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Prenatal Loss of Father and Psychiatric Disorders

Prenatal Loss of Father and Psychiatric Disorders Abstract • To test the role of maternal stress during pregnancy in psychiatric and behavior disorders, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted, using the Finnish population register for persons born between 1925 and 1957. One hundred sixtyseven persons were detected whose fathers had died before their children's births; a control group comprised 168 persons whose fathers died during the first year of their children's lives. The number of diagnosed schizophrenics treated in psychiatric hospitals and the number of persons committing crimes were significantly higher in the index than in the control group. The incidence of alcoholism and personality disorders was relatively high in both groups. The index psychiatric cases had a low frequency of birth complications, whereas those of the control group were high. The results suggest that especially during months 3 to 5 and 9 to 10 of pregnancy, maternal stress may increase the risk of the child for psychiatric disorders, perhaps mediated through the inborn temperament of the child. References 1. Thomas A, Chess S: Temperament and Development . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1977. 2. Buss AH, Plomin R: A Temperament Theory of Personality Development . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1975. 3. Lillienfield A, Pasamanick B, Rogers M: The relationship between pregnancy experience and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood . Am J Public Health 45:637, 1955.Crossref 4. Pollin W, Stabenau J: Biological, psychological and historical differences in a series of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia , in Rosenthal D, Kety SS (eds): The Transmission of Schizophrenia . New York, Pergamon Press Inc, 1968. 5. Mednick S: Breakdown in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia: Possible predispositional perinatal factors . Ment Hyg 54:50-63, 1970. 6. Mednick S, Maura E, Schulsinger F, et al: Perinatal conditions and infant development in children with schizophrenic parents . Soc Biol 18( (suppl) ):S103-S113, 1971. 7. Pollack M, Woerner M: Pre- and post-natal complications and "childhood schizophrenia": A comparison of five controlled studies . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 7:235-242, 1966.Crossref 8. Woerner M, Pollack M, Klein D: Pregnancy and birth complications of schizophrenic patients: A comparison of schizophrenic and personality disorder patients with their siblings . Acta Psychiatr Scand 49:712-721, 1973.Crossref 9. Torrey EF, Hersh S, McCabe KD: Early childhood psychosis and bleeding during pregnancy: A prospective study of gravid women and their offspring . J Autism Child Schizo 5:287-297, 1975.Crossref 10. Cohler BJ, Gallant DH, Grunebaum HU, et al: Pregnancy and birth complications among mentally ill and well mothers and their children . Soc Biol 22:269-278, 1975. 11. Garmezy N: Children at risk: The search for the antecedents of schizophrenia: I. Conceptual models and research methods . Schizo Bull Issue 8:14-90, 1974.Crossref 12. Garmezy N: Children at risk: The search for the antecendents of schizophrenia: II. Ongoing research programs, issues, and intervention . Schizo Bull Issue 9:55-125, 1974.Crossref 13. Joffe JM: Prenatal Determinents of Behavior . London, Pergamon Press Ltd, 1969. 14. Dörner G, Staudt J: Vergelichende morphologische Untersuchungen der Hypothalamusdifferenzierung bei Ratte und Mensch . Endokrinologie 59:152-155, 1972. 15. Dörner G: Enivronment-dependent brain differentation and fundamental processes of life . Acta Biol Med Ger 33:129-148, 1974. 16. Huttunen MO: Persistent alteration of turnover of brain noradrenaline in the offspring of rats subjected to stress during pregnancy . Nature 230:53-55, 1971.Crossref 17. Holmes T, Rahe RH: The social readjustment rating scale . J Psychosom Res 11:213-218, 1967.Crossref 18. Munro A: Some psychiatric non-sequelae of childhood bereavement . Br J Psychiatry 115:305-311, 1969.Crossref 19. Trunell TL: The absent father's children's emotional disturbances . Arch Gen Psychiatry 19:180-188, 1968.Crossref 20. Ravelli GP, Stein ZA, Susser MW: Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy . N Engl J Med 295:349-353, 1976.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Prenatal Loss of Father and Psychiatric Disorders

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1978 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770280039004
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • To test the role of maternal stress during pregnancy in psychiatric and behavior disorders, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted, using the Finnish population register for persons born between 1925 and 1957. One hundred sixtyseven persons were detected whose fathers had died before their children's births; a control group comprised 168 persons whose fathers died during the first year of their children's lives. The number of diagnosed schizophrenics treated in psychiatric hospitals and the number of persons committing crimes were significantly higher in the index than in the control group. The incidence of alcoholism and personality disorders was relatively high in both groups. The index psychiatric cases had a low frequency of birth complications, whereas those of the control group were high. The results suggest that especially during months 3 to 5 and 9 to 10 of pregnancy, maternal stress may increase the risk of the child for psychiatric disorders, perhaps mediated through the inborn temperament of the child. References 1. Thomas A, Chess S: Temperament and Development . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1977. 2. Buss AH, Plomin R: A Temperament Theory of Personality Development . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1975. 3. Lillienfield A, Pasamanick B, Rogers M: The relationship between pregnancy experience and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood . Am J Public Health 45:637, 1955.Crossref 4. Pollin W, Stabenau J: Biological, psychological and historical differences in a series of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia , in Rosenthal D, Kety SS (eds): The Transmission of Schizophrenia . New York, Pergamon Press Inc, 1968. 5. Mednick S: Breakdown in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia: Possible predispositional perinatal factors . Ment Hyg 54:50-63, 1970. 6. Mednick S, Maura E, Schulsinger F, et al: Perinatal conditions and infant development in children with schizophrenic parents . Soc Biol 18( (suppl) ):S103-S113, 1971. 7. Pollack M, Woerner M: Pre- and post-natal complications and "childhood schizophrenia": A comparison of five controlled studies . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 7:235-242, 1966.Crossref 8. Woerner M, Pollack M, Klein D: Pregnancy and birth complications of schizophrenic patients: A comparison of schizophrenic and personality disorder patients with their siblings . Acta Psychiatr Scand 49:712-721, 1973.Crossref 9. Torrey EF, Hersh S, McCabe KD: Early childhood psychosis and bleeding during pregnancy: A prospective study of gravid women and their offspring . J Autism Child Schizo 5:287-297, 1975.Crossref 10. Cohler BJ, Gallant DH, Grunebaum HU, et al: Pregnancy and birth complications among mentally ill and well mothers and their children . Soc Biol 22:269-278, 1975. 11. Garmezy N: Children at risk: The search for the antecedents of schizophrenia: I. Conceptual models and research methods . Schizo Bull Issue 8:14-90, 1974.Crossref 12. Garmezy N: Children at risk: The search for the antecendents of schizophrenia: II. Ongoing research programs, issues, and intervention . Schizo Bull Issue 9:55-125, 1974.Crossref 13. Joffe JM: Prenatal Determinents of Behavior . London, Pergamon Press Ltd, 1969. 14. Dörner G, Staudt J: Vergelichende morphologische Untersuchungen der Hypothalamusdifferenzierung bei Ratte und Mensch . Endokrinologie 59:152-155, 1972. 15. Dörner G: Enivronment-dependent brain differentation and fundamental processes of life . Acta Biol Med Ger 33:129-148, 1974. 16. Huttunen MO: Persistent alteration of turnover of brain noradrenaline in the offspring of rats subjected to stress during pregnancy . Nature 230:53-55, 1971.Crossref 17. Holmes T, Rahe RH: The social readjustment rating scale . J Psychosom Res 11:213-218, 1967.Crossref 18. Munro A: Some psychiatric non-sequelae of childhood bereavement . Br J Psychiatry 115:305-311, 1969.Crossref 19. Trunell TL: The absent father's children's emotional disturbances . Arch Gen Psychiatry 19:180-188, 1968.Crossref 20. Ravelli GP, Stein ZA, Susser MW: Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy . N Engl J Med 295:349-353, 1976.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1978

References