Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You and Your Team.

Learn More →

Pathological Gambling: A Psychobiological Study

Pathological Gambling: A Psychobiological Study Abstract • We investigated psychobiological substrates of pathological gambling by measuring levels of norepinephrine, monoamine metabolites, and peptides in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine. Pathological gamblers had a significantly higher centrally produced fraction of cerebrospinal fluid levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol as well as significantly greater urinary outputs of norepinephrine than controls. These results suggest that pathological gamblers may have a functional disturbance of the noradrenergic system. This system has been postulated to underlie sensation-seeking behaviors, aspects of which are thought to be abnormal among pathological gamblers. References 1. Asberg M, Traskman L, Thoren P: 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid: A biochemical suicide predictor . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1193-1197.Crossref 2. Asberg M, Nordstrom P, Traskman-Benz L: Biologic factors in suicide , in Roy A (ed): Suicide . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1986. 3. Linnoila M, Virkkunen M, Scheinin M, Nuutila A, Rimond R, Goodwin F: Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from non-impulsive violent behavior . Life Sci 1983;33:2609-2614.Crossref 4. Virkkunen M, Nuutila A, Goodwin F, Linnoila M. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in male arsonists . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44:241-247.Crossref 5. Roy A, Virkkunen M, Guthrie S, Poland R, Linnoila M: Monoamines, glucose metabolism, suicidal and aggressive behavior . Psychopharmacol Bull 1986;22:661-665. 6. Roy A, Virkkunen M, Guthrie S, Linnoila M: Indices of serotonin and glucose metabolism in violent offenders, arsonists, and alcoholics , in Mann J, Stanley M (eds): Psychobiology of Suicidal Behavior . New York, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1987, vol 487, pp 202-220. 7. Roy A, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M: Reduced central serotonin turnover in a subgroup of alcoholics . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1987;11:173-177.Crossref 8. Roy A, Nutt D, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M: Serotonin, suicidal behaviour, and impulsivity . Lancet 1987;2:949-950. 9. Brown G, Ebert M, Goyer P, Jimerson D, Klein W, Bunney W, Goodwin F: Aggression, suicide, and serotonin . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:741-746. 10. Brown G, Goodwin F, Ballenger J, Goyer P, Major L: Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites . Psychiatry Res 1979;1:131-139.Crossref 11. Schalling D, Asberg M, Edman G, Levander S: Impulsivity, nonconformity, and sensation seeking as related to biological markers for vulnerability . Clin Neuropharmacol 1984;7:746-747.Crossref 12. Roy A, Adinoff B, Linnoila M: Acting out hostility in normal volunteers: Negative correlation with CSF 5-HIAA levels . Psychiatry Res , in press. 13. Custer R: Profile of the pathological gamblers . J Clin Psychiatry 1984;45:35-38. 14. Wolkowitz O, Roy A, Doran A: Compulsive gambling and high risk sports , in Roy A (ed): Self Destructive Behavior . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1987, 311-322. 15. Endicott J, Spitzer R: A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;35:837-844.Crossref 16. McNair D, Lorr M, Droppleman L: Profile of Mood States . San Diego, Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1971. 17. Hamilton M: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62.Crossref 18. Karoum F, Neff N: Quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of biogenic amines: Theory and practice , in Spector S, Beck N (eds): Modern Methods in Pharmacology . New York, Alan R Liss Inc, 1982, pp 39-54. 19. Jimerson D, Markey S, Oliver J, Kopin I: Simultaneous measurement of plasma 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethyleneglycol and 3,4-dihydroxy phenylethyleneglycol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry . Biomed Mass Spectrometry 1981;8:256-259.Crossref 20. Seppala T, Scheinin M, Capone A, Linnoila M: Liquid chromatographic assay for CSF catecholamines using electrochemical detection . Acta Pharmacolog Toxicol 1984;55:81-87.Crossref 21. Kopin L, Gordon E, Jimerson D, Polinsky R: Relation between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol . Science 1983;219:73-75.Crossref 22. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Chrousos G, Gold P: Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone in depression: Relationship to noradrenergic function . Psychiatry Res 1987;20:229-237.Crossref 23. Roy A, Pickar D, Paul S, Doran A, Chrousos G, Gold P: CSF corticotropin-releasing hormone in depressed patients and normal control subjects . Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:641-645. 24. Berrettini W, Doran A, Kelsoe J, Roy A, Pickar D: Cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide Y in depression and schizophrenia . Neuropsychopharmacology , 1987;1:81-83.Crossref 25. Barbaccia M, Costa E, Ferrero P, Guidotti A, Roy A, Sunderland T, Pickar D, Paul S, Goodwin F: Diazepam binding inhibitors (DBI): A brain neuropeptide present in human spinal fluid: Studies in depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:1143-1147.Crossref 26. Berrettini W, Nurnberger J, Simmons-Alling S, Albright A: Growth hormone releasing factor in human cerebrospinal fluid: A study of manicdepressive illness . Psychiatry Res , in press. 27. Doran A, Rubinow D, Roy A, Pickar D: CSF somatostatin and abnormal responses to dexamethasone administration in schizophrenic and depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:365-369.Crossref 28. Yates C, Fink G, Bennie J, Gordon A, Simpson J, Eskay R: Neurotensin immunoreactivity in post mortem brain is increased in Down's syndrome but not in Alzheimer-type dementia . Neurol Sci 1985;67:327-335.Crossref 29. Lake R, Ziegler M, Kopin J: Use of plasma norepinephrine for evaluation of sympathetic neuronal function . Life Sci 1976;18:1315-1325.Crossref 30. Barnes R, Raskind M, Gumbrecht G, Halter J: The effects of age on the plasma catecholamine response to mental stress in man . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982;54:64-69.Crossref 31. Roy A, Jimerson D, Linnoila M, Gold P, Pickar D: Premenopausal and postmenopausal depressed patients . Aust NZ J Psychiatry 1986;20:464-469.Crossref 32. Veith R, Raskind M, Barnes R, Gumbrecht G, Ritchie J, Halter J: Tricyclic antidepressants and supine, standing and exercise plasma norepinephrine levels . Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983;33:763-769.Crossref 33. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Potter W: Plasma norepinephrine in affective disorders: Relationship to melancholia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:1181-1185.Crossref 34. Roy A, Guthrie S, Pickar D, Linnoila M: Plasma norepinephrine responses to cold challenge in depressed patients and normal controls . Psychiatry Res 1987;21:161-168.Crossref 35. Muscettola G, Potter W, Pickar D, Goodwin F: Urinary 3-methoxy4-hydroxyphenylglycol and major affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:337-341.Crossref 36. Asberg M, Bertilson L: Serotonin in depressive illness-studies of CSF 5-HIAA , in Saletu B (ed) Neuro-psychopharmacology . Elmsford, NY, Pergamon Press Inc, 1979, pp 105-115. 37. Agren H, Mefford I, Rudorfer M, Linnoila M, Potter W: Interacting neurotransmitter systems: A non-experimental approach to the 5-HIAAHVA correlation in human CSF . J Psychiatr Res 1986;20:175-193.Crossref 38. Jimerson D, Insel T, Reus V, Kopin I: Increased plasma MHPG in dexamethasone-resistant depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:173-176.Crossref 39. Rubin L, Price L, Charney D, Heninger G: Noradrenergic function and the cortisol response to dexamethasone in depression . Psychiatry Res 1985;15:5-15.Crossref 40. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Doran A, Ninan P, Paul S: Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in melancholia . Psychiatry Res 1985;15:281-282.Crossref 41. Roy A, Pickar D, Douillet P, Karoum F, Linnoila M: Urinary monoamines and metabolites in subtypes of unipolar depressive disorder and normal controls . Psychol Med 1986;16:541-556.Crossref 42. Roy A, Linnoila M, Karoum F, Pickar D: Urinary free cortisol in depressed patients and controls: Relationship to urinary indices of noradrenergic function . Psychol Med , in press. 43. McCormick R, Russo A, Ramirez L, Taber J: Affective disorder among pathological gamblers in treatment . Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:215-218. 44. Linden R, Pope H, Jonas J: Pathological gambling and major affective disorder: Preliminary findings . J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47:201-203. 45. Lesieur H, Blume S, Zoppa R: Alcoholism, drug abuse, and gambling . Alcoholism 1986;10:33-38.Crossref 46. Roy A, Custer R, Lorenz V, Linnoila M: Depressed pathological gamblers . Acta Psychiatr Scand , in press. 47. Zuckerman M: Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal . Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979. 48. Zuckerman M: Sensation seeking: A comparative approach to a human trait . Behav Brain Sci 1984;7:413-471.Crossref 49. Zuckerman M, Ballenger J, Jimerson D, Murphy D, Post R: A correlational test in humans of the biological models of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety , in Zuckerman M (ed): Biological Bases of Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Anxiety . Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983. 50. Buchsbaum M, Goodwin F, Muscettola G: Urinary MHPG, stress response, personality factors, and somatosensory evoked potentials in normal subjects and patients with affective disorders . Neuropsychobiology 1981;7:212-224.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/pathological-gambling-a-psychobiological-study-p54my205UL
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1988 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800280085011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • We investigated psychobiological substrates of pathological gambling by measuring levels of norepinephrine, monoamine metabolites, and peptides in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine. Pathological gamblers had a significantly higher centrally produced fraction of cerebrospinal fluid levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol as well as significantly greater urinary outputs of norepinephrine than controls. These results suggest that pathological gamblers may have a functional disturbance of the noradrenergic system. This system has been postulated to underlie sensation-seeking behaviors, aspects of which are thought to be abnormal among pathological gamblers. References 1. Asberg M, Traskman L, Thoren P: 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid: A biochemical suicide predictor . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1193-1197.Crossref 2. Asberg M, Nordstrom P, Traskman-Benz L: Biologic factors in suicide , in Roy A (ed): Suicide . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1986. 3. Linnoila M, Virkkunen M, Scheinin M, Nuutila A, Rimond R, Goodwin F: Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from non-impulsive violent behavior . Life Sci 1983;33:2609-2614.Crossref 4. Virkkunen M, Nuutila A, Goodwin F, Linnoila M. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in male arsonists . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44:241-247.Crossref 5. Roy A, Virkkunen M, Guthrie S, Poland R, Linnoila M: Monoamines, glucose metabolism, suicidal and aggressive behavior . Psychopharmacol Bull 1986;22:661-665. 6. Roy A, Virkkunen M, Guthrie S, Linnoila M: Indices of serotonin and glucose metabolism in violent offenders, arsonists, and alcoholics , in Mann J, Stanley M (eds): Psychobiology of Suicidal Behavior . New York, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1987, vol 487, pp 202-220. 7. Roy A, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M: Reduced central serotonin turnover in a subgroup of alcoholics . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1987;11:173-177.Crossref 8. Roy A, Nutt D, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M: Serotonin, suicidal behaviour, and impulsivity . Lancet 1987;2:949-950. 9. Brown G, Ebert M, Goyer P, Jimerson D, Klein W, Bunney W, Goodwin F: Aggression, suicide, and serotonin . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:741-746. 10. Brown G, Goodwin F, Ballenger J, Goyer P, Major L: Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites . Psychiatry Res 1979;1:131-139.Crossref 11. Schalling D, Asberg M, Edman G, Levander S: Impulsivity, nonconformity, and sensation seeking as related to biological markers for vulnerability . Clin Neuropharmacol 1984;7:746-747.Crossref 12. Roy A, Adinoff B, Linnoila M: Acting out hostility in normal volunteers: Negative correlation with CSF 5-HIAA levels . Psychiatry Res , in press. 13. Custer R: Profile of the pathological gamblers . J Clin Psychiatry 1984;45:35-38. 14. Wolkowitz O, Roy A, Doran A: Compulsive gambling and high risk sports , in Roy A (ed): Self Destructive Behavior . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1987, 311-322. 15. Endicott J, Spitzer R: A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;35:837-844.Crossref 16. McNair D, Lorr M, Droppleman L: Profile of Mood States . San Diego, Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1971. 17. Hamilton M: A rating scale for depression . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:56-62.Crossref 18. Karoum F, Neff N: Quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of biogenic amines: Theory and practice , in Spector S, Beck N (eds): Modern Methods in Pharmacology . New York, Alan R Liss Inc, 1982, pp 39-54. 19. Jimerson D, Markey S, Oliver J, Kopin I: Simultaneous measurement of plasma 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethyleneglycol and 3,4-dihydroxy phenylethyleneglycol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry . Biomed Mass Spectrometry 1981;8:256-259.Crossref 20. Seppala T, Scheinin M, Capone A, Linnoila M: Liquid chromatographic assay for CSF catecholamines using electrochemical detection . Acta Pharmacolog Toxicol 1984;55:81-87.Crossref 21. Kopin L, Gordon E, Jimerson D, Polinsky R: Relation between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol . Science 1983;219:73-75.Crossref 22. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Chrousos G, Gold P: Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone in depression: Relationship to noradrenergic function . Psychiatry Res 1987;20:229-237.Crossref 23. Roy A, Pickar D, Paul S, Doran A, Chrousos G, Gold P: CSF corticotropin-releasing hormone in depressed patients and normal control subjects . Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:641-645. 24. Berrettini W, Doran A, Kelsoe J, Roy A, Pickar D: Cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide Y in depression and schizophrenia . Neuropsychopharmacology , 1987;1:81-83.Crossref 25. Barbaccia M, Costa E, Ferrero P, Guidotti A, Roy A, Sunderland T, Pickar D, Paul S, Goodwin F: Diazepam binding inhibitors (DBI): A brain neuropeptide present in human spinal fluid: Studies in depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:1143-1147.Crossref 26. Berrettini W, Nurnberger J, Simmons-Alling S, Albright A: Growth hormone releasing factor in human cerebrospinal fluid: A study of manicdepressive illness . Psychiatry Res , in press. 27. Doran A, Rubinow D, Roy A, Pickar D: CSF somatostatin and abnormal responses to dexamethasone administration in schizophrenic and depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:365-369.Crossref 28. Yates C, Fink G, Bennie J, Gordon A, Simpson J, Eskay R: Neurotensin immunoreactivity in post mortem brain is increased in Down's syndrome but not in Alzheimer-type dementia . Neurol Sci 1985;67:327-335.Crossref 29. Lake R, Ziegler M, Kopin J: Use of plasma norepinephrine for evaluation of sympathetic neuronal function . Life Sci 1976;18:1315-1325.Crossref 30. Barnes R, Raskind M, Gumbrecht G, Halter J: The effects of age on the plasma catecholamine response to mental stress in man . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982;54:64-69.Crossref 31. Roy A, Jimerson D, Linnoila M, Gold P, Pickar D: Premenopausal and postmenopausal depressed patients . Aust NZ J Psychiatry 1986;20:464-469.Crossref 32. Veith R, Raskind M, Barnes R, Gumbrecht G, Ritchie J, Halter J: Tricyclic antidepressants and supine, standing and exercise plasma norepinephrine levels . Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983;33:763-769.Crossref 33. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Potter W: Plasma norepinephrine in affective disorders: Relationship to melancholia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:1181-1185.Crossref 34. Roy A, Guthrie S, Pickar D, Linnoila M: Plasma norepinephrine responses to cold challenge in depressed patients and normal controls . Psychiatry Res 1987;21:161-168.Crossref 35. Muscettola G, Potter W, Pickar D, Goodwin F: Urinary 3-methoxy4-hydroxyphenylglycol and major affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:337-341.Crossref 36. Asberg M, Bertilson L: Serotonin in depressive illness-studies of CSF 5-HIAA , in Saletu B (ed) Neuro-psychopharmacology . Elmsford, NY, Pergamon Press Inc, 1979, pp 105-115. 37. Agren H, Mefford I, Rudorfer M, Linnoila M, Potter W: Interacting neurotransmitter systems: A non-experimental approach to the 5-HIAAHVA correlation in human CSF . J Psychiatr Res 1986;20:175-193.Crossref 38. Jimerson D, Insel T, Reus V, Kopin I: Increased plasma MHPG in dexamethasone-resistant depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:173-176.Crossref 39. Rubin L, Price L, Charney D, Heninger G: Noradrenergic function and the cortisol response to dexamethasone in depression . Psychiatry Res 1985;15:5-15.Crossref 40. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Doran A, Ninan P, Paul S: Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in melancholia . Psychiatry Res 1985;15:281-282.Crossref 41. Roy A, Pickar D, Douillet P, Karoum F, Linnoila M: Urinary monoamines and metabolites in subtypes of unipolar depressive disorder and normal controls . Psychol Med 1986;16:541-556.Crossref 42. Roy A, Linnoila M, Karoum F, Pickar D: Urinary free cortisol in depressed patients and controls: Relationship to urinary indices of noradrenergic function . Psychol Med , in press. 43. McCormick R, Russo A, Ramirez L, Taber J: Affective disorder among pathological gamblers in treatment . Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:215-218. 44. Linden R, Pope H, Jonas J: Pathological gambling and major affective disorder: Preliminary findings . J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47:201-203. 45. Lesieur H, Blume S, Zoppa R: Alcoholism, drug abuse, and gambling . Alcoholism 1986;10:33-38.Crossref 46. Roy A, Custer R, Lorenz V, Linnoila M: Depressed pathological gamblers . Acta Psychiatr Scand , in press. 47. Zuckerman M: Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal . Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979. 48. Zuckerman M: Sensation seeking: A comparative approach to a human trait . Behav Brain Sci 1984;7:413-471.Crossref 49. Zuckerman M, Ballenger J, Jimerson D, Murphy D, Post R: A correlational test in humans of the biological models of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety , in Zuckerman M (ed): Biological Bases of Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Anxiety . Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983. 50. Buchsbaum M, Goodwin F, Muscettola G: Urinary MHPG, stress response, personality factors, and somatosensory evoked potentials in normal subjects and patients with affective disorders . Neuropsychobiology 1981;7:212-224.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1988

References