Abstract Recently described in vitro tests of bacteria1 have been shown to give results parallel with certain pathogenic properties of the cultures and with other biologic findings.10 Although cultures reacting positively to these tests are probably pathogenic,10 for clarity they will be referred to as "in vitro positive" rather than "probable pathogenic." The development of these tests has made possible the study of the relation of large numbers of staphylococci and streptococci associated with chronic, and sometimes with acute, illnesses. In the investigation to be discussed the methods were used in the study of the distribution of probable pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci in patients with low grade chronic illness. Observations on the distribution of the sedimentation rates and nonfilament-filament ratios of 292 of these patients have been reported.2 MATERIAL Of the 395 patients studied, most of them showed more than one disease, 96.3 per cent had clinical evidence of involvement of References 1. Chapman, G. H.; Berens, C.; Peters, A., and Curcio, L.: Coagulase and Hemolysin Tests as Measures of the Pathogenicity of Staphylococci , J. Bact. 28:343-363, 1934. 2. Chapman, G. H., and Berens, C.: Crystal Violet Agar as a Differential Medium for Staphylococci , J. Bact. 29:437-448, 1935. 3. Chapman, G. H.: Specificity of the Dye in the Crystal-Violet-Agar Reaction of Staphylococci , J. Bact. 32:199-205, 1936. 4. Chapman, G. H.; Lieb, C. W.; Berens, C., and Curcio, L.: The Isolation of Probable Pathogenic Staphylococci , J. Bact. 33:533-543, 1937. 5. Chapman, G. H.; Lieb, C. W., and Curcio, L.: The Use of Bromthymol Blue Agar and Phenol Red Mannitol Agar for the Isolation of Pathogenic Types of Staphylococci , Am. J. Clin. Path. 8:3-11, 1938. 6. Chapman, G. H.; Berens, C.; Nilson, E. L., and Curcio, L. G.: The Differentiation of Pathogenic Staphylococci from Non-Pathogenic Types , J. Bact. 35:311-334, 1938. 7. Rawls, W. B., and Chapman, G. H.: Experimental Arthritis in Rabbits , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 21:49-64, 1935. 8. Chapman, G. H., and Rawls, W. B.: Studies of Streptococci: I. Qualitative Differences in Resistance to Various Agents , J. Bact. 31:323-331, 1936. 9. Chapman, G. H., and Curcio, L.: Studies of Streptococci: II. Quantitative Differences in Resistance to Sodium Bicarbonate and Hexylresorcinol , J. Bact. 31:333-337, 1936. 10. Chapman, G. H.; Berens, C., and Nilson, E. L.: Studies of Streptococci: III. Preliminary Attempts to Correlate Resistance to Chemicals, etc., with Pathogenic Effects , J. Bact. 31:339-346, 1936. 11. Chapman, G. H.: Studies of Streptococci: IV. Resistance of Enterococci , J. Bact. 32:41-46, 1936. 12. Chapman, G. H.; Stiles, M. H., and Berens, C.: The Isolation and in Vitro Testing of Pathogenic Types of Non-Exotoxic Streptococci , Am. J. Clin. Path. 9:20-27, 1939. 13. Stiles, M. H., and Chapman, G. H.: Relationship Between Agglutinability and Certain in Vitro Tests of Staphylococci, Streptococci and Colon Bacilli Isolated from Persons Suspected of Having Chronic Infection , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 24:620-623, 1939. 14. Chapman, G. H., and Berens, C.: Comparison of Intradermal Tests with Agglutinability and Certain in Vitro Tests of Streptococci, Staphylococci, Micrococcus Catarrhalis and Colin Bacilli Isolated from Persons Suspected of Having Chronic Infection , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 24:601-604, 1939. 15. Chapman, G. H.; Berens, C.; Lieb, C. W.; Rawls, W. B., and Stiles, M. H.: Examination of Cultures from Persons Suspected of Having Chronic Infection , Am. J. Clin. Path. 9:491-503, 1939. 16. Stiles, M. H.: Sedimentation Rate and Nonfilament-Filament Ratio in Low-Grade Chronic Illness , Arch. Int. Med. 63:664-678 ( (April) ) 1939. 17. Burbank, R.: Etiology and Treatment of Chronic Arthritis , J. A. M. A. 99:1489-1494 ( (Oct. 29) ) 1932. 18. Chase, W. D.: Etiology and Diagnosis of Sinusitis , Pennsylvania M. J. 39:389-395, 1936. 19. Hench, P. S.; Bauer, W.; Fletcher, A. A.; Ghrist, D.; Hall, F., and White, P.: The Present Status of the Problem of "Rheumatism," Ann. Int. Med. 8:1495-1555, 1935. 20. Chapman, Berens, Peters and Curcio.1a 21. Chapman, Lieb, Berens and Curcio.1d 22. Chapman, Berens, Nilson and Curcio.1f 23. Rawls and Chapman.1g 24. Chapman and Rawls.1h 25. Stiles and Chapman.1m 26. Chapman and Rawls.1h 27. Chapman and Curcio.1i 28. Chapman, Berens and Nilson. 1j 29. Chapman, Stiles and Berens.1l 30. Chapman and Berens.1n 31. Chapman.1k 32. Chapman, Stiles and Berens.11 33. Baker, B. M.; Thomas, C. B., and Penick, R. M., Jr.: Experimental Carditis: Changes in the Myocardium and Pericardium of Rabbits Sensitized to Streptococci , J. Clin. Investigation 14:465-473, 1935. 34. Rackemann, F. M.: Allergy: A Review of Current Literature , Arch. Int. Med. 55:141-167 ( (Jan.) ) 1935.Crossref 35. Hitchcock, C. H.: Tissue Reactivity to Streptococci and Its Bearing upon the Problem of Arthritis , New York State J. Med. 34:1022-1027, 1934. 36. Hench, P. S.; Bauer, W.; Ghrist, D.; Hall, F.; Holbrook, W. P.; Key, J. A., and Slocumb, C. H.: The Present Status of Rheumatism and Arthritis , Ann. Int. Med. 11:1089-1247, 1938.Crossref 37. Allergic Tissue Cultures , editorial, J. A. M. A. 108:2044-2045 ( (June 12) ) 1937. 38. Hallman, J. A.: Pathogenic Staphylococci in the Anterior Nares: Their Incidence and Differentiation , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 36:789-794, 1937. 39. McFarlan, A. M.: Incidence of Pathogenic Staphylococci in the Nose , Brit. M. J. 2:939-942, 1938.
Archives of Otolaryngology – American Medical Association
Published: Mar 1, 1940
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