Abstract HISTORICALLY, the concepts of the placebo and the placebo effect have been quite broad; only in recent decades have they been narrowed to become virtually synonymous with the administration of inert medications. Especially in the last three decades many investigators have sought to define the conditions under which the placebo effect operates; and several have sought to define the personality characteristics of persons prone to show the placebo effect. In this paper, we shall state some hypotheses which derive from their findings, and report an experiment in which they are tested. For our experiment we shall use the historically broad definition of the placebo effect, stated by Shapiro to include the following: Any therapeutic procedure (or component of any therapeutic procedure) which is given (1) deliberately to have an effect or (2) unknowingly and has an effect on a symptom, syndrome, disease, References 1. Discomfort Scale given double weight because of its previous use and standardization. 2. Shapiro, A.: Etiological Factors in Placebo Effect , JAMA 68:712-714, 1964. 3. Dimond, E.G.; Kittle, C.F.; and Crockett, J.E.: Comparison of Internal Mammary Artery Ligation and Sham Operation for Angina Pectoris , Amer J Cardiol 5:483-486 ( (April) ) 1960.Crossref 4. Frank, J., et al: Immediate and Long-Term Symptomatic Course of Psychiatric Outpatients , Amer J Psychiat 120:429-439, 1963. 5. Beecher, H.K., et al: The Effectiveness of Oral Analgesics (Morphine, Codeine, Acetylsalicylic Acid) and the Problem of Placebo "Reactors" and "Nonreactors," J Pharmacol Exp Ther 109:393-400, 1953. 6. Gliedman, L.H., et al: Reduction Symptoms by Pharmacologically Inert Substances and by Short-Term Psychotherapy , Arch Neurol Psychiat 79:345-351, 1958.Crossref 7. Liberman, R.: An Experimental Study of the Placebo Response , J Psychiat Res 2:233-246, 1964.Crossref 8. Hastings, D.W.: Follow-Up Results in Psychiatric Illness , Amer J Psychiat 114:1057-1066, 1958. 9. Eysenck, H.J.: Behavior Therapy, Spontaneous Remission, and Transference in Neurotics , Amer J Psychiat 119:867-871, 1963. 10. Eysenck, H.J.: The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation , J Consult Psychiat 16:317-324, 1952. 11. Lasagna, L., et al: A Study of Placebo Response, Amer J Med 16:770-779, 1954.Crossref 12. Edwards, A.L.: Edwards Personal Reference Schedule , New York: The Psychological Corp., 1953. 13. Frank, J., et al: Symptom Checklist, mimeograph, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine , Baltimore, 1955.
Archives of General Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Mar 1, 1967
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