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Primary Irritant Patch-Test Reactions in Children

Primary Irritant Patch-Test Reactions in Children Abstract Nickel sulphate and formaldehyde in dilutions nonirritant to the adult person, give a high percentage of primary irritant reactions in children. The intradermal test is negative. The percentage of reactions declines with increasing age, disappearing in the seventh-eighth year. The reactions are follicular and/ or eczematous and are often accepted as positive allergic reactions. They may be repeated at brief intervals but not at longer intervals. Reactions to nickel sulphate and formaldehyde show several numerical differences, possibly due to the different chemical properties of the test substances. The findings indicate an epithelial barrier factor varying in the age group 0-8 years. A related phenomenon is known from the results of tuberculin testing. Patch tests on children require dilutions of allergens weaker than those used for adults, e.g., nickel sulphate 1%, formaldehyde less than 1%. References 1. Baer, R. L., and Witten V. H., Editors, Year Book of Dermatology and Syphilology 1957-1958 , Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, pp. 29-46. 2. Baer, R. L.; Rosenthal, S. A., and Sims, C. F.: The Allergic Eczema-Like Reaction and the Primary Irritant Reaction , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 76: 549-557, 1957.Crossref 3. Becker, S. W., and O'Brien, M. P.: Value of Patch-Test in Dermatology: Special Study of Follicular Reaction , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 79:569-577, 1959.Crossref 4. Bonnevie, P.: Ätiologie und Pathogenese der Hautkrankheiten , Kopenhagen, Busck, 1939. 5. Epstein, S.: Role of Dermal Nonatopic Sensitivity (Tuberculin-Type Sensitivity) in Contact Dermatitis , Ann. Allergy 4:438-439, 1946. 6. Epstein, S.: Contact Dermatitis Due to Nickel and Chromate: Observation on Dermal Delayed (Tuberculin-Type Sensitivity) , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 73:236-255, 1956.Crossref 7. Epstein, S.: In discussion on Fisher et al.8 8. Fisher, A. A.; Chargin, L.; Fleischmajer, R., and Hyman, A.: Pustular Patch Test Reactions , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 80:742-749, 1959.Crossref 9. Gundobin, N. P.: Grundlegende Tatsachen in Erkentnis der Kinderkrankheiten , Allg. Med. Verl. Anstalt (Berl.) , 1921. 10. Hill, L. W., and Sulzberger, M. B.: Evaluation of Atopic Dermatitis , Arch. Derm. Syph. 32: 451-463, 1935.Crossref 11. Kogoj, F.: Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Dermatology, London, 1952 , p. 117-118. 12. Marcussen, P. V.: Specificity of Patch Test with 5% Nickel Sulphate , Acta Dermatovener. (Stockh.) 39:187-195, 1959. 13. Marcussen, P. V.: Dermatitis Caused by Formaldehyde Resins in Textiles , Dermatologica 125:101-111, 1962.Crossref 14. Rostenberg, A., Jr.: Concepts of Allergic Sensitizations , Industr. Med. Surg. 23:1-8, 1954. 15. Rostenberg, A., Jr.: Primary Irritant and Allergic Eczematous Reactions , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 75:547-558, 1957.Crossref 16. Samsøe-Jensen, T., and Kristensen, K. H.: On the Ability of the Skin of Infants and Young Children to Fix Sensitizing Antibodies , Acta Allerg. (Kbh.) 11:28-36, 1957.Crossref 17. Spier, H. W., and Sixt, I.: Untersuchungen über die Abhängigkeit des Ausfalles der Ekzem-Läppchenproben von der Hornschichtdicke , Hautarzt 6:152-159, 1955. 18. Straus, H. W.: Artificial Sensitization of Infants to Poison Ivy , J. Allergy 2:137-146, 1931.Crossref 19. Sulzberger, M. B., and Baer, R. L.: Whealing Capacity of the Skin of New-Born or Young Infants , Arch. Derm. Syph. 41:1029-1036, 1940.Crossref 20. Sulzberger, M. B., and Goodman, J.: The Relative Importance of Specific Skin Hypersensitivity in Adult Atopic Dermatitis , J.A.M.A. 106: 1000-1003, 1936.Crossref 21. Tausch, M.: Die anatomischen Eigentümlichkeiten der neugeborenen Haut , Arch. Gynaek. 164:376-384, 1937.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Primary Irritant Patch-Test Reactions in Children

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 87 (3) – Mar 1, 1963

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1963 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1963.01590150094017
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Nickel sulphate and formaldehyde in dilutions nonirritant to the adult person, give a high percentage of primary irritant reactions in children. The intradermal test is negative. The percentage of reactions declines with increasing age, disappearing in the seventh-eighth year. The reactions are follicular and/ or eczematous and are often accepted as positive allergic reactions. They may be repeated at brief intervals but not at longer intervals. Reactions to nickel sulphate and formaldehyde show several numerical differences, possibly due to the different chemical properties of the test substances. The findings indicate an epithelial barrier factor varying in the age group 0-8 years. A related phenomenon is known from the results of tuberculin testing. Patch tests on children require dilutions of allergens weaker than those used for adults, e.g., nickel sulphate 1%, formaldehyde less than 1%. References 1. Baer, R. L., and Witten V. H., Editors, Year Book of Dermatology and Syphilology 1957-1958 , Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, pp. 29-46. 2. Baer, R. L.; Rosenthal, S. A., and Sims, C. F.: The Allergic Eczema-Like Reaction and the Primary Irritant Reaction , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 76: 549-557, 1957.Crossref 3. Becker, S. W., and O'Brien, M. P.: Value of Patch-Test in Dermatology: Special Study of Follicular Reaction , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 79:569-577, 1959.Crossref 4. Bonnevie, P.: Ätiologie und Pathogenese der Hautkrankheiten , Kopenhagen, Busck, 1939. 5. Epstein, S.: Role of Dermal Nonatopic Sensitivity (Tuberculin-Type Sensitivity) in Contact Dermatitis , Ann. Allergy 4:438-439, 1946. 6. Epstein, S.: Contact Dermatitis Due to Nickel and Chromate: Observation on Dermal Delayed (Tuberculin-Type Sensitivity) , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 73:236-255, 1956.Crossref 7. Epstein, S.: In discussion on Fisher et al.8 8. Fisher, A. A.; Chargin, L.; Fleischmajer, R., and Hyman, A.: Pustular Patch Test Reactions , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 80:742-749, 1959.Crossref 9. Gundobin, N. P.: Grundlegende Tatsachen in Erkentnis der Kinderkrankheiten , Allg. Med. Verl. Anstalt (Berl.) , 1921. 10. Hill, L. W., and Sulzberger, M. B.: Evaluation of Atopic Dermatitis , Arch. Derm. Syph. 32: 451-463, 1935.Crossref 11. Kogoj, F.: Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Dermatology, London, 1952 , p. 117-118. 12. Marcussen, P. V.: Specificity of Patch Test with 5% Nickel Sulphate , Acta Dermatovener. (Stockh.) 39:187-195, 1959. 13. Marcussen, P. V.: Dermatitis Caused by Formaldehyde Resins in Textiles , Dermatologica 125:101-111, 1962.Crossref 14. Rostenberg, A., Jr.: Concepts of Allergic Sensitizations , Industr. Med. Surg. 23:1-8, 1954. 15. Rostenberg, A., Jr.: Primary Irritant and Allergic Eczematous Reactions , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 75:547-558, 1957.Crossref 16. Samsøe-Jensen, T., and Kristensen, K. H.: On the Ability of the Skin of Infants and Young Children to Fix Sensitizing Antibodies , Acta Allerg. (Kbh.) 11:28-36, 1957.Crossref 17. Spier, H. W., and Sixt, I.: Untersuchungen über die Abhängigkeit des Ausfalles der Ekzem-Läppchenproben von der Hornschichtdicke , Hautarzt 6:152-159, 1955. 18. Straus, H. W.: Artificial Sensitization of Infants to Poison Ivy , J. Allergy 2:137-146, 1931.Crossref 19. Sulzberger, M. B., and Baer, R. L.: Whealing Capacity of the Skin of New-Born or Young Infants , Arch. Derm. Syph. 41:1029-1036, 1940.Crossref 20. Sulzberger, M. B., and Goodman, J.: The Relative Importance of Specific Skin Hypersensitivity in Adult Atopic Dermatitis , J.A.M.A. 106: 1000-1003, 1936.Crossref 21. Tausch, M.: Die anatomischen Eigentümlichkeiten der neugeborenen Haut , Arch. Gynaek. 164:376-384, 1937.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1963

References