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Placebo-Controlled Study of Reserpine in Maladjusted Retarded Children

Placebo-Controlled Study of Reserpine in Maladjusted Retarded Children Abstract It was the purpose of this study to determine if a tranquilizing drug * would be effective with a group of high-grade retarded children manifesting various behaviors that are generally reflective of personal and social maladjustment. Although early reports have been highly enthusiastic in their appraisals of the tranquilizing agents, many of the impressive results published now seem somewhat spurious in light of careful analyses that reveal poor experimental designs, contaminated ratings, and overgeneralizations not completely warranted by the data obtained. The use of control groups was deemed of utmost importance in this study, since it was believed that the drug could not be properly evaluated without a placebo control group. Method Subjects.—Cottage personnel and teachers at the Wayne County Training School † submitted names of children with more difficult behavioral problems between the ages of 7 and 15. Of the 135 names submitted, 30 were chosen who seemed to References 1. Bonafede, V. I.: Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Treatment of Disturbed Epileptic Patients: Preliminary Report , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:158, 1955. 2. Callahan, R. J.: Unrealistic Fears as a Measure of Anxiety in a Group of 6th Grade Children, Ph.D. dissertations, Syracuse University, 1955. 3. Castaneda, A.; McCandless, B., and Palermo, D.: The Children's Form of the Manifest Anxiety Scale , Child Development 27:317-326, 1956. 4. Gardner, E. F., and Thompson, G. G.: Social Relations and Morale in Small Groups , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1956. 5. Hall, R. A., and Dunlap, D. J.: A Study of Chlorpromazine: Methodology and Results with Chronic Semi-Disturbed Schizophrenics , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 122:301-314, 1955. 6. Horenstein, S.: Reserpine and Chlorpromazine in Hyperactive Mental Defectives , Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 61:525-529, 1957. 7. Keller, J. E.: The Relationship of Auditory Memory Span to Learning Ability in High-Grade Mentally Retarded Boys , Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 61:574-580, 1957. 8. Kirk, D. L., and Bauer, A. M.: Effects of Reserpine (Serpasil) on Emotionally Maladjusted High-Grade Mental Retardates , Am. J. Ment. 9. Kovitz, B.; Carter, J. T., and Addison, W. P.: Deficiency 60:779-784, 1956. 10. A Comparison of Chlorpromazine and Reserpine in Chronic Psychosis , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:467-471, 1955. 11. Lindquist, E. F.: Design and Analysis of Experiments in Psychology and Education , New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1953. 12. Rettig, J. H.: Chlorpromazine for the Control of Psychomotor Excitement in the Mentally Deficient: A Preliminary Study , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 122:190-194, 1955. 13. Rosenthal, D., and Frank, J. D.: Psychotherapy and the Placebo Effect , Psychol. Bull. 53:294-302, 1956. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1958 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6916
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1958.02060060692006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract It was the purpose of this study to determine if a tranquilizing drug * would be effective with a group of high-grade retarded children manifesting various behaviors that are generally reflective of personal and social maladjustment. Although early reports have been highly enthusiastic in their appraisals of the tranquilizing agents, many of the impressive results published now seem somewhat spurious in light of careful analyses that reveal poor experimental designs, contaminated ratings, and overgeneralizations not completely warranted by the data obtained. The use of control groups was deemed of utmost importance in this study, since it was believed that the drug could not be properly evaluated without a placebo control group. Method Subjects.—Cottage personnel and teachers at the Wayne County Training School † submitted names of children with more difficult behavioral problems between the ages of 7 and 15. Of the 135 names submitted, 30 were chosen who seemed to References 1. Bonafede, V. I.: Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Treatment of Disturbed Epileptic Patients: Preliminary Report , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:158, 1955. 2. Callahan, R. J.: Unrealistic Fears as a Measure of Anxiety in a Group of 6th Grade Children, Ph.D. dissertations, Syracuse University, 1955. 3. Castaneda, A.; McCandless, B., and Palermo, D.: The Children's Form of the Manifest Anxiety Scale , Child Development 27:317-326, 1956. 4. Gardner, E. F., and Thompson, G. G.: Social Relations and Morale in Small Groups , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1956. 5. Hall, R. A., and Dunlap, D. J.: A Study of Chlorpromazine: Methodology and Results with Chronic Semi-Disturbed Schizophrenics , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 122:301-314, 1955. 6. Horenstein, S.: Reserpine and Chlorpromazine in Hyperactive Mental Defectives , Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 61:525-529, 1957. 7. Keller, J. E.: The Relationship of Auditory Memory Span to Learning Ability in High-Grade Mentally Retarded Boys , Am. J. Ment. Deficiency 61:574-580, 1957. 8. Kirk, D. L., and Bauer, A. M.: Effects of Reserpine (Serpasil) on Emotionally Maladjusted High-Grade Mental Retardates , Am. J. Ment. 9. Kovitz, B.; Carter, J. T., and Addison, W. P.: Deficiency 60:779-784, 1956. 10. A Comparison of Chlorpromazine and Reserpine in Chronic Psychosis , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:467-471, 1955. 11. Lindquist, E. F.: Design and Analysis of Experiments in Psychology and Education , New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1953. 12. Rettig, J. H.: Chlorpromazine for the Control of Psychomotor Excitement in the Mentally Deficient: A Preliminary Study , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 122:190-194, 1955. 13. Rosenthal, D., and Frank, J. D.: Psychotherapy and the Placebo Effect , Psychol. Bull. 53:294-302, 1956.

Journal

A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1958

References