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Abstract Reversible figures are drawings in which figure and ground appear to alternate on continued inspection (e. g., the Rubin vase, Fig. 1A), or in which perspective appears to shift (e. g., the Necker cube, Fig. 1B); in yet a third type, a moving pattern, such as the vanes of a windmill, seems to reverse the direction of its movement. The neural mechanisms underlying these apparent fluctuations remain obscure, despite numerous investigations involving such aspects of the patterns as size (Washburn, Mallay, and Naylor34; Cohen5), "complexity" (Donahue and Griffitts7; Washburn, Reagan, and Thurston35), or brightness (Mull, Ord, and Locke19). That retrochiasmal processes are involved, however, is suggested by two facts: (a) In figures with reversible perspective or movement, rate of apparent change (RAC) increases with continued fixation (Köhler15; Brown3; Cohen5), and (b) inspection of a reversible figure with one eye causes an References 1. Petrie.22 2. Petrie22 3. Dr. H. L. Teuber and his associates in the Psychophysiological Laboratory, especially Drs. Josephine Semmes and S. Weinstein, granted permission to use their classifications according to locus of lesion, their sensorimotor and visual-field data, and other collateral information on the cases on which this report is based. 4. Dr. Leonard Kogan acted as statistical consultant to the Psychophysiological Laboratory and devised the statistical procedures employed in this study. 5. Group×OP interaction of frontal analysis in Series (a) significant; P<0.01. 6. Group×Condition×Side interaction of frontal analysis in Series (b) significant; P<0.01. 7. Based on significant Group×OP interaction, occipital analysis, Series (a); P<0.01. 8. Based on significant Group×OP interaction in the Left-Right analysis of Series (a); P<0.05. 9. Jacobsen18 10. Myer, Harlow, and Settlage20 11. Kaplan 24 12. Bender, M. B.: Extinction and Precipitation of Cutaneous Sensations , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 54:1-9, 1945. 13. Bender, M. B., and Teuber, H.-L.: Phenomena of Fluctuation, Extinction and Completion in Visual Perception , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 55:627-658, 1946. 14. Brown, K. T.: Factors Affecting Rate of Apparent Change in a Dynamic Ambiguous Figure as a Function of Observation Time, Wright Air Development Center Technical Report 53-482, Dec., 1953, pp. 1-32. 15. Chow, K. L.: Further Studies on Selective Ablation of Associative Cortex in Relation to Visually Mediated Behavior , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 45:109-118, 1952. 16. Cohen, L.: Perception of Reversible Figures by Normal and Brain-Injured Subjects , Doctoral Dissertation, New York University, 1958. 17. Critchley, M.: The Parietal Lobes , London, Edward Arnold & Co., 1953. 18. Donahue, W. T., and Griffitts, C. H.: Influence of Complexity on the Fluctuations of the Illusions of Reversible Perspective , Am. J. Psychol. 43:613-617, 1931. 19. Ettlinger, G.; Warrington, E., and Zangwill, O. L.: A Further Study of Visual-Spatial Agnosia , Brain , 80:335-361, 1957. 20. Feinberg, H.: Necker Cube Reversals in Normals and Men with Frontal Lobe Injury , unpublished thesis, New York University, 1953. 21. Goldstein, K.: The Organism: A Holistic Approach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man, American Psychological Series , edited by Henry E. Garrett, New York, American Book Company, 1939. 22. Goldstein, K., and Scheerer, M.: Abstract and Concrete Behavior: An Experimental Study with Special Tests , Psychological Monograph 53, No. 2 (Whole No. 239), Evanston, Ill., American Psychological Association, 1941. 23. Harrower, M. R.: Changes in Figure-Ground Perception in Patients with Cortical Lesions , Brit. J. Psychol. 30:47-51, 1939. 24. Jacobsen, C. F.: Functions of Frontal Association Area in Primates , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 33:558-569, 1935. 25. Klüver, H., and Bucy, P. C.: An Analysis of Certain Effects of Bilateral Temporal Lobectomy in the Rhesus Monkey, with Special Reference to "Psychic Blindness," J. Psychol. 5:33-54, 1938. 26. Köhler, W.: Dynamics in Psychology , New York, Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1940. 27. McFie, J.; Piercy, M. F., and Zangwill, O. L.: Visual-Spatial Agnosia Associated with Lesions of the Right Cerebral Hemisphere , Brain 73:167-190, 1950. 28. Milner, B.: Intellectual Function of the Temporal Lobes , Psychol. Bull. 51:42-62, 1954. 29. Mishkin, M., and Pribram, K. H.: Visual Discrimination Performance Following Partial Ablations of the Temporal Lobe: I. Ventral vs. Lateral , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 47:14-20, 1954. 30. Mull, H. K.; Ord, N., and Locke, N.: The Effect of 2 Brightness Factors upon the Rate of Fluctuation of Reversible Perspectives , Am. J. Psychol. 67:341-342, 1954. 31. Myer, D. R.; Harlow, H. F., and Settlage, P. H.: A Survey of Delayed Response Performance by Normal and Brain-Damaged Monkeys , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 44:17-25, 1951. 32. Oppenheim, H: Diseases of the Nervous System , Translated from the second German edition by E. E. Mayer, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1904. 33. Petrie, A.: Personality and the Frontal Lobes , London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd., 1952. 34. Petrie, A., and Orchinik, C. W.: Personality Studies Following Thalamic Lesions Compared with the Effect of Globus Pallidus Lesions , Confinia neurol. , to be published. 35. Pribram, K. H.; Mishkin, M.; Rosvold, H. E., and Kaplan, S. J.: Effects on Delayed-Response Performance of Lesions of Dorsolateral and Ventromedial Frontal Cortex of Baboons , J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 45:565-575, 1952. 36. Riopelle, A. J.; Alper, R. G.; Strong, P. N., and Ades, H. W.: Multiple Discrimination and Patterned String Performance of Normal and Temporal-Lobectomized Monkeys , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 46:145-149, 1953. 37. Teuber, H.-L.: Personal communication to the author, 1955. 38. Teuber, H.-L.; Battersby, W. S., and Bender, M. B.: Performance of Complex Visual Tasks After Cerebral Lesions , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 114:413-429, 1951. 39. Teuber, H.-L.; Battersby, W. S., and Bender, M. B.: Changes in Visual Searching Performance Following Cerebral Lesions , Am. J. Physiol. 159: 592, 1949. 40. Teuber, H.-L., and Mishkin, M.: Judgment of Visual and Postural Vertical After Brain Injury , J. Psychol. 38:161-175, 1954. 41. Teuber, H.-L., and Weinstein, S.: Performance on a Formboard-Task After Penetrating Brain Injury , J. Psychol. 38:177-190, 1954. 42. Teuber, H.-L., and Weinstein, S.: Equipotentiality Versus Cortical Localization , Science 127:241-242, 1958. 43. Weinstein, S.; Semmes, J.; Ghent, L., and Teuber, H.-L.: Tactile Size Discrimination After Penetrating Brain Injury in Man , paper read at meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Philadelphia, April, 1958. 44. Weinstein, S., and Teuber, H.-L.: Effects of Penetrating Brain Injury on Intelligence Test Scores , Science 125:1036-1037, 1957.Crossref 45. Washburn, M. F.; Mallay, H., and Naylor, A.: LXVI. Influence of the Size of an Outline Cube on the Fluctuations of Its Perspective , Am. J. Psychol. 43:484-489, 1931.Crossref 46. Washburn, M. F.; Reagan, C., and Thurston, E.: LXVI. The Comparative Controllability of the Fluctuations of Simple and Complex Ambiguous Perspective Figures , Am. J. Psychol. 46: 636-638, 1934.Crossref 47. Yacorzynski, G. K.; Boshes, B., and Davis, L.: Psychological Changes Produced by Frontal Lobotomy , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. (1947) 27:642-657, 1948.
A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Jun 1, 1959
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