet . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:509-516, 1977.Crossref 25. Wolfe LS: Possible roles of prostaglandins in the nervous system , in Agranoff BW (ed): Advances in Neurochemistry . New York, Plenum Press, 1974, pp 1-49. 26. Wolfe LS: Prostaglandins and synaptic transmission , in Siegel GJ, Albers RW, Katzman R, et al (eds): Basic Neurochemistry , ed 2. Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1976, pp 263-275. 27. Bergstrüm S, Carlsson LA, Weeks JR: The prostaglandins: A family of biologically active lipids . Pharmacol Rev 20:1-49, 1968. 28. Coceani F: Prostaglandins and the central nervous system . Arch Intern Med 133:119-129 1974.Crossref 29. Samuelsson B: Structures, biosynthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins , in Wakil SJ (ed): Lipid Metabolism . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1970, pp 107-153. 30. Samuelsson B: Biosynthesis of prostaglandins . Fed Proc 31:1442-1450, 1972. 31. Samuelsson B: Quantitative aspects of prostaglandin biosynthesis in man , in Bergstrom S (ed): Advances in Bioscience . New York, Pergamon Press, 1973, pp 7-14. 32. Flack JD: The hypothalamus-pituitary-endocrine system , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1973, vol 1, pp 327-345. 33. Kenimer JG, Goldberg V, Blecher M: The endocrine system: Interaction of prostaglandins with adenylyl cyclase-cyclic AMP systems , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1977, vol 3, pp 77-107. 34. Hedge GA: Roles for the prostaglandins in the regulation of anterior pituitary secretion . Life Sci 20:17-33, 1977.Crossref 35. Gross HA, Dunher DL, Lafleur D, et al: Prostaglandins. A review of neurophysiology and psychiatric implications . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:1189-1196, 1977.Crossref 36. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders , ed 3, 1977. 37. Mills DCB, MacFarlane DE: Stimulation of human platelet adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin D2 . Thrombosis Res 5:401-412, 1974.Crossref 38. Gnegy ME, Uzunov P, Costa E: Regulation of dopamine stimulation of striatal adenylate cyclase by an endogenous Ca -binding protein . Proc Nail Acad Sci USA 73:3887-3890, 1976.Crossref 39. Kafka MS, Tallman JF, Smith CC: Alpha-adrenergic receptors on human platelets . Life Sci 21:1429-1438, 1977.Crossref 40. Lee T-P, Busse WW, Reed CE: Effect of beta adrenergic agonists, prostaglandins, and cortisol on lymphocyte levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and glycogen . J Allergy Clin Immunol 59:408-413, 1977.Crossref 41. Horrobin DF: Lithium as a regulator of prostaglandin synthesis: Relevance to manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenia and to the mechanism of opiate action. Read before the International Lithium Conference. New York, June 8, 1978. 42. Vane JR: Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs . Nature New Biol 231:232, 1971.Crossref 43. Meltzer HY, Goode DJ, Fang VS: The effect of psychotropic drugs on endocrine function : I. Neuroleptics, precursors, and agonists, in Lipton MA, DiMascio A, Killam KF (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress . New York, Raven Press, 1978. 44. Healy DL, Burger HG: Sustained elevation of serum prolactin by metoclopramide: A clinical model of idiopathic hyperprolactinemia . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46:709-714, 1978.Crossref 45. Collier HOJ, Roy AC: Morphine-like drugs inhibit the stimulation by E prostaglandins of cAMP formation by rat brain homogenate . Nature 248:24-27, 1974.Crossref 46. Goldstein A, Cox BM, Klee WA, et al: Endorphin from pituitary inhibits cyclic AMP formation in homogenates of neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells . Nature 265:362-363, 1977.Crossref 47. Kafka MS, Van Kammen DP: Reduced cAMP production in schizophrenia. Read before the 131st annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. Atlanta, May 1978. 48. Feldberg W: Possible association of schizophrenia with a disturbance in prostaglandin metabolism: A physiological hypothesis . Psychol Med 6:359-369, 1976.Crossref 49. Horrobin DF: Schizophrenia as a prostaglandin deficiency disease . Lancet 1:936-937, 1977.Crossref 50. Horrobin DF, Ally AI, Karmali RA, et al: Prostaglandins and schizophrenia: Further discussion of the evidence . Psychol Med 8:43-48, 1978.Crossref 51. Pfeiffer CC: The schizophrenias '76 . Biol Psychiatry 11:773-775, 1976. 52. Pfeiffer CC: Copper excess and zinc deficiencies in the schizophrenias, abstract 726. Read before the Second World Congress of Biological Psychiatry. Barcelona, Spain, Aug 31, 1978. 53. Abdulla YH, Hamadah K: Effect of ADP on PGE, formation in blood platelets from patients with depression, mania and schizophrenia . Br J Psychiatry 127:591-595, 1975.Crossref 54. Abdulla YH, McFarlane E: Control of prostaglandin biosynthesis in rat brain homogenates by adenine nucleotides . Biochem Pharmacol 21:2841-2847, 1972.Crossref 55. Vincent JE, Melai A, IL: Comparison of the effects of prostaglandin E, on platelet aggregation in normal and essential fatty acid deficient rats . Prostaglandins 5:369-373, 1974.Crossref 56. Horton EW: Prostaglandins at adrenergic nerve endings . Br Med Bull 29:148-151, 1973. 57. Bergstrüm S, Farnebo L, Fuxe K: Effect of prostaglandin E2 on central and peripheral catecholamine neurons . Eur J Pharmacol 21:362-368, 1973.Crossref 58. Hedqvist P: Autonomic Neurotransmission , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1973, vol 1, pp 101-132. 59. Zioudrou C, Streaty RA, Klee WA: Opioid peptides derived from food proteins: The exorphins . J Biol Chem 254:2446-2449, 1979. 60. Dohan FC: Cereals and schizophrenia: Data and hypothesis . Acta Psychiatr Scand 42:125-152, 1966.Crossref 61. Singh MM, Kay SR: Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia . Science 191:401-402, 1976.Crossref 62. Ito H, Momose G, Katayama T, et al: Effect of prostaglandin on the secretion of human growth hormone . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32:857-859, 1971.Crossref 63. Cooper RH, McPherson M, Schofield JG: The effect of prostaglandins on ox pituitary content of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and the release of growth hormone . Biochem J 127:143-154, 1972. 64. Bloss JL, Singer GH: Neuropharmacological and behavioral evaluation of PGE2 and 11-thiol-11-desoxy PGE in the mouse and rat . Psychopharmacology 57:295-302, 1978.Crossref 65. Chouinard G, Annable L, Horrobin DF: An antipsychotic action of penicillin on schizophrenia . IRCS Med Sc 6:187, 1978. 66. Vaddadi KS: Penicillin and evening primrose oil in schizophrenia . Prostaglandins Med 2:77-80, 1979.Crossref 67. Kafka M, et al, in discussion: Pre- and postsynaptic receptors: Clinical and basic aspects. Read before the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Dec 14, 1979. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1980 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1980.01780220085010
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Abstract

Abstract • Prostaglandin (PG) E, enhances formation of 3H-adenosine3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (3H-cAMP) in platelets pulse-labeled with 3H-adenine. This response was assessed as an index of receptor sensitivity and of PG function. Prostaglandin E1 lated 3H-cAMP accumulation in platelets from schizophrenics was significantly reduced compared with control subjects. Platelet incorporation of 3H-adenine and basal 3H-cAMP levels did not differ between groups. Psychotropic drugs added in vitro generally did not alter basal or PGE1-stimulated 3H-cAMP accumulation. We discuss the results in terms of the possible role of PGs in the etiopathology of schizophrenia and derivative implications for treatment. References 1. Lee T, Seeman P, Rajput A, et al: Parkinson's disease: Brain dopamine receptors. Abstract 896. Read before the 62nd annual meeting of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Atlantic City, NJ, April 11, 1978. 2. Burt DR, Creese I, Snyder SH: Antischizophrenic drugs: Chronic treatment elevates dopamine receptor binding in brain . Science 196:326-328, 1977.Crossref 3. Creese I, Burt DR, Snyder SH: Dopamine receptor binding enhancement accompanies lesion-induced behavioral supersensitivity . Science 197:596-598, 1977.Crossref 4. Muller P, Seeman P: Brain neurotransmitter receptors after long-term haloperidol: Dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, alpha-noradrenergic and naloxone receptors . Life Sci 21:1751-1758, 1977.Crossref 5. Pert A, Rosenblatt JE, Sivit C, et al: Long-term treatment with lithium prevents the development of dopamine receptor supersensitivity . Science 201:171-173, 1978.Crossref 6. Friedhoff AJ, Bonnet K, Rosengarten H: Reversal of two manifestations of dopamine receptor supersensitivity by administration of L-Dopa . Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 16:411-423, 1977. 7. Carenzi A, Gillin JC, Guidotti A, et al: Dopamine-sensitive adenylyl cylcase in human caudate nucleus . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:1056-1059, 1975.Crossref 8. Ettigi P, Nair NPV, Lal S, et al: Effect of apomorphine on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in schizophrenic patients, with or without oral dyskinesia, withdrawn from chronic neuroleptic therapy . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:870-876, 1976.Crossref 9. Rotrosen J, Angrist BM, Gershon S, et al: Dopamine receptor alteration in schizophrenia: Neuroendocrine evidence . Psychopharmacology 51:1-7, 1976.Crossref 10. Pandey GN, Garver DL, Tamminga C, et al: Postsynaptic supersensitivity in schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 134:518-522, 1977. 11. Tamminga CA, Smith RC, Pandey G, et al: A neuroendocrine study of supersensitivity in tardive dyskinesia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:1199-1203, 1977.Crossref 12. Rotrosen J, Angrist B, Paquin J: Neuroendocrine studies with dopamine agonists in schizophrenia . Psychopharmacol Bull 14:14-17, 1978. 13. Mattussek N, Ackenheil M, Hippius H, et al: Effects of clonidine on hGH release in psychiatric patients and controls. Abstract 503. Read before the Sixth World Congress of Psychiatry. Honolulu, Aug 30, 1977. 14. Matthysse S: Antipsychotic drug actions: A clue to the neuropathology of schizophrenia? Fed Proc 32:200-205, 1973. 15. Snyder SH, Banerjee SP, Yamamura HI, et al: Drugs, neurotransmitters and schizophrenia . Science 184:1243-1253, 1974.Crossref 16. Carlsson A: Antipsychotic drugs, neurotransmitters, and schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 135:164-173, 1978. 17. Rotrosen J, Miller A, Mandio D, et al: Reduced PGE,-stimulated 3H-cAMP accumulation in platelets from schizophrenics . Life Sci 23:1989-1996, 1978.Crossref 18. Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1973, vol 1 19. 1974, vol 2 20. 1977, vol 3. 21. New developments in prostaglandin and thromboxane research . Fed Proc 38:64-93, 1979. 22. Smith JB, Macfarlane DE: Platelets , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1974, vol 2, pp 293-343. 23. Sinha AK, Colman RW: Prostaglandin E, inhibits platelet aggregation by a pathway independent of adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate . Science 200:202-203, 1978.Crossref 24. Stahl SM: The human platelet . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:509-516, 1977.Crossref 25. Wolfe LS: Possible roles of prostaglandins in the nervous system , in Agranoff BW (ed): Advances in Neurochemistry . New York, Plenum Press, 1974, pp 1-49. 26. Wolfe LS: Prostaglandins and synaptic transmission , in Siegel GJ, Albers RW, Katzman R, et al (eds): Basic Neurochemistry , ed 2. Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1976, pp 263-275. 27. Bergstrüm S, Carlsson LA, Weeks JR: The prostaglandins: A family of biologically active lipids . Pharmacol Rev 20:1-49, 1968. 28. Coceani F: Prostaglandins and the central nervous system . Arch Intern Med 133:119-129 1974.Crossref 29. Samuelsson B: Structures, biosynthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins , in Wakil SJ (ed): Lipid Metabolism . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1970, pp 107-153. 30. Samuelsson B: Biosynthesis of prostaglandins . Fed Proc 31:1442-1450, 1972. 31. Samuelsson B: Quantitative aspects of prostaglandin biosynthesis in man , in Bergstrom S (ed): Advances in Bioscience . New York, Pergamon Press, 1973, pp 7-14. 32. Flack JD: The hypothalamus-pituitary-endocrine system , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1973, vol 1, pp 327-345. 33. Kenimer JG, Goldberg V, Blecher M: The endocrine system: Interaction of prostaglandins with adenylyl cyclase-cyclic AMP systems , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1977, vol 3, pp 77-107. 34. Hedge GA: Roles for the prostaglandins in the regulation of anterior pituitary secretion . Life Sci 20:17-33, 1977.Crossref 35. Gross HA, Dunher DL, Lafleur D, et al: Prostaglandins. A review of neurophysiology and psychiatric implications . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:1189-1196, 1977.Crossref 36. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders , ed 3, 1977. 37. Mills DCB, MacFarlane DE: Stimulation of human platelet adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin D2 . Thrombosis Res 5:401-412, 1974.Crossref 38. Gnegy ME, Uzunov P, Costa E: Regulation of dopamine stimulation of striatal adenylate cyclase by an endogenous Ca -binding protein . Proc Nail Acad Sci USA 73:3887-3890, 1976.Crossref 39. Kafka MS, Tallman JF, Smith CC: Alpha-adrenergic receptors on human platelets . Life Sci 21:1429-1438, 1977.Crossref 40. Lee T-P, Busse WW, Reed CE: Effect of beta adrenergic agonists, prostaglandins, and cortisol on lymphocyte levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and glycogen . J Allergy Clin Immunol 59:408-413, 1977.Crossref 41. Horrobin DF: Lithium as a regulator of prostaglandin synthesis: Relevance to manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenia and to the mechanism of opiate action. Read before the International Lithium Conference. New York, June 8, 1978. 42. Vane JR: Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs . Nature New Biol 231:232, 1971.Crossref 43. Meltzer HY, Goode DJ, Fang VS: The effect of psychotropic drugs on endocrine function : I. Neuroleptics, precursors, and agonists, in Lipton MA, DiMascio A, Killam KF (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress . New York, Raven Press, 1978. 44. Healy DL, Burger HG: Sustained elevation of serum prolactin by metoclopramide: A clinical model of idiopathic hyperprolactinemia . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46:709-714, 1978.Crossref 45. Collier HOJ, Roy AC: Morphine-like drugs inhibit the stimulation by E prostaglandins of cAMP formation by rat brain homogenate . Nature 248:24-27, 1974.Crossref 46. Goldstein A, Cox BM, Klee WA, et al: Endorphin from pituitary inhibits cyclic AMP formation in homogenates of neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells . Nature 265:362-363, 1977.Crossref 47. Kafka MS, Van Kammen DP: Reduced cAMP production in schizophrenia. Read before the 131st annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. Atlanta, May 1978. 48. Feldberg W: Possible association of schizophrenia with a disturbance in prostaglandin metabolism: A physiological hypothesis . Psychol Med 6:359-369, 1976.Crossref 49. Horrobin DF: Schizophrenia as a prostaglandin deficiency disease . Lancet 1:936-937, 1977.Crossref 50. Horrobin DF, Ally AI, Karmali RA, et al: Prostaglandins and schizophrenia: Further discussion of the evidence . Psychol Med 8:43-48, 1978.Crossref 51. Pfeiffer CC: The schizophrenias '76 . Biol Psychiatry 11:773-775, 1976. 52. Pfeiffer CC: Copper excess and zinc deficiencies in the schizophrenias, abstract 726. Read before the Second World Congress of Biological Psychiatry. Barcelona, Spain, Aug 31, 1978. 53. Abdulla YH, Hamadah K: Effect of ADP on PGE, formation in blood platelets from patients with depression, mania and schizophrenia . Br J Psychiatry 127:591-595, 1975.Crossref 54. Abdulla YH, McFarlane E: Control of prostaglandin biosynthesis in rat brain homogenates by adenine nucleotides . Biochem Pharmacol 21:2841-2847, 1972.Crossref 55. Vincent JE, Melai A, IL: Comparison of the effects of prostaglandin E, on platelet aggregation in normal and essential fatty acid deficient rats . Prostaglandins 5:369-373, 1974.Crossref 56. Horton EW: Prostaglandins at adrenergic nerve endings . Br Med Bull 29:148-151, 1973. 57. Bergstrüm S, Farnebo L, Fuxe K: Effect of prostaglandin E2 on central and peripheral catecholamine neurons . Eur J Pharmacol 21:362-368, 1973.Crossref 58. Hedqvist P: Autonomic Neurotransmission , in Ramwell PW (ed): The Prostaglandins . New York, Plenum Press, 1973, vol 1, pp 101-132. 59. Zioudrou C, Streaty RA, Klee WA: Opioid peptides derived from food proteins: The exorphins . J Biol Chem 254:2446-2449, 1979. 60. Dohan FC: Cereals and schizophrenia: Data and hypothesis . Acta Psychiatr Scand 42:125-152, 1966.Crossref 61. Singh MM, Kay SR: Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia . Science 191:401-402, 1976.Crossref 62. Ito H, Momose G, Katayama T, et al: Effect of prostaglandin on the secretion of human growth hormone . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32:857-859, 1971.Crossref 63. Cooper RH, McPherson M, Schofield JG: The effect of prostaglandins on ox pituitary content of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and the release of growth hormone . Biochem J 127:143-154, 1972. 64. Bloss JL, Singer GH: Neuropharmacological and behavioral evaluation of PGE2 and 11-thiol-11-desoxy PGE in the mouse and rat . Psychopharmacology 57:295-302, 1978.Crossref 65. Chouinard G, Annable L, Horrobin DF: An antipsychotic action of penicillin on schizophrenia . IRCS Med Sc 6:187, 1978. 66. Vaddadi KS: Penicillin and evening primrose oil in schizophrenia . Prostaglandins Med 2:77-80, 1979.Crossref 67. Kafka M, et al, in discussion: Pre- and postsynaptic receptors: Clinical and basic aspects. Read before the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Dec 14, 1979.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1980

References

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