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Physiological Predictors of Increasing Total and Central Adiposity in Aging Men and Women

Physiological Predictors of Increasing Total and Central Adiposity in Aging Men and Women Abstract Background: Increasing levels of total and central body fat with advancing age contribute to the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We examined gender-related differences and physiological predictors of the rate of increase in total and central body fat in men and women. Methods: We studied 427 healthy men (age range, 17 to 90 years) and 293 women (age range, 18 to 88 years). We measured body fatness by hydrostatic weighing, central adiposity from the waist circumference, peak volume of oxygen utilization (V̇O2) from a treadmill test, leisure time physical activity (LTA) from a questionnaire, resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient from indirect calorimetry, and energy intake from 3-day food diaries. Results: Fat mass increased with age, and the rate was greater in women (r=.61; slope=0.25 kg/y; P<.01) than in men (r=.43; slope=0.16 kg/y; P<.01). Increasing fat mass in men and women was most strongly associated with declines in peak V̇O2 and LTA. Controlling for these variables reduced the increase in fat mass from 17% to 3% per decade in men and from 26% to 5% per decade in women. The increase in waist circumference with age was also greater in women (r=.53; slope=0.28 cm/y) than in men (r=.39; slope=0.18 cm/y; P<.01). Increasing waist circumference with age in men and women was most strongly associated with declines in LTA and peak V̇O2, respectively. Control for these variables reduced the age-related increase in waist circumference from 2% to 1% per decade in men and from 4% to 1% per decade in women. We observed no independent contribution of resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, menopause status, energy, or macronutrient intake to the age-related increase in fat mass and waist circumference. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that (1) the age-related increase in fat mass and waist circumference is greater in women than in men and (2) the physiological characteristics that reflect a decline in physical activity—related energy expenditure, rather than resting energy expenditure, are important predictors of the increases in total and central fatness. Lifestyle changes that increase the level of physical activity may be advantageous in blunting age-related increases in total and central body fatness.(Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2443-2448) References 1. Borkan GA. Norris AH. Fat redistribution and the changing body dimensions of the adult male. Hum Biol . 1977;49:495-514. 2. Flynn MA. Nolph GB, Baker AS, Martin WM, Krause G. Total body potassium in aging humans: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr . 1989;50:713-717. 3. Fukagawa NK, Bandini LG, Young JB. Effect of age on body composition and resting metabolic rate. Am J Physiol . 1990;259:E233-E238. 4. Shimokata H, Tobin JD, Muller D, Elahi D, Coon PJ, Andres RA. Studies in the distribution of body fat, I: effects of age, sex and obesity. J Gerontol . 1989; 44:M66-M73.Crossref 5. Silver AJ, Guilles CP, Kahl MJ, Morley JE. Effect of aging on body fat. J Am Geriatr Soc . 1993;41:211-213. 6. Després JP, Moorjani S, Lupien PJ, Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Bouchard C. Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis . 1990;10:497-511.Crossref 7. Folsom AR, Kaye SA, Sellers TA, et al. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. JAMA . 1993:269:483-487.Crossref 8. Gardner AW, Poehlman ET. Leisure time physical activity is a significant predictor of body density in men. J Clin Epidemiol . 1994;47:283-291.Crossref 9. Gardner AW, Poehlman ET. Physical activity is a significant predictor of body density in women. Am J Clin Nutr . 1993;57:8-14. 10. Arciero PJ, Goran Ml, Poehlman ET. Resting metabolic rate is lower in women than in men. J Appl Physiol . 1994;75:2514-2520. 11. Ferraro R, Lillioja S, Fontevielle AM, Rising R, Bogardus C, Ravussin E. Lower sedentary metabolic rate in women compared to men. J Clin Invest . 1992;90:1-5.Crossref 12. Williamson DF, Kahn HS, Remington PL, Anda RF. The 10-year incidence of overweight and major weight gain in US adults. Arch Intern Med . 1990;150:665-672.Crossref 13. Poehlman ET, Goran Ml, Gardner AW, et al. Metabolic determinants of the decline in resting metabolic rate in aging females. Am J Physiol . 1993:267: E450-E455. 14. Poehlman ET, Berke EM, Joseph JR, Gardner AW, Katzman-Rooks SM, Goran Ml. Influence of aerobic capacity, body composition, and thyroid hormones on the age-related decline in resting metabolic rate. Metabolism . 1992;41:915-921.Crossref 15. Tucker LA, Kano MJ. Dietary fat and body fat: a multivariate study of 205 adult females. Am J Clin Nutr . 1992;56:616-622. 16. Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Ellsworth N, Williams PT, Terry RB, Wood PD. Dietary fat: carbohydrate ratio and obesity in middle aged men. Am J Clin Nutr . 1988:47:995-1000. 17. Seidell JC, DC Muller, Sorkin JD, Andres R. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio and resting metabolic rate as predictors of weight gain: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. Int J Obes . 1992;16:667-674. 18. Ravussin E, Lilloja S, Knowler WC, et al. Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body weight gain. N Engl J Med . 1988;318:467-472.Crossref 19. Zurlo FS, Lilloja A. Esposito-Del Puente BL, et al. Low ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation as predictor of weight gain: study of 24-h RQ. Am J Physiol . 1990;259:E650-E657. 20. Poehlman ET, McAuliffe T, Van Houten DR, Danforth E Jr. Influence of age and endurance training on metabolic rate and hormones in healthy men. Am J Physiol . 1990;259:E66-E72. 21. Siri WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. In: Brozek J, Henschel A, eds. Techniques for Measuring Body Composition . Washington, DC: National Academy of Science, National Dairy Council; 1961:223-244. 22. Taylor HL, Jacobs DR, Schucker B, Knudsen J, Leon AS, Debacker G. A questionnaire for the assessment of leisure time physical activities. J Chronic Dis . 1978;31:741-755.Crossref 23. Poehlman ET, Viers HF, Detzer M. Influence of physical activity and dietary restraint on resting energy expenditure in young nonobese females. Can J Physiol Pharmacol . 1991;69:320-326.Crossref 24. Toth MJ. Goran Ml, Ades PA, Howard DB, Poehlman ET. Examination of data normalization procedures for expressing peak VO2 data. J Appl Physiol . 1993; 75:2288-2292. 25. Novak LP. Aging, total body potassium, fat-free mass and cell mass in males and females between ages 18 and 85 years. J Gerontol . 1972;27:438-443.Crossref 26. Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thicknesses: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr . 1974;32:77-97.Crossref 27. Kohrt WM. Malley MT, Dalsky GP, Holloszy JO. Body composition of healthy sedentary and trained, young and older women. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1991; 24:832-837. 28. Goran Ml, Poehlman ET. Total energy expenditure and energy requirements in healthy elderly persons. Metabolism . 1992;41:744-753.Crossref 29. Heath FW, Hagberg JM, Ahsani AA, Holloszy JO. A physiological comparison of young and older endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol . 1981;51:634-650. 30. Kohrt WM, Obert KA, Holloszy JO. Exercise training improves fat distribution patterns in 60- to 70-year-old men and women. J Gerontol . 1992;47:M99-M105.Crossref 31. Pollock ML, Foster C, Knapp D, Rod JL, Schmidt DH. Effect of age and training status on aerobic capacity and body composition of master athletes. J Appl Physiol . 1987;62:725-731. 32. French SA, Jeffery RW, Forster JL, McGovern PG, Kelder SH, Baxter JE. Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: the healthy worker project. Int J Obes . 1994;18:145-154. 33. Pouliot MC, Després JP, Lemieux S, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric index of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol . 1994;73:460-468.Crossref 34. Troisi RJ, Heinold JW, Vokonas PS, Weiss ST. Cigarette smoking, dietary intake, and physical activity: effects on body fat distribution: the Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr . 1991;53:1104-1111. 35. Wing RR, Matthews KA, Kuller LH, Meilahn EN, Plantinga P. Waist to hip ratio in middle-aged women: associations with behavioral and psychological factors and with changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Arterioscler Thromb . 1991; 11:1250-1257.Crossref 36. Schwartz RS, Shuman WP, Larson V, et al. The effect of intensive endurance exercise training on body fat distribution in young and older men. Metabolism . 1991;40:545-551.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Physiological Predictors of Increasing Total and Central Adiposity in Aging Men and Women

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1995.00430220101011
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Abstract

Abstract Background: Increasing levels of total and central body fat with advancing age contribute to the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We examined gender-related differences and physiological predictors of the rate of increase in total and central body fat in men and women. Methods: We studied 427 healthy men (age range, 17 to 90 years) and 293 women (age range, 18 to 88 years). We measured body fatness by hydrostatic weighing, central adiposity from the waist circumference, peak volume of oxygen utilization (V̇O2) from a treadmill test, leisure time physical activity (LTA) from a questionnaire, resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient from indirect calorimetry, and energy intake from 3-day food diaries. Results: Fat mass increased with age, and the rate was greater in women (r=.61; slope=0.25 kg/y; P<.01) than in men (r=.43; slope=0.16 kg/y; P<.01). Increasing fat mass in men and women was most strongly associated with declines in peak V̇O2 and LTA. Controlling for these variables reduced the increase in fat mass from 17% to 3% per decade in men and from 26% to 5% per decade in women. The increase in waist circumference with age was also greater in women (r=.53; slope=0.28 cm/y) than in men (r=.39; slope=0.18 cm/y; P<.01). Increasing waist circumference with age in men and women was most strongly associated with declines in LTA and peak V̇O2, respectively. Control for these variables reduced the age-related increase in waist circumference from 2% to 1% per decade in men and from 4% to 1% per decade in women. We observed no independent contribution of resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, menopause status, energy, or macronutrient intake to the age-related increase in fat mass and waist circumference. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that (1) the age-related increase in fat mass and waist circumference is greater in women than in men and (2) the physiological characteristics that reflect a decline in physical activity—related energy expenditure, rather than resting energy expenditure, are important predictors of the increases in total and central fatness. Lifestyle changes that increase the level of physical activity may be advantageous in blunting age-related increases in total and central body fatness.(Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2443-2448) References 1. Borkan GA. Norris AH. Fat redistribution and the changing body dimensions of the adult male. Hum Biol . 1977;49:495-514. 2. Flynn MA. Nolph GB, Baker AS, Martin WM, Krause G. Total body potassium in aging humans: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr . 1989;50:713-717. 3. Fukagawa NK, Bandini LG, Young JB. Effect of age on body composition and resting metabolic rate. Am J Physiol . 1990;259:E233-E238. 4. Shimokata H, Tobin JD, Muller D, Elahi D, Coon PJ, Andres RA. Studies in the distribution of body fat, I: effects of age, sex and obesity. J Gerontol . 1989; 44:M66-M73.Crossref 5. Silver AJ, Guilles CP, Kahl MJ, Morley JE. Effect of aging on body fat. J Am Geriatr Soc . 1993;41:211-213. 6. Després JP, Moorjani S, Lupien PJ, Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Bouchard C. Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis . 1990;10:497-511.Crossref 7. Folsom AR, Kaye SA, Sellers TA, et al. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. JAMA . 1993:269:483-487.Crossref 8. Gardner AW, Poehlman ET. Leisure time physical activity is a significant predictor of body density in men. J Clin Epidemiol . 1994;47:283-291.Crossref 9. Gardner AW, Poehlman ET. Physical activity is a significant predictor of body density in women. Am J Clin Nutr . 1993;57:8-14. 10. Arciero PJ, Goran Ml, Poehlman ET. Resting metabolic rate is lower in women than in men. J Appl Physiol . 1994;75:2514-2520. 11. Ferraro R, Lillioja S, Fontevielle AM, Rising R, Bogardus C, Ravussin E. Lower sedentary metabolic rate in women compared to men. J Clin Invest . 1992;90:1-5.Crossref 12. Williamson DF, Kahn HS, Remington PL, Anda RF. The 10-year incidence of overweight and major weight gain in US adults. Arch Intern Med . 1990;150:665-672.Crossref 13. Poehlman ET, Goran Ml, Gardner AW, et al. Metabolic determinants of the decline in resting metabolic rate in aging females. Am J Physiol . 1993:267: E450-E455. 14. Poehlman ET, Berke EM, Joseph JR, Gardner AW, Katzman-Rooks SM, Goran Ml. Influence of aerobic capacity, body composition, and thyroid hormones on the age-related decline in resting metabolic rate. Metabolism . 1992;41:915-921.Crossref 15. Tucker LA, Kano MJ. Dietary fat and body fat: a multivariate study of 205 adult females. Am J Clin Nutr . 1992;56:616-622. 16. Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Ellsworth N, Williams PT, Terry RB, Wood PD. Dietary fat: carbohydrate ratio and obesity in middle aged men. Am J Clin Nutr . 1988:47:995-1000. 17. Seidell JC, DC Muller, Sorkin JD, Andres R. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio and resting metabolic rate as predictors of weight gain: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. Int J Obes . 1992;16:667-674. 18. Ravussin E, Lilloja S, Knowler WC, et al. Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body weight gain. N Engl J Med . 1988;318:467-472.Crossref 19. Zurlo FS, Lilloja A. Esposito-Del Puente BL, et al. Low ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation as predictor of weight gain: study of 24-h RQ. Am J Physiol . 1990;259:E650-E657. 20. Poehlman ET, McAuliffe T, Van Houten DR, Danforth E Jr. Influence of age and endurance training on metabolic rate and hormones in healthy men. Am J Physiol . 1990;259:E66-E72. 21. Siri WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. In: Brozek J, Henschel A, eds. Techniques for Measuring Body Composition . Washington, DC: National Academy of Science, National Dairy Council; 1961:223-244. 22. Taylor HL, Jacobs DR, Schucker B, Knudsen J, Leon AS, Debacker G. A questionnaire for the assessment of leisure time physical activities. J Chronic Dis . 1978;31:741-755.Crossref 23. Poehlman ET, Viers HF, Detzer M. Influence of physical activity and dietary restraint on resting energy expenditure in young nonobese females. Can J Physiol Pharmacol . 1991;69:320-326.Crossref 24. Toth MJ. Goran Ml, Ades PA, Howard DB, Poehlman ET. Examination of data normalization procedures for expressing peak VO2 data. J Appl Physiol . 1993; 75:2288-2292. 25. Novak LP. Aging, total body potassium, fat-free mass and cell mass in males and females between ages 18 and 85 years. J Gerontol . 1972;27:438-443.Crossref 26. Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thicknesses: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr . 1974;32:77-97.Crossref 27. Kohrt WM. Malley MT, Dalsky GP, Holloszy JO. Body composition of healthy sedentary and trained, young and older women. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1991; 24:832-837. 28. Goran Ml, Poehlman ET. Total energy expenditure and energy requirements in healthy elderly persons. Metabolism . 1992;41:744-753.Crossref 29. Heath FW, Hagberg JM, Ahsani AA, Holloszy JO. A physiological comparison of young and older endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol . 1981;51:634-650. 30. Kohrt WM, Obert KA, Holloszy JO. Exercise training improves fat distribution patterns in 60- to 70-year-old men and women. J Gerontol . 1992;47:M99-M105.Crossref 31. Pollock ML, Foster C, Knapp D, Rod JL, Schmidt DH. Effect of age and training status on aerobic capacity and body composition of master athletes. J Appl Physiol . 1987;62:725-731. 32. French SA, Jeffery RW, Forster JL, McGovern PG, Kelder SH, Baxter JE. Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: the healthy worker project. Int J Obes . 1994;18:145-154. 33. Pouliot MC, Després JP, Lemieux S, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric index of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol . 1994;73:460-468.Crossref 34. Troisi RJ, Heinold JW, Vokonas PS, Weiss ST. Cigarette smoking, dietary intake, and physical activity: effects on body fat distribution: the Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr . 1991;53:1104-1111. 35. Wing RR, Matthews KA, Kuller LH, Meilahn EN, Plantinga P. Waist to hip ratio in middle-aged women: associations with behavioral and psychological factors and with changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Arterioscler Thromb . 1991; 11:1250-1257.Crossref 36. Schwartz RS, Shuman WP, Larson V, et al. The effect of intensive endurance exercise training on body fat distribution in young and older men. Metabolism . 1991;40:545-551.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 11, 1995

References