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PATTERN FORMED AT UPPER CERVICAL SPINAL CORD LEVELS BY SENSORY FIBERS OF SPINAL AND CRANIAL NERVES: Relation of This Pattern to Associated Gray Matter

PATTERN FORMED AT UPPER CERVICAL SPINAL CORD LEVELS BY SENSORY FIBERS OF SPINAL AND CRANIAL... Abstract RECENT studies of the spinal tract (or descending root) of the trigeminal nerve in human fetuses1 have demonstrated that a considerable number of fibers from all three divisions of this nerve pass throughout the first cervical segment of the spinal cord at the age when the embryo first responds to exteroceptive stimulation in the circumoral region (7½ weeks of menstrual age *). Less than a week later (at just over 8 weeks of menstrual age; Humphrey,5 Fig. 12) large numbers of fibers from all divisions of the spinal tract of the trigeminal, or fifth cranial, nerve (V) have been observed to terminate in the middle third of the second cervical segment. Although some fibers in the spinal tract of V have been traced as far as the upper levels of the fourth cervical segment at a later fetal age (8½ weeks; Humphrey5), the great majority of the trigeminal References 1. References 2, 3, and 4. 2. References 1 and 6. 3. References 6 and 7. 4. References 1 and 5. 5. References 3 and 4. 6. References 9 and 10. 7. References 10 and 11. 8. Cuajunco,17 p. 125. 9. Coghill,18 p. 101. 10. Herrick,19 p. 89. 11. References 3 and 4. 12. References 11, 12, 14, and 23. 13. References 5, 14, 21, and 22. 14. References 3 and 4. 15. References 4 and 14. 16. References 1 and 5. 17. Riley,25 p. 40. 18. Riley,25 p. 30. 19. Riley,25 p. 38. 20. Humphrey, T.: Trigeminal Nerve in Relation to Early Human Fetal Activity , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. , 33:127-154, 1954. 21. Fitzgerald, J. E., and Windle, W. F.: Some Observations on Early Human Fetal Movements , J. Comp. Neurol. 76:159-167 ( (Feb.) ) 1942. 22. Hooker, D.: The Prenatal Origin of Behavior , Lawrence, Kan., University of Kansas Press, 1952. 23. Hooker, D.: Early Human Fetal Behavior, with a Preliminary Note on Double Simultaneous Fetal Stimulation , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 33:98-113, 1954. 24. Humphrey, T.: Spinal Tract of the Trigeminal Nerve in Human Embryos Between 7½ and 8½ Weeks of Menstrual Age and Its Relation to Early Fetal Activity , J. Comp. Neurol. 97:143-210 ( (Aug.) ) 1952. 25. Winkler, C.: Opera omnia, Haarlem , Netherlands, de Erven F. Bohn, 1921, Vol. 7, pp. 1-100. 26. van Valkenburg, C. T.: Zur Kenntnis der Radix spinalis nervi trigemini , Monatsschr. Psychiat. u. Neurol. 74:287-307, 1911. 27. Bodian, D.: Staining of Paraffin Sections of Nervous Tissues with Activated Protargol , Anat. Rec. 69:153-162 ( (Sept.) ) 1937. 28. Bok, S. T.: Das Rückenmark , von Mollendorff, O.: Handbuch der mikroskopische Anatomie der Menschen , Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1928, Vol. 4, Pt. 1, pp. 478-578. 29. Foerster, O.: Symptomatologie der Erkrankungen des Rückenmarks und seiner Wurzeln , Bumke, O., and Foerster, O.: Handbuch der Neurologie , Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1936, Vol. 5, pp. 1-403. 30. Ariëns Kappers, C. U.; Huber, G. C., and Crosby, E. C.: Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, Including Man , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1936. 31. Sherrington, C. S.: Integrative Action of the Nervous System , New Haven, Yale University Press; London, Oxford University Press, 1906. 32. Hogg, I. D.: Sensory Nerves and Associated Structures in the Skin of Human Fetuses 8 to 14 Weeks of Menstrual Age, Correlated with Functional Capability , J. Comp. Neurol. 75:371-410 ( (Dec.) ) 1941. 33. Hooker, D., and Humphrey, T.: Some Results and Deductions from a Study of the Development of Human Fetal Behavior , Gaz. méd. port. 7:189-197 ( (April) ) 1954. 34. Thelander, H. E.: Course and Distribution of the Radix Mesencephalica Trigemini in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 37:207-220 ( (June) ) 1924. 35. Szentagothai, J.: Anatomical Considerations of Monosynaptic Reflex Arcs , J. Neurophysiol. 11: 445-454 ( (Sept.) ) 1948. 36. Cuajunco, F.: Development of the Neuromuscular Spindle in Human Fetuses , Contrib. Embryol. 28:95-128. 37. Coghill, G. E.: Reaction to Tactile Stimuli and the Development of the Swimming Movement in Embryos of Diemyctylus torosus, Eschscholtz , J. Comp. Neurol. 19:83-105 ( (April) ) 1909. 38. Herrick, C. J.: George Ellett Coghill, Naturalist and Philosopher , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1949. 39. Wilson, E. E.; Windle, W. F., and Fitzgerald, J. E.: Development of the Tractus Solitarius , J. Comp. Neurol. 74:287-307 ( (April) ) 1941. 40. Coghill, G. E.: Correlated Anatomical and Physiological Studies of the Growth of the Nervous System of Amphibia: II. Afferent System of the Head of Amblystoma , J. Comp. Neurol. 26:247-340 ( (June) ) 1916. 41. Angulo, A. W.: Prenatal Development of Behavior in the Albino Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 55: 395-442 ( (Aug.) ) 1932. 42. Crosby, E. C., and Yoss, R. E.: Phylogenetic Continuity of Neural Mechanisms as Illustrated by the Spinal Tract of V and Its Nucleus , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 33:174-208, 1954. 43. Coghill, G. E.: Anatomy and the Problem of Behaviour , New York, The MacMillan Company, 1929. 44. Riley, H. A.: An Atlas of the Basal Ganglia, Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Based on Myelin-Stained Material , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1943. 45. Olszewski, J.: On the Anatomical and Functional Organization of the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus , J. Comp. Neurol. 92:401-413 ( (June) ) 1950. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

PATTERN FORMED AT UPPER CERVICAL SPINAL CORD LEVELS BY SENSORY FIBERS OF SPINAL AND CRANIAL NERVES: Relation of This Pattern to Associated Gray Matter

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1955.02330070038006
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Abstract

Abstract RECENT studies of the spinal tract (or descending root) of the trigeminal nerve in human fetuses1 have demonstrated that a considerable number of fibers from all three divisions of this nerve pass throughout the first cervical segment of the spinal cord at the age when the embryo first responds to exteroceptive stimulation in the circumoral region (7½ weeks of menstrual age *). Less than a week later (at just over 8 weeks of menstrual age; Humphrey,5 Fig. 12) large numbers of fibers from all divisions of the spinal tract of the trigeminal, or fifth cranial, nerve (V) have been observed to terminate in the middle third of the second cervical segment. Although some fibers in the spinal tract of V have been traced as far as the upper levels of the fourth cervical segment at a later fetal age (8½ weeks; Humphrey5), the great majority of the trigeminal References 1. References 2, 3, and 4. 2. References 1 and 6. 3. References 6 and 7. 4. References 1 and 5. 5. References 3 and 4. 6. References 9 and 10. 7. References 10 and 11. 8. Cuajunco,17 p. 125. 9. Coghill,18 p. 101. 10. Herrick,19 p. 89. 11. References 3 and 4. 12. References 11, 12, 14, and 23. 13. References 5, 14, 21, and 22. 14. References 3 and 4. 15. References 4 and 14. 16. References 1 and 5. 17. Riley,25 p. 40. 18. Riley,25 p. 30. 19. Riley,25 p. 38. 20. Humphrey, T.: Trigeminal Nerve in Relation to Early Human Fetal Activity , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. , 33:127-154, 1954. 21. Fitzgerald, J. E., and Windle, W. F.: Some Observations on Early Human Fetal Movements , J. Comp. Neurol. 76:159-167 ( (Feb.) ) 1942. 22. Hooker, D.: The Prenatal Origin of Behavior , Lawrence, Kan., University of Kansas Press, 1952. 23. Hooker, D.: Early Human Fetal Behavior, with a Preliminary Note on Double Simultaneous Fetal Stimulation , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 33:98-113, 1954. 24. Humphrey, T.: Spinal Tract of the Trigeminal Nerve in Human Embryos Between 7½ and 8½ Weeks of Menstrual Age and Its Relation to Early Fetal Activity , J. Comp. Neurol. 97:143-210 ( (Aug.) ) 1952. 25. Winkler, C.: Opera omnia, Haarlem , Netherlands, de Erven F. Bohn, 1921, Vol. 7, pp. 1-100. 26. van Valkenburg, C. T.: Zur Kenntnis der Radix spinalis nervi trigemini , Monatsschr. Psychiat. u. Neurol. 74:287-307, 1911. 27. Bodian, D.: Staining of Paraffin Sections of Nervous Tissues with Activated Protargol , Anat. Rec. 69:153-162 ( (Sept.) ) 1937. 28. Bok, S. T.: Das Rückenmark , von Mollendorff, O.: Handbuch der mikroskopische Anatomie der Menschen , Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1928, Vol. 4, Pt. 1, pp. 478-578. 29. Foerster, O.: Symptomatologie der Erkrankungen des Rückenmarks und seiner Wurzeln , Bumke, O., and Foerster, O.: Handbuch der Neurologie , Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1936, Vol. 5, pp. 1-403. 30. Ariëns Kappers, C. U.; Huber, G. C., and Crosby, E. C.: Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, Including Man , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1936. 31. Sherrington, C. S.: Integrative Action of the Nervous System , New Haven, Yale University Press; London, Oxford University Press, 1906. 32. Hogg, I. D.: Sensory Nerves and Associated Structures in the Skin of Human Fetuses 8 to 14 Weeks of Menstrual Age, Correlated with Functional Capability , J. Comp. Neurol. 75:371-410 ( (Dec.) ) 1941. 33. Hooker, D., and Humphrey, T.: Some Results and Deductions from a Study of the Development of Human Fetal Behavior , Gaz. méd. port. 7:189-197 ( (April) ) 1954. 34. Thelander, H. E.: Course and Distribution of the Radix Mesencephalica Trigemini in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 37:207-220 ( (June) ) 1924. 35. Szentagothai, J.: Anatomical Considerations of Monosynaptic Reflex Arcs , J. Neurophysiol. 11: 445-454 ( (Sept.) ) 1948. 36. Cuajunco, F.: Development of the Neuromuscular Spindle in Human Fetuses , Contrib. Embryol. 28:95-128. 37. Coghill, G. E.: Reaction to Tactile Stimuli and the Development of the Swimming Movement in Embryos of Diemyctylus torosus, Eschscholtz , J. Comp. Neurol. 19:83-105 ( (April) ) 1909. 38. Herrick, C. J.: George Ellett Coghill, Naturalist and Philosopher , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1949. 39. Wilson, E. E.; Windle, W. F., and Fitzgerald, J. E.: Development of the Tractus Solitarius , J. Comp. Neurol. 74:287-307 ( (April) ) 1941. 40. Coghill, G. E.: Correlated Anatomical and Physiological Studies of the Growth of the Nervous System of Amphibia: II. Afferent System of the Head of Amblystoma , J. Comp. Neurol. 26:247-340 ( (June) ) 1916. 41. Angulo, A. W.: Prenatal Development of Behavior in the Albino Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 55: 395-442 ( (Aug.) ) 1932. 42. Crosby, E. C., and Yoss, R. E.: Phylogenetic Continuity of Neural Mechanisms as Illustrated by the Spinal Tract of V and Its Nucleus , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 33:174-208, 1954. 43. Coghill, G. E.: Anatomy and the Problem of Behaviour , New York, The MacMillan Company, 1929. 44. Riley, H. A.: An Atlas of the Basal Ganglia, Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Based on Myelin-Stained Material , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1943. 45. Olszewski, J.: On the Anatomical and Functional Organization of the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus , J. Comp. Neurol. 92:401-413 ( (June) ) 1950.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1955

References