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Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation: In Respiratory Failure

Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation: In Respiratory Failure Abstract INITIALLY machanical assistance, and presently full control of respiration, has been accepted as fundamental in the therapy of respiratory failure. The primary requirement is a patent airway of adequate size. An oral or nasal pharyngeal airway and mouth to mouth resuscitation may be adequate for short-term assistance, but this is esthetically displeasing and on occasion may result in transmission of infection. The recent case report of cutaneous tuberculosis of the nasolabial fold, secondary to mouth to mouth resuscitation in the Bellevue Hospital emergency room, attests to this.1 The use of any of the resuscitator bags or a mechanical respirator is certainly preferable if available. These bags are nominal in cost and should be available on all wards, intensive care units, and emergency rooms. Prior to using a pharyngeal airway, the oral pharynx should be cleared of any foreign material, ie, vomitus, the head extended, and the jaw-tongue assembly pulled References 1. Heilman, K.M., and Muschenheim, C.: Primary Cutaneous Tuberculosis Resulting From Mouth to Mouth Respiration , New Eng J Med 273:1035-1036 ( (Nov) ) 1965.Crossref 2. Allen, T.H., and Steven, I.M.: Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation in Infants and Children , Brit J Anaesth 37:566-573 ( (Aug) ) 1965.Crossref 3. Vesalius, quoted by Gillespie, N.A.: Endotracheal Anesthesia , ed 2, Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1950, p 6. 4. Hooke, quoted by Gillespie, N.A.: Endotracheal Anesthesia , ed 2, Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1950, pp 6-7. 5. MacEwen, W.: Clinical Observations on the Introduction of Tracheal Tubes by the Mouth Instead of Performing Tracheotomy or Laryngotomy , Brit Med J 2:122-124 ( (July 24) )Crossref 6. 163-165 (July 31) 1880. 7. O'Dwyer, J.: Fifty Cases of Croup in Private Practice Treated by Intubation of the Larynx With a Description of the Method and of the Dangers Incident Thereto , Med Record 32:557-561 ( (Oct) ) 1887. 8. Gillespie, N.A.: Prolonged Use of an Endotracheal Tube: Report of a Case , Anesthesiology 3:217-218 ( (March) ) 1942.Crossref 9. Foregger, R.: Use of Endotracheal Tube in Therapy of Post-Traumatic Pulmonary Secretions , Anesthesiology 7:285-290 ( (May) ) 1946.Crossref 10. Briggs, B.D.: Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation , Anesthesiology 11:129-131 ( (Jan) ) 1950.Crossref 11. Urry, A.G.: The Prolonged Use of Endotracheal Tubes: Case Reports , Anesthesiology 12:662-664 ( (Sept) ) 1951.Crossref 12. Sykes, M.K.: Prolonged Intubation in Neonatal Tetanus , Anesthesia 15:394-400 ( (Oct) ) 1960.Crossref 13. Bush, G.H.: Tracheobronchial Suction in Infants and Children , Brit J Anaesth 35:322-326 ( (May) ) 1963.Crossref 14. Brandstatter, B.: " Prolonged Intubation: An Alternative to Tracheostomy in Infants " in Proceedings of European Congress of Anaesthesiology , New York: Springer Co., 1962, pp 106-114. 15. Bates, D.V., et al: Management of Respiratory Failure , Ann NY Acad Sci 121:781-786 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 16. Gaensler, E.A., in discussion, Smith, C., et al: Ann NY Acad Sci 121:787-794 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 17. Dammann, J.F., Jr.: Indications for Tracheostomy , Ann NY Acad Sci 121:849-860 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 18. McDonald, I.H., and Stocks, J.G.: Prolonged Nasotracheal Intubation: A Review of its Development in a Pediatric Hospital , Brit J Anaesth 37:161-173 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 19. Jordan, J.E., and Mohnac, A.M.: Translaryngeal or Transcricothyroid Membrane Anesthesia for Problems of Intubation and Induction , J Oral Surg 21:209-214 ( (May) ) 1963. 20. Lund, L.O., and Daos, F.G.: Effects of Postoperative Sore Throats of Two Analgesic Agents and Lubricants Used With Endotracheal Tubes , Anesthesiology 26:681-683 ( (Sept-Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 21. Mead, J., and Collier, C.: Relation of Volume History of Lungs to Respiratory Mechanics in Anesthetized Dogs , J Appl Physiol 14:669-678 ( (Sept) ) 1959. 22. Ferris, B.G., Jr., and Pollard, D.S.: Effect of Deep and Quiet Breathing on Pulmonary Compliance in Man , J Clin Invest 39:143-149 ( (Jan) ) 1960.Crossref 23. Reinarz, J.A., et al: The Potential Role of Inhalation Therapy Equipment in Nosocomial Pulmonary Infection , J Clin Invest 44:831-839 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 24. Meade, J.W.: Tracheotomy—Its Complications and Their Management: A Study of 212 Cases , New Eng J Med 265:519-523 ( (Sept) ) 1961.Crossref 25. Striker, T.W.; Stool, S.; and Downes, J.J.: Prolonged Nasotracheal Intubation in Infants and Children , Arch Otolaryng 85:210-213 ( (Feb) ) 1967.Crossref 26. Endotracheal Intubation or Tracheostomy, editorial , Lancet 1:258-259 ( (Feb 4) ) 1967. 27. Aberdeen, E., and Glover, W.J.: Endotracheal Intubation or Tracheostomy , Lancet 1:436-437 ( (Feb 25) ) 1967.Crossref 28. Atherstone, R.W.G., and Ryder, G.H.: Endotracheal Intubation or Tracheostomy , Lancet 1:437 ( (Feb 25) ) 1967. 29. Gillespie, N.A.: Endotracheal Anesthesia , ed 2, Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1950, p 56. 30. Magill, I.W.: The Progress of Anaesthesia , Practitioner 40:428-440 ( (April) ) 1933. 31. Lundy, J.S., Tuohy, E.B.; and Adams, R.C.: Annual Report for 1936 of the Section on Anesthesia: Including Data on Blood Transfusion , Mayo Clin Proc 12:225-238 ( (April) ) 1937. 32. Jackson, R.R., and Rokowski, E.: An Endotracheal Tube With a Cellophane Cuff , JAMA 199: 166-167 ( (March) ) 1967.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation: In Respiratory Failure

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 120 (6) – Dec 1, 1967

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1967 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1967.00300050035006
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Abstract

Abstract INITIALLY machanical assistance, and presently full control of respiration, has been accepted as fundamental in the therapy of respiratory failure. The primary requirement is a patent airway of adequate size. An oral or nasal pharyngeal airway and mouth to mouth resuscitation may be adequate for short-term assistance, but this is esthetically displeasing and on occasion may result in transmission of infection. The recent case report of cutaneous tuberculosis of the nasolabial fold, secondary to mouth to mouth resuscitation in the Bellevue Hospital emergency room, attests to this.1 The use of any of the resuscitator bags or a mechanical respirator is certainly preferable if available. These bags are nominal in cost and should be available on all wards, intensive care units, and emergency rooms. Prior to using a pharyngeal airway, the oral pharynx should be cleared of any foreign material, ie, vomitus, the head extended, and the jaw-tongue assembly pulled References 1. Heilman, K.M., and Muschenheim, C.: Primary Cutaneous Tuberculosis Resulting From Mouth to Mouth Respiration , New Eng J Med 273:1035-1036 ( (Nov) ) 1965.Crossref 2. Allen, T.H., and Steven, I.M.: Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation in Infants and Children , Brit J Anaesth 37:566-573 ( (Aug) ) 1965.Crossref 3. Vesalius, quoted by Gillespie, N.A.: Endotracheal Anesthesia , ed 2, Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1950, p 6. 4. Hooke, quoted by Gillespie, N.A.: Endotracheal Anesthesia , ed 2, Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1950, pp 6-7. 5. MacEwen, W.: Clinical Observations on the Introduction of Tracheal Tubes by the Mouth Instead of Performing Tracheotomy or Laryngotomy , Brit Med J 2:122-124 ( (July 24) )Crossref 6. 163-165 (July 31) 1880. 7. O'Dwyer, J.: Fifty Cases of Croup in Private Practice Treated by Intubation of the Larynx With a Description of the Method and of the Dangers Incident Thereto , Med Record 32:557-561 ( (Oct) ) 1887. 8. Gillespie, N.A.: Prolonged Use of an Endotracheal Tube: Report of a Case , Anesthesiology 3:217-218 ( (March) ) 1942.Crossref 9. Foregger, R.: Use of Endotracheal Tube in Therapy of Post-Traumatic Pulmonary Secretions , Anesthesiology 7:285-290 ( (May) ) 1946.Crossref 10. Briggs, B.D.: Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation , Anesthesiology 11:129-131 ( (Jan) ) 1950.Crossref 11. Urry, A.G.: The Prolonged Use of Endotracheal Tubes: Case Reports , Anesthesiology 12:662-664 ( (Sept) ) 1951.Crossref 12. Sykes, M.K.: Prolonged Intubation in Neonatal Tetanus , Anesthesia 15:394-400 ( (Oct) ) 1960.Crossref 13. Bush, G.H.: Tracheobronchial Suction in Infants and Children , Brit J Anaesth 35:322-326 ( (May) ) 1963.Crossref 14. Brandstatter, B.: " Prolonged Intubation: An Alternative to Tracheostomy in Infants " in Proceedings of European Congress of Anaesthesiology , New York: Springer Co., 1962, pp 106-114. 15. Bates, D.V., et al: Management of Respiratory Failure , Ann NY Acad Sci 121:781-786 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 16. Gaensler, E.A., in discussion, Smith, C., et al: Ann NY Acad Sci 121:787-794 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 17. Dammann, J.F., Jr.: Indications for Tracheostomy , Ann NY Acad Sci 121:849-860 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 18. McDonald, I.H., and Stocks, J.G.: Prolonged Nasotracheal Intubation: A Review of its Development in a Pediatric Hospital , Brit J Anaesth 37:161-173 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 19. Jordan, J.E., and Mohnac, A.M.: Translaryngeal or Transcricothyroid Membrane Anesthesia for Problems of Intubation and Induction , J Oral Surg 21:209-214 ( (May) ) 1963. 20. Lund, L.O., and Daos, F.G.: Effects of Postoperative Sore Throats of Two Analgesic Agents and Lubricants Used With Endotracheal Tubes , Anesthesiology 26:681-683 ( (Sept-Oct) ) 1965.Crossref 21. Mead, J., and Collier, C.: Relation of Volume History of Lungs to Respiratory Mechanics in Anesthetized Dogs , J Appl Physiol 14:669-678 ( (Sept) ) 1959. 22. Ferris, B.G., Jr., and Pollard, D.S.: Effect of Deep and Quiet Breathing on Pulmonary Compliance in Man , J Clin Invest 39:143-149 ( (Jan) ) 1960.Crossref 23. Reinarz, J.A., et al: The Potential Role of Inhalation Therapy Equipment in Nosocomial Pulmonary Infection , J Clin Invest 44:831-839 ( (March) ) 1965.Crossref 24. Meade, J.W.: Tracheotomy—Its Complications and Their Management: A Study of 212 Cases , New Eng J Med 265:519-523 ( (Sept) ) 1961.Crossref 25. Striker, T.W.; Stool, S.; and Downes, J.J.: Prolonged Nasotracheal Intubation in Infants and Children , Arch Otolaryng 85:210-213 ( (Feb) ) 1967.Crossref 26. Endotracheal Intubation or Tracheostomy, editorial , Lancet 1:258-259 ( (Feb 4) ) 1967. 27. Aberdeen, E., and Glover, W.J.: Endotracheal Intubation or Tracheostomy , Lancet 1:436-437 ( (Feb 25) ) 1967.Crossref 28. Atherstone, R.W.G., and Ryder, G.H.: Endotracheal Intubation or Tracheostomy , Lancet 1:437 ( (Feb 25) ) 1967. 29. Gillespie, N.A.: Endotracheal Anesthesia , ed 2, Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1950, p 56. 30. Magill, I.W.: The Progress of Anaesthesia , Practitioner 40:428-440 ( (April) ) 1933. 31. Lundy, J.S., Tuohy, E.B.; and Adams, R.C.: Annual Report for 1936 of the Section on Anesthesia: Including Data on Blood Transfusion , Mayo Clin Proc 12:225-238 ( (April) ) 1937. 32. Jackson, R.R., and Rokowski, E.: An Endotracheal Tube With a Cellophane Cuff , JAMA 199: 166-167 ( (March) ) 1967.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1967

References