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Phosphatase Histochemistry of the Eye

Phosphatase Histochemistry of the Eye Abstract Introduction Since alkaline phosphatase was first reported in the retina by deConciliis in 1934,1 much study has gone into the chemical and histochemical demonstration of various phosphatases in the eye. Until recently most attention was directed to acid and alkaline phosphatase. In the past few years interest has shifted to certain "specific" phosphatases whose optimal activity occurs within or close to the physiological range of tissue pH and whose substrates are known to play important roles in intermediary metabolism.Various types of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) have been demonstrated in retina, ciliary body, iris sphincter, choroid, corneal epithelium, corneal endothelium, and lens capsule and epithelium.2 In certain of these loci the enzyme is thought to be concerned with cation transport. 5′-Nucleotidase has been detected in the choroid and retina.3 Yet there is little histochemical evidence for the localization of these enzymes in the eye. In 1957 Wachstein and References 1. deConciliis, N.: Ricerche sulla fosfatasi retinica , Sperimentale 88:793, 1934. 2. Bonting, S. L.; Simon, K. A.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase , Arch Biochem 95:416, 1961.Crossref 3. Reis, J. L.: Sur les phosphatases de la retina et de la choroide , Arch Ophthal (Paris) 3:900, 1940. 4. Wachstein, M., and Meisel, E.: Histochemistry of Hepatic Phosphatases at Physiologic pH With Special Reference to Demonstration of Bile Canaliculi , Amer J Path 27:13, 1957. 5. Marchesi, V. T.; Sears, M. L.; and Barnett, R. J.: Localization of Enzymatic Activity in Blood Vessels of Retina Demonstrated With Electron Microscope, presented at the Meeting of the Association for Research in Ophthalmology, Atlantic City, NJ, June, 1963. 6. Scarpelli, D. G., and Craig, E. L.: Fine Localization of Nucleoside Triphosphatase Activity in Retina of Frog , J Cell Biol 17:279, 1963.Crossref 7. Pearse, A. G. E.: Histochemistry: Theoretical and Applied , 2nd ed, Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1960. 8. Friedman, E.; Smith, T. R.; and Kuwabara, T.: Senile Choroidal Vascular Patterns and Drusen , Arch Ophthal 69:220, 1963.Crossref 9. Ragni, G.: L'attivita alcalino-fosfatasica nell 'occhio di ratto albino in diverse condizioni sperimentali , G Med Milit 112:259, 1962. 10. DeVincentiis, M.: Ulteriore contributo istochimico alla studio della fosfatasi nel tessuti , Arch Ottal 55:303, 1951. 11. Noda, T.: Histochemical Study of Phosphatases in Rabbit Eye , Acta Soc Ophthal Jap 58:651, 1954. 12. Scullica, L.: Richerche istochimiche sulla attivita fosfomonoesterasica alfalina del processi ciliari del coniglio , Boll Oculist 38:889, 1959. 13. François, J., and Rabaey, M.: Localisation histochimique de la phosphatase alcaline dans l'oeil de certains mammiferes , Ann Oculist (Paris) 184:481, 1951. 14. Reis, J. L.: Histochemical Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase in Retina , Brit J Ophthal 38:35, 1954.Crossref 15. Allen, R. A., and Friedenwald, J. S.: Distribution of Substrate-Specific Alkaline Phosphatases in Ocular Tissues , AMA Arch Ophthal 50:671, 1953.Crossref 16. Süllman, H., and Payot, D.: Histochemische Untersuchungen über alkalische Phosphatase in der Cornea , Ophthalmologica 118:345, 1949.Crossref 17. Berggren, L.: Histochemical Study of Anterior Segment of Eye in Gold Id (Idus Idus L.), Chicken, Rabbit, and Man With Special Regard to Angle of Anterior Chamber , Acta Soc Med Upsal 62:157, 1957. 18. Eichner, D.: Histology and Topochemistry of Human Retina , Z Zellforsch 48:137, 1958.Crossref 19. Eichner, D.: Enzyme Localization in Ox Retina , Z Zellforsch 41:493, 1955.Crossref 20. Landon, H.; Kabar, E. A.; and Newman, W.: Distribution of Alkaline Phosphatase in Various Normal and Neoplastic Tissues of Nervous System , Arch Neurol Psychiat 48:518, 1942.Crossref 21. DeVincentiis, M., and Testa, M.: Researches for Biochemic Characterizing of Phosphomonoesterase of Ocular Tissues , Acta Ophthal (Kobenhavn) 37:491, 1959.Crossref 22. Wislocki, G. B., and Dempsey, E. W.: Chemical Cytology of Choroid Plexus and Blood Brain Barrier of Rhesus Monkey (Macacca mulatta) , J Comp Neurol 88:319, 1948.Crossref 23. Maier, D. M., and Angrist, A. A.: Comparative Enzymatic Histochemistry of Various Stratified Squamous Epithelia , Lab Invest 11:440, 1962. 24. DeDuve, C.: " Lysosomes: New Group of Cytoplasmic Particles ," in Subcellular Particles , T. Hayashi, ed, New York: Ronald Press, 1959, p 128. 25. Dowling, J. E., and Gibbons, I. R.: Fine Structure of Pigment Epithelium in Albino Rat , J Cell Biol 14:459, 1962.Crossref 26. Porter, K. R., and Yamada, E.: Studies on Endoplasmic Reticulum: Its Form and Differentiation in Pigment Epithelial Cells of Frog Retina , J Biophys Biochem Cytol 8:181, 1960.Crossref 27. Yamada, E.: " Fine Structure of Pigment Epithelium in Turtle Eye ," in Structure of Eye , G. Smelser, ed., New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1961, p 73. 28. Anderson, P. J., and Song, S. K.: Acid Phosphatases in Nervous System , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 21:263, 1962.Crossref 29. Kuwabara, T., and Cogan, D. G.: Retinal Glycogen , Arch Ophthal 66:680, 1961.Crossref 30. Wislocki, G. B., and Sidman, R. L.: Chemical Morphology of Retina , J Comp Neurol 101:53, 1954.Crossref 31. Masima, Y.: Phosphatase Activities in Ocular Tissue , Jap J Ophthal 2:192, 1958. 32. Waitzman, M. B., and Ballantine, E. J.: Adenylic Acid Deaminase Activity of Ciliary Processes , Amer J Ophthal 46:96, 1958. 33. Novikoff, A. B., et al: Further Studies of Apparent Adenosinetriphosphatase Activity of Cell Membranes in Formol-Calcium-Fixed Tissues , J Histochem Cytochem 9:434, 1961.Crossref 34. Donn, A.: Movement of Ions and Water Across Cornea , Invest Ophthal 1:170, 1962. 35. Bonting, S. L.: Caravaggio, L. L.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium-Activated Adenosinetriphosphatase: VI. Its Role in Cation Transport in Lens of Cat, Calf and Rabbit , Arch Biochem 101:47, 1963.Crossref 36. Simon, K. A.; Bonting, S. L.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase: II. Formation of Aqueous Humour , Exp Eye Res 1:253, 1962.Crossref 37. Bonting, S. L.; Caravaggio, L. L.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium Activated ATPase: IV. Correlation With Cation Transport Sensitive to Cardiac Glycosides , Arch Biochem 98:413, 1962.Crossref 38. Novikoff, A. B.; Hausman, D. H.; and Podber, E.: Localization of Adenosinetriphosphatase in Liver: In Situ Staining and Cell Fractionation Studies , J Histochem Cytochem 6:61, 1958.Crossref 39. Siekevitz, P., et al: On Possible Mechanism of Adenosinetriphosphatase of Liver Mitochondria , Biochim Biophys Acta 29:378, 1958.Crossref 40. Wachstein, M.; Bradshaw, M.; and Ortiz, J. M.: Histochemical Demonstration of Mitochondrial Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity in Tissue Sections , J Histochem Cytochem 10:65, 1962.Crossref 41. Peyrot, A., and Massimello, G.: Kidney of Crested Newt (Triturus Cristatus Carnifes Laur.): Morphological, Cytological and Cytochemical Study , Z Zellforsch 54:764, 1961.Crossref 42. Ashworth, C. T.; Luibel, F. J.; and Stewart, S. C.: Fine Structure and Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase in Small Intestine, Kidney, and Liver of Rat , J Cell Biol 17:1, 1963.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Phosphatase Histochemistry of the Eye

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1964 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1964.00970010867015
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction Since alkaline phosphatase was first reported in the retina by deConciliis in 1934,1 much study has gone into the chemical and histochemical demonstration of various phosphatases in the eye. Until recently most attention was directed to acid and alkaline phosphatase. In the past few years interest has shifted to certain "specific" phosphatases whose optimal activity occurs within or close to the physiological range of tissue pH and whose substrates are known to play important roles in intermediary metabolism.Various types of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) have been demonstrated in retina, ciliary body, iris sphincter, choroid, corneal epithelium, corneal endothelium, and lens capsule and epithelium.2 In certain of these loci the enzyme is thought to be concerned with cation transport. 5′-Nucleotidase has been detected in the choroid and retina.3 Yet there is little histochemical evidence for the localization of these enzymes in the eye. In 1957 Wachstein and References 1. deConciliis, N.: Ricerche sulla fosfatasi retinica , Sperimentale 88:793, 1934. 2. Bonting, S. L.; Simon, K. A.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase , Arch Biochem 95:416, 1961.Crossref 3. Reis, J. L.: Sur les phosphatases de la retina et de la choroide , Arch Ophthal (Paris) 3:900, 1940. 4. Wachstein, M., and Meisel, E.: Histochemistry of Hepatic Phosphatases at Physiologic pH With Special Reference to Demonstration of Bile Canaliculi , Amer J Path 27:13, 1957. 5. Marchesi, V. T.; Sears, M. L.; and Barnett, R. J.: Localization of Enzymatic Activity in Blood Vessels of Retina Demonstrated With Electron Microscope, presented at the Meeting of the Association for Research in Ophthalmology, Atlantic City, NJ, June, 1963. 6. Scarpelli, D. G., and Craig, E. L.: Fine Localization of Nucleoside Triphosphatase Activity in Retina of Frog , J Cell Biol 17:279, 1963.Crossref 7. Pearse, A. G. E.: Histochemistry: Theoretical and Applied , 2nd ed, Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1960. 8. Friedman, E.; Smith, T. R.; and Kuwabara, T.: Senile Choroidal Vascular Patterns and Drusen , Arch Ophthal 69:220, 1963.Crossref 9. Ragni, G.: L'attivita alcalino-fosfatasica nell 'occhio di ratto albino in diverse condizioni sperimentali , G Med Milit 112:259, 1962. 10. DeVincentiis, M.: Ulteriore contributo istochimico alla studio della fosfatasi nel tessuti , Arch Ottal 55:303, 1951. 11. Noda, T.: Histochemical Study of Phosphatases in Rabbit Eye , Acta Soc Ophthal Jap 58:651, 1954. 12. Scullica, L.: Richerche istochimiche sulla attivita fosfomonoesterasica alfalina del processi ciliari del coniglio , Boll Oculist 38:889, 1959. 13. François, J., and Rabaey, M.: Localisation histochimique de la phosphatase alcaline dans l'oeil de certains mammiferes , Ann Oculist (Paris) 184:481, 1951. 14. Reis, J. L.: Histochemical Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase in Retina , Brit J Ophthal 38:35, 1954.Crossref 15. Allen, R. A., and Friedenwald, J. S.: Distribution of Substrate-Specific Alkaline Phosphatases in Ocular Tissues , AMA Arch Ophthal 50:671, 1953.Crossref 16. Süllman, H., and Payot, D.: Histochemische Untersuchungen über alkalische Phosphatase in der Cornea , Ophthalmologica 118:345, 1949.Crossref 17. Berggren, L.: Histochemical Study of Anterior Segment of Eye in Gold Id (Idus Idus L.), Chicken, Rabbit, and Man With Special Regard to Angle of Anterior Chamber , Acta Soc Med Upsal 62:157, 1957. 18. Eichner, D.: Histology and Topochemistry of Human Retina , Z Zellforsch 48:137, 1958.Crossref 19. Eichner, D.: Enzyme Localization in Ox Retina , Z Zellforsch 41:493, 1955.Crossref 20. Landon, H.; Kabar, E. A.; and Newman, W.: Distribution of Alkaline Phosphatase in Various Normal and Neoplastic Tissues of Nervous System , Arch Neurol Psychiat 48:518, 1942.Crossref 21. DeVincentiis, M., and Testa, M.: Researches for Biochemic Characterizing of Phosphomonoesterase of Ocular Tissues , Acta Ophthal (Kobenhavn) 37:491, 1959.Crossref 22. Wislocki, G. B., and Dempsey, E. W.: Chemical Cytology of Choroid Plexus and Blood Brain Barrier of Rhesus Monkey (Macacca mulatta) , J Comp Neurol 88:319, 1948.Crossref 23. Maier, D. M., and Angrist, A. A.: Comparative Enzymatic Histochemistry of Various Stratified Squamous Epithelia , Lab Invest 11:440, 1962. 24. DeDuve, C.: " Lysosomes: New Group of Cytoplasmic Particles ," in Subcellular Particles , T. Hayashi, ed, New York: Ronald Press, 1959, p 128. 25. Dowling, J. E., and Gibbons, I. R.: Fine Structure of Pigment Epithelium in Albino Rat , J Cell Biol 14:459, 1962.Crossref 26. Porter, K. R., and Yamada, E.: Studies on Endoplasmic Reticulum: Its Form and Differentiation in Pigment Epithelial Cells of Frog Retina , J Biophys Biochem Cytol 8:181, 1960.Crossref 27. Yamada, E.: " Fine Structure of Pigment Epithelium in Turtle Eye ," in Structure of Eye , G. Smelser, ed., New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1961, p 73. 28. Anderson, P. J., and Song, S. K.: Acid Phosphatases in Nervous System , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 21:263, 1962.Crossref 29. Kuwabara, T., and Cogan, D. G.: Retinal Glycogen , Arch Ophthal 66:680, 1961.Crossref 30. Wislocki, G. B., and Sidman, R. L.: Chemical Morphology of Retina , J Comp Neurol 101:53, 1954.Crossref 31. Masima, Y.: Phosphatase Activities in Ocular Tissue , Jap J Ophthal 2:192, 1958. 32. Waitzman, M. B., and Ballantine, E. J.: Adenylic Acid Deaminase Activity of Ciliary Processes , Amer J Ophthal 46:96, 1958. 33. Novikoff, A. B., et al: Further Studies of Apparent Adenosinetriphosphatase Activity of Cell Membranes in Formol-Calcium-Fixed Tissues , J Histochem Cytochem 9:434, 1961.Crossref 34. Donn, A.: Movement of Ions and Water Across Cornea , Invest Ophthal 1:170, 1962. 35. Bonting, S. L.: Caravaggio, L. L.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium-Activated Adenosinetriphosphatase: VI. Its Role in Cation Transport in Lens of Cat, Calf and Rabbit , Arch Biochem 101:47, 1963.Crossref 36. Simon, K. A.; Bonting, S. L.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase: II. Formation of Aqueous Humour , Exp Eye Res 1:253, 1962.Crossref 37. Bonting, S. L.; Caravaggio, L. L.; and Hawkins, N. M.: Studies on Sodium-Potassium Activated ATPase: IV. Correlation With Cation Transport Sensitive to Cardiac Glycosides , Arch Biochem 98:413, 1962.Crossref 38. Novikoff, A. B.; Hausman, D. H.; and Podber, E.: Localization of Adenosinetriphosphatase in Liver: In Situ Staining and Cell Fractionation Studies , J Histochem Cytochem 6:61, 1958.Crossref 39. Siekevitz, P., et al: On Possible Mechanism of Adenosinetriphosphatase of Liver Mitochondria , Biochim Biophys Acta 29:378, 1958.Crossref 40. Wachstein, M.; Bradshaw, M.; and Ortiz, J. M.: Histochemical Demonstration of Mitochondrial Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity in Tissue Sections , J Histochem Cytochem 10:65, 1962.Crossref 41. Peyrot, A., and Massimello, G.: Kidney of Crested Newt (Triturus Cristatus Carnifes Laur.): Morphological, Cytological and Cytochemical Study , Z Zellforsch 54:764, 1961.Crossref 42. Ashworth, C. T.; Luibel, F. J.; and Stewart, S. C.: Fine Structure and Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase in Small Intestine, Kidney, and Liver of Rat , J Cell Biol 17:1, 1963.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1964

References