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POSSIBLE ROLE OF PROPRIOCEPTION IN THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES

POSSIBLE ROLE OF PROPRIOCEPTION IN THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES Abstract THE FINDING by Daniel,1 confirmed by Cooper and Daniel2 and Sunderland,3 of muscle spindles in the extraocular muscles of the human eye, and also in the eyes of other animals with mobile eyes, raises the question of the possible function of these end-organs. It has been shown by Irvine and Ludvigh4 that the human eye appears to have little, if any, position sense. These authors concluded: The proprioceptive sense in the extra-ocular muscles has been tested for and found lacking by application of the usual criteria, namely: (1) histologic and anatomic evidence, (2) vibration sense, (3) myotatic reflexes and (4) position sense. For the possibility that ocular proprioceptive nerves not mediating position, operating at a low level, exist there is no physiologic evidence. The very existence of muscle spindles in the human eye completely invalidates the first line of evidence quoted above. Criteria 2, 3, and References 1. Daniel, P.: Spiral Nerve Endings in Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Man , J. Anat. 80:189, 1946. 2. Cooper, S., and Daniel, P.: Muscle Spindles in Human Extrinsic Eye Muscles , Brain 72:1, 1949.Crossref 3. Sunderland, S.: A Preliminary Note on the Presence of Neuromuscular Spindles in Extrinsic Ocular Muscles in Man , Anat. Rec. 103:561, 1949. 4. Irvine, S. R., and Ludvigh, E. J.: Is Ocular Proprioceptive Sense Concerned in Vision? Arch. Ophth. 15:1037, 1936.Crossref 5. Lyle, T. K.; Worth and Chavasse's Squint: The Binocular Reflexes and the Treatment of Strabismus , Philadelphia, Ed. 8, The Blakiston Company, 1950, p. 177. 6. If ordinary trial-case prisms or a back-surface mirror is used, the subject will employ the faint multiple reflections as clues to inform him of the position of the eyes. These clues may be used consciously and be reported, or they may be used without awareness of the fact, the observer not knowing the basis on which he is stating that his eyes have moved to the right or to the left. 7. Bartley, S. H.: Vision: A Study of Its Basis , New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1941, p. 186. 8. Ludvigh, E. J.: Extrafoveal Visual Acuity as Measured with Snellen Test-Letters , Am. J. Ophth. 24:303, 1941. 9. Ludvigh, E. J.; Amount of Eye Movement Objectively Perceptible to the Unaided Eye , Am. J. Ophth. 32:649, 1949. 10. Laidlaw, R. W., and Hamilton, M. A.: A Study of Thresholds in Apperception of Passive Movement Among Normal Control Subjects , Bull. Neurol. Inst. New York 6:268, 1937. 11. Gardner, E.: Physiology of Movable Joints , Physiol. Rev. 30:127 ( (April) ) 1950. 12. Sarnoff, S. J., and Arrowood, J. G.: Differential Spinal Block: III. The Block of Cutaneous and Stretch Reflexes in the Presence of Unimpaired Position Sense , J. Neurophysiol. 10:205, 1947. 13. McIntyre, A. K., and Lloyd, S. P. C.: Spinal Projection of Hindlimb Afferent Fibers , Federation Proc. 7:79, 1948. 14. Trimmer, J. D.: Response of Physical Systems , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950, p. 200. 15. Gellhorn, E.: Proprioception and the Motor Cortex , Brain 72:56, 1949.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

POSSIBLE ROLE OF PROPRIOCEPTION IN THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES

A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 48 (4) – Oct 1, 1952

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1952 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1952.00920010445007
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract THE FINDING by Daniel,1 confirmed by Cooper and Daniel2 and Sunderland,3 of muscle spindles in the extraocular muscles of the human eye, and also in the eyes of other animals with mobile eyes, raises the question of the possible function of these end-organs. It has been shown by Irvine and Ludvigh4 that the human eye appears to have little, if any, position sense. These authors concluded: The proprioceptive sense in the extra-ocular muscles has been tested for and found lacking by application of the usual criteria, namely: (1) histologic and anatomic evidence, (2) vibration sense, (3) myotatic reflexes and (4) position sense. For the possibility that ocular proprioceptive nerves not mediating position, operating at a low level, exist there is no physiologic evidence. The very existence of muscle spindles in the human eye completely invalidates the first line of evidence quoted above. Criteria 2, 3, and References 1. Daniel, P.: Spiral Nerve Endings in Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Man , J. Anat. 80:189, 1946. 2. Cooper, S., and Daniel, P.: Muscle Spindles in Human Extrinsic Eye Muscles , Brain 72:1, 1949.Crossref 3. Sunderland, S.: A Preliminary Note on the Presence of Neuromuscular Spindles in Extrinsic Ocular Muscles in Man , Anat. Rec. 103:561, 1949. 4. Irvine, S. R., and Ludvigh, E. J.: Is Ocular Proprioceptive Sense Concerned in Vision? Arch. Ophth. 15:1037, 1936.Crossref 5. Lyle, T. K.; Worth and Chavasse's Squint: The Binocular Reflexes and the Treatment of Strabismus , Philadelphia, Ed. 8, The Blakiston Company, 1950, p. 177. 6. If ordinary trial-case prisms or a back-surface mirror is used, the subject will employ the faint multiple reflections as clues to inform him of the position of the eyes. These clues may be used consciously and be reported, or they may be used without awareness of the fact, the observer not knowing the basis on which he is stating that his eyes have moved to the right or to the left. 7. Bartley, S. H.: Vision: A Study of Its Basis , New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1941, p. 186. 8. Ludvigh, E. J.: Extrafoveal Visual Acuity as Measured with Snellen Test-Letters , Am. J. Ophth. 24:303, 1941. 9. Ludvigh, E. J.; Amount of Eye Movement Objectively Perceptible to the Unaided Eye , Am. J. Ophth. 32:649, 1949. 10. Laidlaw, R. W., and Hamilton, M. A.: A Study of Thresholds in Apperception of Passive Movement Among Normal Control Subjects , Bull. Neurol. Inst. New York 6:268, 1937. 11. Gardner, E.: Physiology of Movable Joints , Physiol. Rev. 30:127 ( (April) ) 1950. 12. Sarnoff, S. J., and Arrowood, J. G.: Differential Spinal Block: III. The Block of Cutaneous and Stretch Reflexes in the Presence of Unimpaired Position Sense , J. Neurophysiol. 10:205, 1947. 13. McIntyre, A. K., and Lloyd, S. P. C.: Spinal Projection of Hindlimb Afferent Fibers , Federation Proc. 7:79, 1948. 14. Trimmer, J. D.: Response of Physical Systems , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950, p. 200. 15. Gellhorn, E.: Proprioception and the Motor Cortex , Brain 72:56, 1949.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1952

References